90 Works

Data from: To graze or gorge: consistency and flexibility of individual foraging tactics in tits

Nicole D. Milligan, Reinder Radersma, Ella F. Cole & Ben C. Sheldon
An individual's foraging behaviour and time allocated to feeding have direct consequences for its fitness. Despite much research on population-level foraging decisions, few studies have investigated individual differences in fine-scale daily foraging patterns among wild animals. Here, we explore the consistency and plasticity of feeding tactics of individual great tits (Parus major) and blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus), using a grid of 65 automated feeding stations in a 385-ha woodland, during three winters. We use a...

Data from: Inferring pathobiology from structural MRI in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: modeling head motion and neuroanatomical specificity

Nailin Yao, Anderson M. Winkler, Jennifer Barrett, Gregory A. Book, Tamara Beetham, Rachel Horseman, Olivia Leach, Karen Hodgson, Emma E. Knowles, Samuel Mathias, Michael C. Stevens, Michal Assaf, Theo G. M. Van Erp, Godfrey D. Pearlson & David C. Glahn
Despite over 400 peer-reviewed structural MRI publications documenting neuroanatomic abnormalities in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, the confounding effects of head motion and the regional specificity of these defects are unclear. Using a large cohort of individuals scanned on the same research dedicated MRI with broadly similar protocols, we observe reduced cortical thickness indices in both illnesses, though less pronounced in bipolar disorder. While schizophrenia (n = 226) was associated with wide-spread surface area reductions, bipolar...

Data from: Wild birds respond to flockmate loss by increasing their social network associations to others

Josh A. Firth, Bernhard Voelkl, Ross A. Crates, Lucy M. Aplin, Dora Biro, Darren P. Croft & Ben C. Sheldon
Understanding the consequences of losing individuals from wild populations is a current and pressing issue, yet how such loss influences the social behaviour of the remaining animals is largely unexplored. Through combining the automated tracking of winter flocks of over 500 wild great tits (Parus major) with removal experiments, we assessed how individuals' social network positions responded to the loss of their social associates. We found that the extent of flockmate loss that individuals experienced...

Data from: The challenges of detecting subtle population structure and its importance for the conservation of emperor penguins

Jane L. Younger, Gemma V. Clucas, Damian Kao, Alex D. Rogers, Karim Gharbi, Tom Hart & Karen J. Miller
Understanding the boundaries of breeding populations is of great importance for conservation efforts and estimates of extinction risk for threatened species. However, determining these boundaries can be difficult when population structure is subtle. Emperor penguins are highly reliant on sea ice, and some populations may be in jeopardy as climate change alters sea-ice extent and quality. An understanding of emperor penguin population structure is therefore urgently needed. Two previous studies have differed in their conclusions,...

Data from: Evidence for strategic cooperation in humans

Maxwell N. Burton-Chellew, Claire El Mouden & Stuart A. West
Humans may cooperate strategically, cooperating at higher levels than expected from their short-term interests, to try and stimulate others to cooperate. To test this hypothesis, we experimentally manipulated the extent an individual's behaviour is known to others, and hence whether or not strategic cooperation is possible. In contrast with many previous studies, we avoided confounding factors by preventing individuals from learning during the game about either pay-offs or about how other individuals behave. We found...

Data from: Higher predation risk for insect prey at low latitudes and elevations

Tomas Roslin, Bess Hardwick, Vojtech Novotny, William K. Petry, Nigel R. Andrew, Ashley Asmus, Isabel C. Barrio, Yves Basset, Andrea Larissa Boesing, Timothy C. Bonebrake, Erin K. Cameron, Wesley Dáttilo, David A. Donoso, Pavel Drozd, Claudia L. Gray, David S. Hik, Sarah J. Hill, Tapani Hopkins, Shuyin Huang, Bonny Koane, Benita Laird-Hopkins, Liisa Laukkanen, Owen T. Lewis, Sol Milne, Isaiah Mwesige … & Eleanor M. Slade
Biotic interactions underlie ecosystem structure and function, but predicting interaction outcomes is difficult. We tested the hypothesis that biotic interaction strength increases toward the equator, using a global experiment with model caterpillars to measure predation risk. Across an 11,660-kilometer latitudinal gradient spanning six continents, we found increasing predation toward the equator, with a parallel pattern of increasing predation toward lower elevations. Patterns across both latitude and elevation were driven by arthropod predators, with no systematic...

