89 Works

Data from: Hurdiid radiodontans from the middle Cambrian (Series 3) of Utah

Stephen Pates, Allison C. Daley & Bruce S. Lieberman
Radiodontan body elements, some belonging to Peytoia and Hurdia and some unassigned, have been reported from the Langston Formation (Spence Shale Member), Wheeler Formation, and Marjum Formation of the middle Cambrian (Series 3) of Utah. These identifications are reassessed in light of recent work on the morphology of the radiodontan Hurdia. New specimens of Hurdia are identified from the Spence Shale, representing mouthparts (oral cones), cephalic carapace H-elements, frontal appendages, and a single isolated swimming...

Data from: A new subfamily classification of the Leguminosae based on a taxonomically comprehensive phylogeny

, Anne Bruneau, Nasim Azani, Marielle Babineau, Edeline Gagnon, Carole Sinou, Royce Steeves, Erin Zimmerman, C. Donovan Bailey, Lynsey Kovar, Madhugiri Nageswara-Rao, Hannah Banks, RuthP. Clark, Manuel De La Estrella, Peter Gasson, GeoffreyC. Kite, BenteB. Klitgaard, GwilymP. Lewis, Danilo Neves, Gerhard Prenner, María De Lourdes Rico-Arce, ArianeR. Barbosa, Maria Cristina López-Roberts, Luciano Paganucci De Queiroz, PétalaG. Ribeiro … & Tingshuang Yi
The classification of the legume family proposed here addresses the long-known non-monophyly of the traditionally recognised subfamily Caesalpinioideae, by recognising six robustly supported monophyletic subfamilies. This new classification uses as its framework the most comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of legumes to date, based on plastid matK gene sequences, and including near-complete sampling of genera (698 of the currently recognised 765 genera) and ca. 20% (3696) of known species. The matK gene region has been the most...

Data from: Intra- and interspecific niche variation as reconstructed from stable isotopes in two ecologically different Ethiopian Rift Valley lakes

Pieter Lemmens, Fassil E. Teffera, Maarten Wynants, Lynn Govaert, Jozef Deckers, Hans Bauer, Feleke Woldeyes, Luc Brendonck, Steven Bouillon & Luc De Meester
1. The concept of species niches has enhanced our understanding of community assembly and food web structure in a variety of ecosystem types. Niche-based species sorting profoundly determines community composition along strong environmental gradients, while interspecific interactions tend to be more important within habitats at local spatial scales. The role of intraspecific niche variation in community assembly and ecosystem functioning has only recently been highlighted. 2. The present study undertakes a quantitative comparison of the...

Data from: The contemporary distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in humans, alternative hosts and vectors

Annie J. Browne, Carlos A. Guerra, Renato Vieira Alves, Veruska Maia Da Costa, Anne L. Wilson, David M. Pigott, Simon I. Hay, Steve W. Lindsay, Nick Golding & Catherine L. Moyes
Chagas is a potentially fatal chronic disease affecting large numbers of people across the Americas and exported throughout the world through human population movement. It is caused by the Trypanosoma cruzi parasite, which is transmitted by triatomine vectors to humans and a wide range of alternative host species. The database described here was compiled to allow the risk of vectorial transmission to humans to be mapped using geospatial models. The database collates all available records,...

Data from: Childhood adiposity and type 1 diabetes: a Mendelian randomization study

J. C. Censin, Christoph Nowak, Nicholas Cooper, Peter Bergsten, John A. Todd & Tove Fall
BACKGROUND: The incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is increasing globally. One hypothesis is that increasing childhood obesity rates may explain part of this increase, but, as T1D is rare, intervention studies are challenging to perform. The aim of this study was to assess this hypothesis with a Mendelian randomization approach that uses genetic variants as instrumental variables to test for causal associations. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We created a genetic instrument of 23 single nucleotide...

Data from: Recent natural selection causes adaptive evolution of an avian polygenic trait

Mirte Bosse, Lewis G. Spurgin, Veronika N. Laine, Ella F. Cole, Josh A. Firth, Phillip Gienapp, Andrew G. Gosler, Keith McMahon, Jocelyn Poissant, Irene Verhagen, Martien A. M. Groenen, Kees Van Oers, Ben C. Sheldon, Marcel E. Visser & Jon Slate
We used extensive data from a long-term study of great tits (Parus major) in the United Kingdom and Netherlands to better understand how genetic signatures of selection translate into variation in fitness and phenotypes. We found that genomic regions under differential selection contained candidate genes for bill morphology and used genetic architecture analyses to confirm that these genes, especially the collagen gene COL4A5, explained variation in bill length. COL4A5 variation was associated with reproductive success,...

