89 Works

Data from: A father effect explains sex-ratio bias

Aurelio F. Malo, Felipe Martinez-Pastor, Francisco Garcia-Gonzalez, Julian Garde, Jonathan D. Ballou & Robert C. Lacy
Sex ratio allocation has important fitness consequences, and theory predicts that parents should adjust offspring sex ratio in cases where the fitness returns of producing male and female offspring vary. The ability of fathers to bias offspring sex ratios has traditionally been dismissed given the expectation of an equal proportion of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm (CBS) in ejaculates due to segregation of sex chromosomes at meiosis. This expectation has been recently refuted. Here we used...

Data from: Cheating and resistance to cheating in natural populations of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

John Brown Bruce, Guy Alexander Cooper, Hélène Chabas, Stuart A. West & Ashleigh S. Griffin
Bacteria perform cooperative behaviours that are exploitable by non-cooperative cheats, and cheats frequently arise and coexist with cooperators in laboratory microcosms. However, evidence of competitive dynamics between cooperators and cheats in nature remains limited. Using the production of pyoverdine, an iron-scavenging molecule, and natural soil populations of Pseudomonas fluorescens, we found that (1) non-producers are present in the population; (2) they co-occur (<1cm3) with pyoverdine producers; (3) they retain functional pyoverdine receptors and (4) they...

Data from: The role of ecology, neutral processes and antagonistic coevolution in an apparent sexual arms race

Jennifer C. Perry, Colin J. Garroway & Locke Rowe
Some of the strongest examples of a sexual ‘arms race’ come from observations of correlated evolution in sexually antagonistic traits among populations. However, it remains unclear whether these cases truly represent sexually antagonistic coevolution; alternatively, ecological or neutral processes might also drive correlated evolution. To investigate these alternatives, we evaluated the contributions of intersex genetic correlations, ecological context, neutral genetic divergence and sexual coevolution in the correlated evolution of antagonistic traits among populations of Gerris...

Data from: Cope’s rule and the adaptive landscape of dinosaur body size evolution

Roger B. J. Benson, Gene Hunt, Matthew T. Carrano & Nicolás Campione
The largest known dinosaurs weighed at least 20 million times as much as the smallest, indicating exceptional phenotypic divergence. Previous studies have focused on extreme giant sizes, tests of Cope's rule, and miniaturization on the line leading to birds. We use non-uniform macroevolutionary models based on Ornstein–Uhlenbeck and trend processes to unify these observations, asking: what patterns of evolutionary rates, directionality and constraint explain the diversification of dinosaur body mass? We find that dinosaur evolution...

Data from: What controls variation in carbon use efficiency among Amazonian tropical forests?

Christopher E. Doughty, Gregory R. Goldsmith, Nicolas Raab, Cecile A. J. Girardin, Filio Farfan-Amezquita, Walter Huaraca Huasco, Javier E. Silva-Espejo, Alejandro Araujo-Murakami, Antonio C. L. Da Costa, Wanderley Rocha, David Galbraith, Patrick Meir, Dan B. Metcalfe, Yadvinder Malhi & Walter Huaraca-Huasco
Why do some forests produce biomass more efficiently than others? Variations in Carbon Use Efficiency (CUE: total Net Primary Production (NPP)/ Gross Primary Production (GPP)) may be due to changes in wood residence time (Biomass/NPPwood), temperature, or soil nutrient status. We tested these hypotheses in 14, one ha plots across Amazonian and Andean forests where we measured most key components of net primary production (NPP: wood, fine roots, and leaves) and autotrophic respiration (Ra; wood,...

Data from: Bacteriocins and the assembly of natural Pseudomonas fluorescens populations

John B. Bruce, Stuart A. West & Ashleigh S. Griffin
When competing for space and resources, bacteria produce toxins known as bacteriocins to gain an advantage over competitors. Recent studies in the laboratory have confirmed theoretical predictions that bacteriocin production can determine coexistence, by eradicating sensitive competitors or driving the emergence of resistant genotypes. However, there is currently limited evidence that bacteriocin-mediated competition influences the coexistence and distribution of genotypes in natural environments, and what factors drive interactions towards inhibition remain unclear. Using natural soil...