Data from: Pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection favor aggressive, young males in polyandrous groups of red junglefowl

Grant C. McDonald, Lewis G. Spurgin, Eleanor A. Fairfield, David S. Richardson & Tommaso Pizzari
A challenge in evolutionary biology is to understand the operation of sexual selection on males in polyandrous groups, where sexual selection occurs before and after mating. Here, we combine fine-grained behavioural information (>41,000 interactions) with molecular parentage data to study sexual selection in replicated, age-structured groups of polyandrous red junglefowl, Gallus gallus. Male reproductive success was determined by the number of females mated (precopulatory sexual selection) and his paternity share, which was driven by the...

Data from: Shoot growth of woody trees and shrubs is predicted by maximum plant height and associated traits

Sean M. Gleason, Andrea E.A. Stephens, Wade C. Tozer, Chris J. Blackman, Don W. Butler, Yvonne Chang, Alicia M. Cook, Julia Cooke, Claire A. Laws, Julieta A. Rosell, Stephanie A. Stuart, Mark Westoby & Andrea E. A. Stephens
1. The rate of elongation and thickening of individual branches (shoots) varies across plant species. This variation is important for the outcome of competition and other plant-plant interactions. Here we compared rates of shoot growth across 44 species from tropical, warm temperate, and cool temperate forests of eastern Australia. 2. Shoot growth rate was found to correlate with a suite of traits including the potential height of the species, xylem-specific conductivity, leaf size, leaf area...

Data from: Inferring individual-level processes from population-level patterns in cultural evolution

Anne Kandler, Bryan Wilder & Laura Fortunato
Our species is characterized by a great degree of cultural variation, both within and between populations. Understanding how group-level patterns of culture emerge from individual-level behaviour is a long-standing question in the biological and social sciences. We develop a simulation model capturing demographic and cultural dynamics relevant to human cultural evolution, focusing on the interface between population-level patterns and individual-level processes. The model tracks the distribution of variants of cultural traits across individuals in a...

Data from: Reconstructing geographic range size dynamics from fossil data

Simon A.F. Darroch & Erin E. Saupe
Ecologists and paleontologists alike are increasingly using the fossil record as a spatial data set, in particular to study the dynamics and distribution of geographic range sizes among fossil taxa. However, no attempts have been made to establish how accurately range sizes and range-size dynamics can be preserved. Two fundamental questions are: Can common paleo range-size reconstruction methods accurately reproduce known species’ ranges from locality (i.e., point) data? And, are some reconstruction methods more reliable...

Data from: Prenatal maternal effects appear to be insensitive to experimental or natural environmental variation

Caroline E. Thomson & Jarrod D. Hadfield
1. In many birds, hatching asynchrony is a common phenomenon, primarily driven by patterns of incubation behaviour. However, experimental results in blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) have shown that asynchrony is reduced by intrinsic properties of later eggs that accelerate pre-natal development. 2. These intrinsic differences between early and late eggs could be driven by changes in resource availability to females, which are then passively passed onto the egg. Alternatively, it may be due to an...

Data from: Network structure and local adaptation in coevolving bacteria-phage interactions

James Gurney, Lafi Aldakak, Alex Betts, Claire Gougat-Barbera, Timothée Poisot, Oliver Kaltz & Michael E. Hochberg
Numerous theoretical and experimental studies have investigated antagonistic coevolution between parasites and their hosts. Although experimental tests of theory from a range of biological systems are largely concordant regarding the influence of several driving processes, we know little as to how mechanisms acting at the smallest scales (individual molecular and phenotypic changes) may result in the emergence of structures at larger scales, such as coevolutionary dynamics and local adaptation. We capitalized on methods commonly employed...

Data from: The benefit of a tough skin: bullet holes, weathering and the preservation of heritage

Lisa Mol, Miguel Gomez-Heras, Charlotte Brassey, Owen Green, Tom Blenkinsop, T. Blenkinsop, O. Green & C. Brassey
Projectile damage to building stone is a widespread phenomenon. Sites damaged 100 years ago during the First World War still see daily use, while in a more contemporary setting numerous reports show the damage to buildings in Babylon, Mosul and Palmyra. While research has been carried out on the long-term effects of conflict such as fire damage, little is known about the protracted damage sustained through the impact of bullets, shrapnel and other metal projectiles...

Data from: Comparison of reproductive investment in native and non-native populations of common wall lizards reveals sex differences in adaptive potential.

