90 Works

Data from: Replicated analysis of the genetic architecture of quantitative traits in two wild great tit populations

Anna W. Santure, Jocelyn Poissant, Isabelle De Cauwer, Kees Van Oers, Matthew R. Robinson, John L. Quinn, Martien A. M. Groenen, Marcel E. Visser, Ben C. Sheldon & Jon Slate
Currently there is much debate on the genetic architecture of quantitative traits in wild populations. Is trait variation influenced by many genes of small effect or by a few genes of major effect? Where is additive genetic variation located in the genome? Do the same loci cause similar phenotypic variation in different populations? Great tits (Parus major) have been studied extensively in long-term studies across Europe, and consequently are considered an ecological 'model organism'. Recently,...

Data from: Who escapes detection? Quantifying the causes and consequences of sampling biases in a long-term field study

Lindall R. Kidd, Ben C. Sheldon, Emily G. Simmonds & Ella F. Cole
Inferences drawn from long-term field studies are vulnerable to biases in observability of different classes of individuals, which may lead to biases in the estimates of selection, or fitness. Population surveys that monitor breeding individuals can introduce such biases by not identifying individuals that fail early in their reproductive attempts. Here, we quantify how the standard protocol for detecting breeding females introduces bias in a long-term population study of the great tit, Parus major. We...

Data from: Partner choice creates fairness in humans

Stéphane Debove, Jean-Baptiste André, Nicolas Baumard & J.-B. Andre
Many studies demonstrate that partner choice has played an important role in the evolution of human cooperation, but little work has tested its impact on the evolution of human fairness. In experiments involving divisions of money, people become either over-generous or over-selfish when they are in competition to be chosen as cooperative partners. Hence, it is difficult to see how partner choice could result in the evolution of fair, equal divisions. Here, we show that...

Data from: Plant-soil feedbacks from 30-year family-specific soil cultures: phylogeny, soil chemistry and plant life stage

Zia Mehrabi, Owen T. Lewis & Thomas Bell
Intraspecific negative feedback effects, where performance is reduced on soils conditioned by conspecifics, are widely documented in plant communities. However, interspecific feedbacks are less well studied, and their direction, strength, causes, and consequences are poorly understood. If more closely related species share pathogens, or have similar soil resource requirements, plants may perform better on soils conditioned by more distant phylogenetic relatives. There have been few empirical tests of this prediction across plant life stages, and...

Data from: Concurrent co-evolution of intra-organismal cheaters and resisters

Samuel Levin, Debra Brock, David Queller, Joan Strassmann, S. R. Levin, D. A. Brock, D. C. Queller & J. E. Strassmann
The evolution of multicellularity is a major transition that is not yet fully understood. Specifically, we do not know if there are any mechanisms by which multicellularity can be maintained without a single cell bottleneck or other relatedness enhancing mechanisms. Under low relatedness, cheaters can evolve that benefit from the altruistic behaviour of others without themselves sacrificing. If these are obligate cheaters, incapable of co-operating, their spread can lead to the demise of multicellularity. One...

Data from: Carry-over effects of the social environment on future divorce probability in a wild bird population

Antica Culina, Hinde A. Camilla, Ben C. Sheldon & Camilla A. Hinde
Initial mate choice and re-mating strategies (infidelity and divorce) influence individual fitness. Both of these should be influenced by the social environment, which determines the number and availability of potential partners. While most studies looking at this relationship take a population-level approach, individual-level responses to variation in the social environment remain largely unexplored. Here, we explore carry-over effects on future mating decisions of the social environment in which the initial mating decision occurred,. Using detailed...

Data from: Multicellular group formation in response to predators in the alga Chlorella vulgaris

Roberta M. Fisher, Tom Bell & Stuart A. West
A key step in the evolution of multicellular organisms is the formation of cooperative multicellular groups. It has been suggested that predation pressure may promote multicellular group formation in some algae and bacteria, with cells forming groups to lower their chance of being eaten. We use the green alga Chlorella vulgaris and the protist Tetrahymena thermophila to test whether predation pressure can initiate the formation of colonies. We found that: (1) either predators or just...