Data from: A spatially integrated framework for assessing socioecological drivers of carnivore decline

Nicolás Gálvez, Gurutzeta Guillera-Arroita, Freya A. V. St. John, Elke Schüttler, David W. Macdonald & Zoe G. Davies
Habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation are key threats to the long-term persistence of carnivores, which are also susceptible to direct persecution by people. Integrating natural and social science methods to examine how habitat configuration/quality and human–predator relations may interact in space and time to effect carnivore populations within human-dominated landscapes will help prioritise conservation investment and action effectively. We propose a socioecological modelling framework to evaluate drivers of carnivore decline in landscapes where predators and...

Data from: Who needs 'lazy' workers? Inactive workers act as a 'reserve' labor force replacing active workers, but inactive workers are not replaced when they are removed

Daniel Charbonneau, Takao Sasaki & Anna Dornhaus
Social insect colonies are highly successful, self-organized complex systems. Surprisingly however, most social insect colonies contain large numbers of highly inactive workers. Although this may seem inefficient, it may be that inactive workers actually contribute to colony function. Indeed, the most commonly proposed explanation for inactive workers is that they form a ‘reserve’ labor force that becomes active when needed, thus helping mitigate the effects of colony workload fluctuations or worker loss. Thus, it may...

Data from: Social and spatial effects on genetic variation between foraging flocks in a wild bird population

Reinder Radersma, Colin J. Garroway, Anna W. Santure, Isabelle De Cauwer, Damien R. Farine, Jon Slate & Ben C. Sheldon
Social interactions are rarely random. In some instances animals exhibit homophily or heterophily, the tendency to interact with similar or dissimilar conspecifics respectively. Genetic homophily and heterophily influence the evolutionary dynamics of populations, because they potentially affect sexual and social selection. Here we investigate the link between social interactions and allele frequencies in foraging flocks of great tits (Parus major) over three consecutive years. We constructed co-occurrence networks which explicitly described the splitting and merging...

Data from: Reconstructing Asian faunal introductions to eastern Africa from multi-proxy biomolecular and archaeological datasets

Mary E. Prendergast, Michael Buckley, Alison Crowther, Heidi Eager, Laurent Frantz, Ophélie Lebrasseur, Rainer Hutterer, Ardern Hulme-Beaman, Wim Van Neer, Katerina Douka, Margaret-Ashley Veall, Eréndira M. Quintana Morales, Verena J. Schuenemann, Ella Reiter, Richard Allen, Evangelos A. Dimopoulos, Richard M. Helm, Ceri Shipton, Ogeto Mwebi, Christiane Denys, Mark C. Horton, Stephanie Wynne-Jones, Jeffrey Fleisher, Chantal Radimilahy, Henry Wright … & Mark Horton
Human-mediated biological exchange has had global social and ecological impacts. In sub-Saharan Africa, several domestic and commensal animals were introduced from Asia in the pre-modern period; however, the timing and nature of these introductions remain contentious. One model supports introduction to the eastern African coast after the mid-first millennium CE, while another posits introduction dating back to 3000 BCE. These distinct scenarios have implications for understanding the emergence of long-distance maritime connectivity, and the ecological...

Data from: A test for paedomorphism in domestic pig cranial morphology

Allowen Evin, Joseph Owen, Greger Larson, Mélanie Debiais-Thibaud, Thomas Cucchi, Una Strand Vidarsdottir & Keith Dobney
Domestic animals are often described as paedomorphic, meaning that they retain juvenile characteristics into adulthood. Through a three-dimensional landmark-based geometric morphometric analysis of cranial morphology at three growth stages, we demonstrate that wild boar (n = 138) and domestic pigs (n = 106) (Sus scrofa) follow distinct ontogenetic trajectories. With the exception of the size ratio between facial and neurocranial regions, paedomorphism does not appear to be the primary pattern describing the observed differences between...

Data from: Reconstructing ecological niche evolution when niches are incompletely characterized

Erin E. Saupe, Narayani Barve, Hannah L. Owens, Jacob C. Cooper, Peter A. Hosner & A. Townsend Peterson
Evolutionary dynamics of abiotic ecological niches across phylogenetic history can shed light on large-scale biogeographic patterns, macroevolutionary rate shifts, and the relative ability of lineages to respond to global change. An unresolved question is how best to represent and reconstruct evolution of these complex traits at coarse spatial scales through time. Studies have approached this question by integrating phylogenetic comparative methods with niche estimates inferred from correlative and other models. However, methods for estimating niches...