Hannah E.A. MacGregor, Geoffrey M. While, Tobias Uller & Hannah E. A. MacGregor
Non-native animals can encounter very different environments than those they are adapted to. Functional changes in morphology, physiology and life-history following introduction show that organisms can adapt both fast and efficiently. It remains unclear, however, if female reproductive characters and male sexually selected behaviour show the same adaptive potential. Furthermore, the invasion success and evolutionary trajectory of non-native species might often depend on the ability of the sexes to coordinate shifts in characters associated with...

Data from: Does environmental heterogeneity drive functional trait variation? A test in montane and alpine meadows

Jordan Stark, Rebecca Lehman, Lake Crawford, Brian J. Enquist & Benjamin Blonder
While community-weighted means of plant traits have been linked to mean environmental conditions at large scales, the drivers of trait variation within communities are not well understood. Local environmental heterogeneity (such as microclimate variability), in addition to mean environmental conditions, may decrease the strength of environmental filtering and explain why communities support different amounts of trait variation. Here, we assess two hypotheses: first, that more heterogeneous local environments and second, that less extreme environments, should...

Data from: Smart wing rotation and trailing-edge vortices enable high frequency mosquito flight

Richard J. Bomphrey, Toshiyuki Nakata, Nathan Phillips & Simon M. Walker
Mosquitoes exhibit unusual wing kinematics; their long, slender wings flap at remarkably high frequencies for their size (>800 Hz)and with lower stroke amplitudes than any other insect group1. This shifts weight support away from the translation-dominated, aerodynamic mechanisms used by most insects2, as well as by helicopters and aeroplanes, towards poorly understood rotational mechanisms that occur when pitching at the end of each half-stroke. Here we report free-flight mosquito wing kinematics, solve the full Navier–Stokes...

Data from: Ranking and characterization of established BMI and lipid associated loci as candidates for gene-environment interactions

Dmitry Shungin, Wei Q. Deng, Tibor V. Varga, Jian'an Luan, Evelin Mihailov, Andres Metspalu, Andrew P. Morris, Nita G. Forouhi, Cecilia Lindgren, Patrik K. E. Magnusson, Nancy L. Pedersen, Göran Hallmans, Audrey Y. Chu, Anne E. Justice, Mariaelisa Graff, Thomas W. Winkler, Lynda M. Rose, Claudia Langenberg, L. Adrienne Cupples, Paul M. Ridker, Nicholas J. Wareham, Ken K. Ong, Ruth J. F. Loos, Daniel I. Chasman, Erik Ingelsson … & Paul W. Franks
Phenotypic variance heterogeneity across genotypes at a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) may reflect underlying gene-environment (G·E) or gene-gene interactions. We modeled variance heterogeneity for blood lipids and BMI in up to 44,211 participants and investigated relationships between variance effects (Pv), G·E interaction effects (with smoking and physical activity), and marginal genetic effects (Pm). Correlations between Pv and Pm were stronger for SNPs with established marginal effects (Spearman's ρ=0.401 for triglycerides, and ρ=0.236 for BMI) compared...

Data from: DNA recovery from wild chimpanzee tools

Fiona A. Stewart, Alexander K. Piel, Lydia Luncz, Joanna Osborne, Yingying Li, Beatrice H. Hahn, Michael Haslam & Joanna Osborn
Most of our knowledge of wild chimpanzee behaviour stems from fewer than 10 long-term field sites. This bias limits studies to a potentially unrepresentative set of communities known to show great behavioural diversity on small geographic scales. Here, we introduce a new genetic approach to bridge the gap between behavioural material evidence in unhabituated chimpanzees and genetic advances in the field of primatology. The use of DNA analyses has revolutionised archaeological and primatological fields, whereby...

Data from: Rapid transformation in the braincase of sauropod dinosaurs: integrated evolution of the braincase and neck in early sauropods?

Mario Bronzati, Roger B. J. Benson & Oliver W. M. Rauhut
Sauropod dinosaurs were quadrupedal herbivores with a highly specialized body plan that attained the largest masses of any terrestrial vertebrates. Recent discoveries have shown that key traits associated with sauropod gigantism appeared stepwise during the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic in evolutionary ‘cascades’ of associated changes, in which a ‘head and neck’ cascade has been suggested as an important module. Here, we investigate the evolutionary transformation of the sauropodomorph braincase, using discrete anatomical characters, prompted...