Data from: Climate and anthropogenic factors determine site occupancy in Scotland's Northern-range badger population: implications of context-dependent responses under environmental change

André P. Silva, Gonçalo Curveira-Santos, Kerry Kilshaw, Chris Newman, David W. Macdonald, Luciana G. Simões & Luís M. Rosalino
Aim In the light of human-induced rapid environmental change (HIREC), populations are exposed to ever-greater bioclimatic stress at the edge of a species’ historic range. The distribution dynamics of European badgers (Meles meles) at their southern edge are linked tightly to climatic variability. We contribute critical data on how climatic context and local factors determine site occupancy in a northern-range population. Location Eleven study areas (averaging ~21.3 km2) spread over ~50,000 km2 in Northern Scotland....

Data from: The dentary of Wareolestes rex (Megazostrodontidae): a new specimen from Scotland and implications for morganucodontan tooth replacement

Elsa Panciroli, Roger B. J. Benson & Stig Walsh
The Middle Jurassic morganucodontan, Wareolestes rex, was previously known from only four isolated molars from Kirtlington, England. There has been debate over the position of the holotype tooth as an upper or lower molar. We describe a new Wareolestes specimen from the Kilmaluag Formation of Scotland: a partial left dentary with two erupted molars, one unerupted molar and three unerupted premolars. Empty alveoli for a canine, p1 and p3 are also present. Through detailed comparison...

Data from: Microbe biogeography tracks water masses in a dynamic oceanic frontal system

Anni Djurhuus, Philipp H. Boersch-Supan, Svein-Ole Mikalsen, Alex D. Rogers & Helge-Ansgar Giebel
PLEASE NOTE, THESE DATA ARE ALSO REFERRED TO IN ANOTHER PUBLICATION. PLEASE SEE http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.160829. Dispersal limitation, not just environmental selection, plays an important role in microbial biogeography. The distance–decay relationship is thought to be weak in habitats where dispersal is high, such as in the pelagic environment, where ocean currents facilitate microbial dispersal. Most studies of microbial community composition to date have observed little geographical heterogeneity on a regional scale (100 km). We present a...

Data from: Stable producer–scrounger dynamics in wild birds: sociability and learning speed covary with scrounging behaviour

Lucy M. Aplin & Julie Morand-Ferron
There has been extensive game-theoretic modelling of conditions leading to equilibria of producer–scrounger dichotomies in groups. However there is a surprising paucity of experimental evidence in wild populations. Here, we examine producer–scrounger games in five subpopulations of birds feeding at a socially learnt foraging task. Over four weeks, a bimodal distribution of producers and scroungers emerged in all areas, with pronounced and consistent individual tactic specialization persisting over 3 years. Tactics were unrelated to exploratory...

Data from: A map of abstract relational knowledge in the human hippocampal–entorhinal cortex

Mona M. Garvert, Raymond J. Dolan, Timothy E.J. Behrens & Timothy EJ Behrens
The hippocampal–entorhinal system encodes a map of space that guides spatial navigation. Goal-directed behaviour outside of spatial navigation similarly requires a representation of abstract forms of relational knowledge. This information relies on the same neural system, but it is not known whether the organisational principles governing continuous maps may extend to the implicit encoding of discrete, non-spatial graphs. Here, we show that the human hippocampal–entorhinal system can represent relationships between objects using a metric that...

Data from: Ethnically Tibetan women in Nepal with low hemoglobin concentration have better reproductive outcomes

Jang Ik Cho, Buddha Basnyat, Choongwon Jeong, Anna Di Rienzo, Geoff Childs, Sienna Craig, Jiayang Sun, Cynthia Beall & Cynthia M. Beall
Abstract Background and objectives: Tibetans have distinctively low hemoglobin concentrations at high altitudes compared with visitors and Andean highlanders. This study hypothesized that natural selection favors an unelevated hemoglobin concentration among Tibetans. It considered nonheritable sociocultural factors affecting reproductive success and tested the hypotheses that a higher percent of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (indicating less stress) or lower hemoglobin concentration (indicating dampened response) associated with higher lifetime reproductive success. Methodology: We sampled 1006 post-reproductive ethnically...