Data from: Unified pre- and postsynaptic long-term plasticity enables reliable and flexible learning

Rui Ponte Costa, Robert C. Froemke, Per Jesper Sjöström & Mark C. W. Van Rossum
Although it is well known that long-term synaptic plasticity can be expressed both pre- and postsynaptically, the functional consequences of this arrangement have remained elusive. We show that spike-timing-dependent plasticity with both pre- and postsynaptic expression develops receptive fields with reduced variability and improved discriminability compared to postsynaptic plasticity alone. These long-term modifications in receptive field statistics match recent sensory perception experiments. Moreover, learning with this form of plasticity leaves a hidden postsynaptic memory trace...

Data from: Peculiar macrophagous adaptations in a new Cretaceous pliosaurid

Valentin Fischer, Maxim S. Arkhangelsky, Ilya M. Stenshin, Gleb N. Uspensky, Nikolay G. Zverkov & Roger B. J. Benson
During the Middle and Late Jurassic, pliosaurid plesiosaurs evolved gigantic body size and a series of craniodental adaptations that have been linked to the occupation of an apex predator niche. Cretaceous pliosaurids (i.e. Brachaucheninae) depart from this morphology, being slightly smaller and lacking the macrophagous adaptations seen in earlier forms. However, the fossil record of Early Cretaceous pliosaurids is poor, concealing the evolution and ecological diversity of the group. Here, we report a new pliosaurid...

Data from: No evidence for MHC class I based disassortative mating in a wild population of great tits

Irem Sepil, Reinder Radersma, Anna W. Santure, Isabelle De Cauwer, Jon Slate & Ben C. Sheldon
Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are regarded as a potentially important target of mate choice due to the fitness benefits that may be conferred to the offspring. According to the complementary genes hypothesis, females mate with MHC dissimilar males to enhance the immunocompetence of their offspring or to avoid inbreeding depression. Here, we investigate whether selection favours a preference for maximally dissimilar or optimally dissimilar MHC class I types, based on MHC genotypes,...

Data from: Temporal transcriptomics suggest that twin-peaking genes reset the clock

William G. Pembroke, Arran Babbs, Kay E. Davies, Chris P. Ponting & Peter L. Oliver
The mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) drives daily rhythmic behavior and physiology, yet a detailed understanding of its coordinated transcriptional programmes is lacking. To reveal the finer details of circadian variation in the mammalian SCN transcriptome we combined laser-capture microdissection and RNA-seq over a 24-hour light/dark cycle. We show that 7-times more genes exhibited a classic sinusoidal expression signature than previously observed in the SCN. Another group of 766 genes unexpectedly peaked twice, near both the...

Data from: Lack of experience-based stratification in homing pigeon leadership hierarchies

Isobel Watts, Benjamin Pettit, Máté Nagy, Theresa Burt De Perera & Dora Biro
In societies that make collective decisions through leadership, a fundamental question concerns the individual attributes that allow certain group members to assume leadership roles over others. Homing pigeons form transitive leadership hierarchies during flock flights, where flock members are ranked according to the average time differences with which they lead or follow others' movement. Here, we test systematically whether leadership ranks in navigational hierarchies are correlated with prior experience of a homing task. We constructed...

Data from: Functional traits reveal the expansion and packing of ecological niche space underlying an elevational diversity gradient in passerine birds

Alex L. Pigot, Christopher H. Trisos & Joseph A. Tobias
Variation in species richness across environmental gradients may be associated with an expanded volume or increased packing of ecological niche space. However, the relative importance of these alternative scenarios remains unknown, largely because standardised information on functional traits and their ecological relevance is lacking for major diversity gradients. Here we combine data on morphological and ecological traits for 523 species of passerine birds distributed across an Andes-to-Amazon elevation gradient. We show that morphological traits capture...