Data from: Joint analysis of cortical area and thickness as a replacement for the analysis of the volume of the cerebral cortex

Anderson M. Winkler, Douglas N. Greve, Knut J. Bjuland, Thomas E. Nichols, Mert R. Sabuncu, Asta K. Håberg, Jon Skranes & Lars M. Rimol
Cortical surface area is an increasingly used brain morphology metric that is ontogenetically and phylogenetically distinct from cortical thickness and offers a separate index of neurodevelopment and disease. However, the various existing methods for assessment of cortical surface area from magnetic resonance images have never been systematically compared. We show that the surface area method implemented in FreeSurfer corresponds closely to the exact, but computationally more demanding, mass-conservative (pycnophylactic) method, provided that images are smoothed....

Data from: Modelling the spread of innovation in wild birds

Thomas R. Shultz, Marcel Montrey & Lucy M. Aplin
We apply three plausible algorithms in agent-based computer simulations to recent experiments on social learning in wild birds. Although some of the phenomena are simulated by all three learning algorithms, several manifestations of social conformity bias are simulated by only the approximate majority (AM) algorithm, which has roots in chemistry, molecular biology and theoretical computer science. The simulations generate testable predictions and provide several explanatory insights into the diffusion of innovation through a population. The...

Data from: Seed polyphenols in a diverse tropical plant community

Sofia Gripenberg, Jadranka Rota, Jorma Kim, S. Joseph Wright, Nancy C. Garwood, Evan C. Fricke, Paul-Camilo Zalamea & Juha-Pekka Salminen
1. Polyphenols are one of the most common groups of secondary metabolites in plants and thought to play a key role in enhancing plant fitness by protecting plants against enemies. Although enemy-inflicted mortality at the seed stage can be an important regulator of plant populations and a key determinant of community structure, few studies have assessed community-level patterns of polyphenol content in seeds. 2. We describe the distribution of the main seed polyphenol groups across...

Data from: Learning from the past to prepare for the future: felids face continued threat from declining prey richness

Christopher James Sandom, Soren Faurby, Jens C. Svenning, Dawn Burnham, Amy Dickman, Amy Hinks, Ewan A. Macdonald, Bill Ripple, Jake Williams, David Macdonald, W. J. Ripple, J.-C. Svenning, A. E. Hinks & D. W. Macdonald
Many contemporary species of large-felids (>15 kg) feed upon prey that are endangered, raising concern that prey population declines (defaunation) will further threaten felids. We assess the threat that defaunation presents by investigating a late Quaternary (LQ), ‘present-natural’ counterfactual scenario. Our present-natural counterfactual is based on predicted ranges of mammals today in the absence of any impacts of modern humans (Homo sapiens) through time. Data from our present-natural counterfactual are used to understand firstly how...

Data from: Related herbivore species show similar temporal dynamics

F. Guillaume Blanchet, Tomas Roslin, Masahito T. Kimura, Tea Huotari, Riikka Kaartinen, Sofia Gripenberg & Ayco J. M. Tack
1.Within natural communities, different taxa display different dynamics in time. Why this is the case we do not fully know. This thwarts our ability to predict changes in community structure, which is important for both the conservation of rare species in natural communities and for the prediction of pest outbreaks in agriculture. 2.Species sharing phylogeny, natural enemies and/or life history traits have been hypothesized to share similar temporal dynamics. We operationalized these concepts into testing...

Data from: AudioMoth: evaluation of a smart open acoustic device for monitoring biodiversity and the environment

Andrew P. Hill, Peter Prince, Evelyn P. Covarrubias, C. Patrick Doncaster, Jake L. Snaddon & Alex Rogers
1. The cost, usability and power efficiency of available wildlife monitoring equipment currently inhibits full ground-level coverage of many natural systems. Developments over the last decade in technology, open science, and the sharing economy promise to bring global access to more versatile and more affordable monitoring tools, to improve coverage for conservation researchers and managers. 2. Here we describe the development and proof-of-concept of a low-cost, small-sized and low-energy acoustic detector: 'AudioMoth'. The device is...