Chemical composition of Central Asian forage plants

S. J. Robinson
The database of chemical composition of Central Asian forage plants contains just under 1000 desert and steppe species with information such as Latin and Russian names and family and related records of chemical composition from various sources including percentages by weight of protein, ash, cellulose and fat. Where available, it also includes data on digestible protein content, metabolisable energy and Soviet Feed Units (SFU). Records also include information on the country, location, season or month...

Data from: Plasticity of thermoregulatory behaviour in response to the thermal environment by widespread and alpine reptile species

Amanda J. Caldwell, Geoffrey M. While & Erik Wapstra
Phenotypic plasticity plays a central role in determining how organisms respond to environmental change over short timescales. Despite this, we know little about how phenotypic plasticity varies between populations or species. We tested the extent of plasticity in basking behaviour in low- and high-altitude populations of two widespread lowland and two highland species of a cool-climate lizard genus: Niveoscincus. We found evidence of divergence in basking behaviour between populations and species, with highland species and...

Data from: Comparative analysis of vestibular ecomorphology in birds

Roger B. J. Benson, Ethan Starmer-Jones, Roger A. Close & Stig A. Walsh
The bony labyrinth of vertebrates houses the semicircular canals. These sense rotational accelerations of the head and play an essential role in gaze stabilisation during locomotion. The sizes and shapes of the semicircular canals have hypothesised relationships to agility and locomotory modes in many groups, including birds, and a burgeoning palaeontological literature seeks to make ecological interpretations from the morphology of the labyrinth in extinct species. Rigorous tests of form–function relationships for the vestibular system...

Data from: Tracking plant preference for higher-quality mycorrhizal symbionts under varying CO conditions over multiple generations

Gijsbert D. A. Werner, Yeling Zhou, Corné M. J. Pieterse & E. Toby Kiers
The symbiosis between plants and root-colonizing arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is one of the most ecologically important examples of interspecific cooperation in the world. AM fungi provide benefits to plants; in return plants allocate carbon resources to fungi, preferentially allocating more resources to higher-quality fungi. However, preferential allocations from plants to symbionts may vary with environmental context, particularly when resource availability affects the relative value of symbiotic services. We ask how differences in atmospheric CO2-levels...

Data from: Measuring selection when parents and offspring interact

Caroline E. Thomson & Jarrod D. Hadfield
Non-social and social selection gradients are key evolutionary parameters in systems where individuals interact. They are most easily obtained by regressing an individual's fitness on the trait values of the individual and its social partner. In the context of parental care it is more common to regress the trait value of the parents (i.e. the social partner) on a ‘mixed’ fitness measure that is a function of the parent's and offspring's fitness (for example, the...

Data from: Allopreening in birds is associated with parental cooperation over offspring care and stable pair bonds across years

Elspeth Kenny, Tim.R. Birkhead, Jonathan P. Green & Tim R Birkhead
Individuals of many species form bonds with their breeding partners, yet the mechanisms maintaining these bonds are poorly understood. In birds, allopreening is a conspicuous feature of interactions between breeding partners and has been hypothesized to play a role in strengthening and maintaining pair bonds within and across breeding attempts. Many avian species, however, do not allopreen and the relationship between allopreening and pair bonding across species remains unexplored. In a comparative analysis of allopreening...

Data from: Contrasting impacts of land use change on phylogenetic and functional diversity of tropical forest birds

Phillip M. Chapman, Joseph A. Tobias, David P. Edwards, Richard G. Davies & Philip M. Chapman
1.Biodiversity conservation strategies increasingly target maintaining evolutionary history and the resilience of ecosystem function, not just species richness (SR). This has led to the emergence of two metrics commonly proposed as tools for decision making: phylogenetic diversity (PD) and functional diversity (FD). Yet the extent to which they are interchangeable remains poorly understood. 2.We explore shifts in and relationships between FD and PD of bird communities across a disturbance gradient in Borneo, from old-growth tropical...