Data from: Spermatozoa scattering by a microchannel feature: an elastohydrodynamic model

Thomas D. Montenegro-Johnson, Hermes Gadêlha, David J. Smith & H. Gadelha
Sperm traverse their microenvironment through viscous fluid by propagating flagellar waves; the waveform emerges as a consequence of elastic structure, internal active moments and low Reynolds number fluid dynamics. Engineered microchannels have recently been proposed as a method of sorting and manipulating motile cells; the interaction of cells with these artificial environments therefore warrants investigation. A numerical method is presented for large-amplitude elastohydrodynamic interaction of active swimmers with domain features. This method is employed to...

Data from: The oldest, slowest forests in the world? Exceptional biomass and slow carbon dynamics of Fitzroya cupressoides temperate rainforests in southern Chile

Rocio B. Urrutia-Jalabert, Yadvinder Malhi, Antonio Lara & Rocio Urrutia-Jalabert
Old-growth temperate rainforests are, per unit area, the largest and most long-lived stores of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere, but their carbon dynamics have rarely been described. The endangered Fitzroya cupressoides forests of southern South America include stands that are probably the oldest dense forest stands in the world, with long-lived trees and high standing biomass. We assess and compare aboveground biomass, and provide the first estimates of net primary productivity (NPP), carbon allocation and...

Hydrological modelling and simulation data for the River Trent at Colwick under climate change

E.A. Byers, A. Leathard, G.M. O'Donnell, J.W. Hall & J.M. Amezaga
This data contains the time series flow discharge results of hydrological simulation of the River Trent at Colwick using UKCP09 Weather Generator inputs for a variety of time slices and emissions scenarios. The Weather Generator (WG) inputs were run on a hydrological model (Leathard et al., unpublished), calibrated using the observed record 1961-2002. Each simulation is derived from 100 30-year time series of weather at the WG location 4400355 for Control, Low, Medium and High...

Data from: Migration strategy and pathogen risk: non-breeding distribution drives malaria prevalence in migratory waders

Nicholas J. Clark, Sonya M. Clegg & Marcel Klaassen
Pathogen exposure has been suggested as one of the factors shaping the myriad of migration strategies observed in nature. Two hypotheses relate migration strategies to pathogen infection: the ‘avoiding the tropics hypothesis’ predicts that pathogen prevalence and transmission increase with decreasing non-breeding (wintering) latitude, while the “habitat selection hypothesis” predicts lower pathogen prevalence in marine than in freshwater habitats. We tested these scarcely investigated hypotheses by screening wintering and resident wading shorebirds (Charadriiformes) for avian...

Data from: Evidence for specificity in symbiont-conferred protection against parasitoids

Ailsa H. C. McLean & H. Charles J. Godfray
Many insects harbour facultative symbiotic bacteria, some of which have been shown to provide resistance against natural enemies. One of the best-known protective symbionts is Hamiltonella defensa, which in pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) confers resistance against attack by parasitoid wasps in the genus Aphidius (Braconidae). We asked (i) whether this symbiont also confers protection against a phylogenetically distant group of parasitoids (Aphelinidae) and (ii) whether there are consistent differences in the effects of bacteria found...

Data from: Allometry and growth of eight tree taxa in United Kingdom woodlands

Matthew R. Evans, Aristides Moustakas, Gregory Carey, Yadvinder Malhi, Nathalie Butt, Sue Benham, Denise Pallett & Stefanie Schäfer
As part of a project to develop predictive ecosystem models of United Kingdom woodlands we have collated data from two United Kingdom woodlands - Wytham Woods and Alice Holt. Here we present data from 582 individual trees of eight taxa in the form of summary variables relating to the allometric relationships between trunk diameter, height, crown height, crown radius and trunk radial growth rate to the tree’s light environment and diameter at breast height. In...

Data from: The arrangement of possible muscle fibres in the Ediacaran taxon Haootia quadriformis

Alexander G. Liu, Jack J. Matthews, Latha R. Menon, Duncan McIlroy & Martin D. Brasier
Haootia quadriformis from Newfoundland, Canada, is one of the most unusual impressions of a soft-bodied macro-organism yet described from the late Ediacaran Period. Interpreted as a metazoan of cnidarian grade, the body impression of H. quadriformis possesses features interpreted as fibrous structures that represent possible evidence for muscular tissue. Evidence both in support of and against a relationship between H. quadriformis and the Staurozoa, one of the cnidarian groups to which Haootia was compared in...