Data from: Interactive life-history traits predict sensitivity of plants and animals to temporal autocorrelation

Maria Paniw, Arpat Ozgul & Roberto Salguero-Gomez
Temporal autocorrelation in demographic processes is an important aspect of population dynamics, but a comprehensive examination of its effects on different life-history strategies is lacking. We use matrix populations models from 454 plant and animal populations to simulate stochastic population growth rates (log λs) under different temporal autocorrelations in demographic rates, using simulated and observed covariation among rates. We then test for differences in sensitivities, or changes, of log λs to changes in autocorrelation among...

Data from: Ethnically Tibetan women in Nepal with low hemoglobin concentration have better reproductive outcomes

Jang Ik Cho, Buddha Basnyat, Choongwon Jeong, Anna Di Rienzo, Geoff Childs, Sienna Craig, Jiayang Sun, Cynthia Beall & Cynthia M. Beall
Abstract Background and objectives: Tibetans have distinctively low hemoglobin concentrations at high altitudes compared with visitors and Andean highlanders. This study hypothesized that natural selection favors an unelevated hemoglobin concentration among Tibetans. It considered nonheritable sociocultural factors affecting reproductive success and tested the hypotheses that a higher percent of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (indicating less stress) or lower hemoglobin concentration (indicating dampened response) associated with higher lifetime reproductive success. Methodology: We sampled 1006 post-reproductive ethnically...

Data from: Bacteriocins and the assembly of natural Pseudomonas fluorescens populations

John B. Bruce, Stuart A. West, Ashleigh S. Griffin, J. B. Bruce, S. A. West & A. S. Griffin
When competing for space and resources, bacteria produce toxins known as bacteriocins to gain an advantage over competitors. Recent studies in the laboratory have confirmed theoretical predictions that bacteriocin production can determine coexistence, by eradicating sensitive competitors or driving the emergence of resistant genotypes. However, there is currently limited evidence that bacteriocin-mediated competition influences the coexistence and distribution of genotypes in natural environments, and what factors drive interactions towards inhibition remain unclear. Using natural soil...

Data from: The dentary of Wareolestes rex (Megazostrodontidae): a new specimen from Scotland and implications for morganucodontan tooth replacement

Elsa Panciroli, Roger B. J. Benson & Stig Walsh
The Middle Jurassic morganucodontan, Wareolestes rex, was previously known from only four isolated molars from Kirtlington, England. There has been debate over the position of the holotype tooth as an upper or lower molar. We describe a new Wareolestes specimen from the Kilmaluag Formation of Scotland: a partial left dentary with two erupted molars, one unerupted molar and three unerupted premolars. Empty alveoli for a canine, p1 and p3 are also present. Through detailed comparison...

Data from: Climate and anthropogenic factors determine site occupancy in Scotland's Northern-range badger population: implications of context-dependent responses under environmental change

André P. Silva, Gonçalo Curveira-Santos, Kerry Kilshaw, Chris Newman, David W. Macdonald, Luciana G. Simões & Luís M. Rosalino
Aim In the light of human-induced rapid environmental change (HIREC), populations are exposed to ever-greater bioclimatic stress at the edge of a species’ historic range. The distribution dynamics of European badgers (Meles meles) at their southern edge are linked tightly to climatic variability. We contribute critical data on how climatic context and local factors determine site occupancy in a northern-range population. Location Eleven study areas (averaging ~21.3 km2) spread over ~50,000 km2 in Northern Scotland....

Data from: Microbe biogeography tracks water masses in a dynamic oceanic frontal system

Anni Djurhuus, Philipp H. Boersch-Supan, Svein-Ole Mikalsen, Alex D. Rogers & Helge-Ansgar Giebel
PLEASE NOTE, THESE DATA ARE ALSO REFERRED TO IN ANOTHER PUBLICATION. PLEASE SEE http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.160829. Dispersal limitation, not just environmental selection, plays an important role in microbial biogeography. The distance–decay relationship is thought to be weak in habitats where dispersal is high, such as in the pelagic environment, where ocean currents facilitate microbial dispersal. Most studies of microbial community composition to date have observed little geographical heterogeneity on a regional scale (100 km). We present a...

Registration Year

  • 2017

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Oxford
  • Lund University
  • University of Edinburgh
  • University of Cambridge
  • University of Sheffield
  • University of Queensland
  • University of Aberdeen
  • Australian National University
  • University of Melbourne
  • University of Tasmania