Data from: Genome-wide identification of host-segregating epidemiological markers for source attribution in Campylobacter jejuni

Amandine Thépault, Guillaume Méric, Katell Rivoal, Ben Pascoe, Leonardos Mageiros, Fabrice Touzain, Valérie Rose, Véronique Béven, Marianne Chemaly & Samuel K. Sheppard
Campylobacter is among the most common worldwide causes of bacterial gastroenteritis. This organism is part of the commensal microbiota of numerous host species, including livestock, and these animals constitute potential sources of human infection. Molecular typing approaches, especially multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), have been used to attribute the source of human campylobacteriosis by quantifying the relative abundance of alleles, at 7 MLST loci, among isolates from animal reservoirs and human infection, implicating chicken as a...

Data from: Integrating phylogenetic and ecological distances reveals new insights into parasite host specificity

Nicholas J. Clark & Sonya M. Clegg
The range of hosts a pathogen infects (host specificity) is a key element of disease risk that may be influenced by both shared phylogenetic history and shared ecological attributes of prospective hosts. Phylospecificity indices quantify host specificity in terms of host relatedness, but can fail to capture ecological attributes that increase susceptibility. For instance, similarity in habitat niche may expose phylogenetically unrelated host species to similar pathogen assemblages. Using a recently proposed method that integrates...

Data from: Measuring selection when parents and offspring interact

Caroline E. Thomson & Jarrod D. Hadfield
Non-social and social selection gradients are key evolutionary parameters in systems where individuals interact. They are most easily obtained by regressing an individual's fitness on the trait values of the individual and its social partner. In the context of parental care it is more common to regress the trait value of the parents (i.e. the social partner) on a ‘mixed’ fitness measure that is a function of the parent's and offspring's fitness (for example, the...

Vertical profile data of light transmission in Atlantic forests along a disturbance gradient

S. Fauset, M.U. Gloor, M.A.P. Aidar, H.C. Freitas, N.M. Fyllas, C.A. Joly, M.A. Marabesi, A.L.C. Rochelle, A. Shenkin & S.A. Vieira
The data set contains vertical profiles of diffuse light transmittance measured within six forest plots in montane Atlantic forest, São Paulo state, Brazil. The plots measured include intact, previously logged and secondary forest in a large continuous forest block of the Serra do Mar State Park (Parque Estadual de Serra do Mar), and two forest fragments outside the park. In each plot 10 - 12 individual light profiles were recorded; the data set contains these...

Data from: Contrasting patterns of insect herbivory and predation pressure across a tropical rainfall gradient

Anita Weissflog, Lars Markesteijn, Owen T. Lewis, Liza S. Comita, Bettina M. J. Engelbrecht. & Bettina M.J. Engelbrecht
One explanation for the extraordinarily high tree diversity of tropical lowland forests is that it is maintained by specialized natural enemies such as insect herbivores, which cause distance and density dependent mortality. Insect herbivory could also explain the positive correlation between tree species richness and rainfall if herbivory increases with rainfall, is higher on locally abundant versus rare species, and is not limited by predation pressure at wet sites. To test these predictions, insect herbivory...

Data from: Predicting animal behaviour using deep learning: GPS data alone accurately predict diving in seabirds

Ella Browning, Mark Bolton, Ellie Owen, Akiko Shoji, Tim Guilford & Robin Freeman
1.In order to prevent further global declines in biodiversity, identifying and understanding key habitats is crucial for successful conservation strategies. For example, globally, seabird populations are under threat and animal movement data can identify key at-sea areas and provide valuable information on the state of marine ecosystems. To date, in order to locate these areas, studies have used Global Positioning System (GPS) to record position and are sometimes combined with Time Depth Recorder (TDR) devices...

Data from: Allopreening in birds is associated with parental cooperation over offspring care and stable pair bonds across years

Elspeth Kenny, Tim.R. Birkhead, Jonathan P. Green & Tim R Birkhead
Individuals of many species form bonds with their breeding partners, yet the mechanisms maintaining these bonds are poorly understood. In birds, allopreening is a conspicuous feature of interactions between breeding partners and has been hypothesized to play a role in strengthening and maintaining pair bonds within and across breeding attempts. Many avian species, however, do not allopreen and the relationship between allopreening and pair bonding across species remains unexplored. In a comparative analysis of allopreening...

Registration Year

  • 2017

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Oxford
  • Lund University
  • University of Edinburgh
  • University of Cambridge
  • University of Sheffield
  • University of Queensland
  • University of Aberdeen
  • Australian National University
  • University of Melbourne
  • University of Tasmania