Vertical profile data of light transmission in Atlantic forests along a disturbance gradient

S. Fauset, M.U. Gloor, M.A.P. Aidar, H.C. Freitas, N.M. Fyllas, C.A. Joly, M.A. Marabesi, A.L.C. Rochelle, A. Shenkin & S.A. Vieira
The data set contains vertical profiles of diffuse light transmittance measured within six forest plots in montane Atlantic forest, São Paulo state, Brazil. The plots measured include intact, previously logged and secondary forest in a large continuous forest block of the Serra do Mar State Park (Parque Estadual de Serra do Mar), and two forest fragments outside the park. In each plot 10 - 12 individual light profiles were recorded; the data set contains these...

Data from: Contrasting patterns of insect herbivory and predation pressure across a tropical rainfall gradient

Anita Weissflog, Lars Markesteijn, Owen T. Lewis, Liza S. Comita, Bettina M. J. Engelbrecht. & Bettina M.J. Engelbrecht
One explanation for the extraordinarily high tree diversity of tropical lowland forests is that it is maintained by specialized natural enemies such as insect herbivores, which cause distance and density dependent mortality. Insect herbivory could also explain the positive correlation between tree species richness and rainfall if herbivory increases with rainfall, is higher on locally abundant versus rare species, and is not limited by predation pressure at wet sites. To test these predictions, insect herbivory...

Data from: Genome-wide identification of host-segregating epidemiological markers for source attribution in Campylobacter jejuni

Amandine Thépault, Guillaume Méric, Katell Rivoal, Ben Pascoe, Leonardos Mageiros, Fabrice Touzain, Valérie Rose, Véronique Béven, Marianne Chemaly & Samuel K. Sheppard
Campylobacter is among the most common worldwide causes of bacterial gastroenteritis. This organism is part of the commensal microbiota of numerous host species, including livestock, and these animals constitute potential sources of human infection. Molecular typing approaches, especially multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), have been used to attribute the source of human campylobacteriosis by quantifying the relative abundance of alleles, at 7 MLST loci, among isolates from animal reservoirs and human infection, implicating chicken as a...

Data from: Integrating phylogenetic and ecological distances reveals new insights into parasite host specificity

Nicholas J. Clark & Sonya M. Clegg
The range of hosts a pathogen infects (host specificity) is a key element of disease risk that may be influenced by both shared phylogenetic history and shared ecological attributes of prospective hosts. Phylospecificity indices quantify host specificity in terms of host relatedness, but can fail to capture ecological attributes that increase susceptibility. For instance, similarity in habitat niche may expose phylogenetically unrelated host species to similar pathogen assemblages. Using a recently proposed method that integrates...

Data from: Predicting animal behaviour using deep learning: GPS data alone accurately predict diving in seabirds

Ella Browning, Mark Bolton, Ellie Owen, Akiko Shoji, Tim Guilford & Robin Freeman
1.In order to prevent further global declines in biodiversity, identifying and understanding key habitats is crucial for successful conservation strategies. For example, globally, seabird populations are under threat and animal movement data can identify key at-sea areas and provide valuable information on the state of marine ecosystems. To date, in order to locate these areas, studies have used Global Positioning System (GPS) to record position and are sometimes combined with Time Depth Recorder (TDR) devices...

Data from: Resolving the prevalence of somatic transposition in Drosophila

Christoph Daniel Treiber & Scott Waddell
Somatic transposition in mammals and insects could increase cellular diversity and neural mobilization has been implicated in age-dependent decline. To understand the impact of transposition in somatic cells it is essential to reliably measure the frequency and map locations of new insertions. Here we identified thousands of putative somatic transposon insertions in neurons from individual Drosophila melanogaster using whole-genome sequencing. However, the number of de novo insertions did not correlate with transposon expression or fly...

Registration Year

  • 2017
    89

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    89

Affiliations

  • University of Oxford
    89
  • Lund University
    8
  • University of Edinburgh
    8
  • University of Cambridge
    5
  • University of Sheffield
    4
  • University of Queensland
    3
  • University of Aberdeen
    3
  • Australian National University
    3
  • University of Melbourne
    3
  • University of Tasmania
    3