Data from: Snapshot Serengeti, high-frequency annotated camera trap images of 40 mammalian species in an African savanna

Alexandra B. Swanson, Margaret Kosmala, Chris J. Lintott, Robert J. Simpson, Arfon Smith & Craig Packer
Camera traps can be used to address large-scale questions in community ecology by providing systematic data on an array of wide-ranging species. We deployed 225 camera traps across 1,125 km2 in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania, to evaluate spatial and temporal inter-species dynamics. The cameras have operated continuously since 2010 and had accumulated 99,241 camera-trap days and produced 1.2 million sets of pictures by 2013. Members of the general public classified the images via the citizen-science...

Data from: Comparative multi-locus phylogeography of two Palaearctic spruce bark beetles: influence of contrasting ecological strategies on genetic variation

François Mayer, Frédéric B. Piel, Anna Cassel-Lundhagen, Natalia Kirichenko, Laurent Grumiau, Bjørn Økland, Coralie Bertheau, Jean-Claude Grégoire & Patrick Mardulyn
While phylogeographic patterns of organisms are often interpreted through past environmental disturbances, mediated by climate changes, and geographic barriers, they may also be strongly influenced by species-specific traits. To investigate the impact of such traits, we focused on two Eurasian spruce bark beetles that share a similar geographic distribution, but differ in their ecology and reproduction. Ips typographus is an aggressive tree-killing species characterized by strong dispersal, whereas Dendroctonus micans is a discrete inbreeding species...

Data from: Evidence of a link between survival and pair fidelity across multiple tit populations

Antica Culina, Shelly Lachish, B. Sheldon & Ben C. Sheldon
Although they have the potential to strongly influence individual fitness and the dynamics and productivity of populations, the survival consequences of pairing outcomes and the influence of current pairing outcomes on those in the future have rarely been addressed. Previously, we have shown that pair fidelity increases both survival and future pair fidelity in a population of great tits (Parus major). The aim of this study was to explore the generality of our previous findings...

Data from: Developmental environment mediates male seminal protein investment in Drosophila melanogaster

Stuart Wigby, Yon-Hee Kim, Jennifer C. Perry & Laura K. Sirot
Males of many species fine-tune their ejaculates in response to sperm competition risk. Resource availability and the number of competitors during development can also strongly influence sperm production. However, despite the key role of seminal proteins in mediating reproductive processes, it is unclear whether seminal protein investment is dependent on the developmental environment. We manipulated the developmental environment of Drosophila melanogaster by rearing flies at low and high density. As expected, this resulted in large...

Data from: Identification of the notothenioid sister lineage illuminates the biogeographic history of an Antarctic adaptive radiation

Thomas J. Near, Alex Dornburg, Richard C. Harrington, Claudio Oliveira, Theodore W. Pietsch, Christine E. Thacker, Takashi P. Satoh, Eri Katayama, Peter C. Wainwright, Joseph T. Eastman & Jeremy M. Beaulieu
Background: Antarctic notothenioids are an impressive adaptive radiation. While they share recent common ancestry with several species-depauperate lineages that exhibit a relictual distribution in areas peripheral to the Southern Ocean, an understanding of their evolutionary origins and biogeographic history is limited as the sister lineage of notothenioids remains unidentified. The phylogenetic placement of notothenioids among major lineages of perciform fishes, which include sculpins, rockfishes, sticklebacks, eelpouts, scorpionfishes, perches, groupers and soapfishes, remains unresolved. We investigate...

Registration Year

  • 2015
    90

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    90

Affiliations

  • University of Oxford
    90
  • Imperial College London
    6
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
    4
  • University of Sheffield
    4
  • University of Groningen
    3
  • University of Minnesota
    3
  • University of Edinburgh
    3
  • McGill University
    3
  • University of Zurich
    3
  • Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
    2