92 Works

Data from: The importance of competition for light depends on productivity and disturbance

Yann Hautier, Eva Vojtech & Andy Hector
Eutrophication is a major cause of biodiversity loss. In grasslands this appears to occur due to asymmetric competition for light following the increases in aboveground biomass production. Here, we report the results of an experiment with five grass species that tests how well competitive outcomes can be predicted under a factorial combination of fertilized and disturbed (frequent cutting) conditions. Under fertile conditions our results confirm earlier success in predicting short-term competitive outcomes based on light...

Data from: New suspension-feeding radiodont suggests evolution of microplanktivory in Cambrian macronekton

Rudy Lerosey-Aubril & Stephen Pates
The rapid diversification of metazoans and their organisation in modern-style marine ecosystems during the Cambrian profoundly transformed the biosphere. What initially sparked this Cambrian explosion remains passionately debated, but the establishment of a coupling between pelagic and benthic realms, a key characteristic of modern-day oceans, might represent a primary ecological cause. By allowing the transfer of biomass and energy from the euphotic zone—the locus of primary production—to the sea floor, this biological pump would have...

Data from: Natural and anthropogenic drivers of cub recruitment in a large carnivore

Femke Broekhuis
Recruitment is a critical parameter governing population dynamics and influences population persistence. Understanding the drivers of recruitment is therefore important for conservation, especially for long-lived mammals such as large carnivores, which have low reproductive rates, rendering them prone to extinction. Using cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) as a model species, I investigated the variation in cub recruitment in relation to habitat and the abundance of tourists and predators. Per litter, female cheetahs on average raised 1.71 ±...

Data from: Demography and social dynamics of an African elephant population 35 years after reintroduction as juveniles

Timothy R. Kuiper, Dave J. Druce & Heleen C. Druce
1. Given their vulnerability to local extinction, the reintroduction of megafauna species (often long-lived, ecologically-influential and highly-social) is an increasingly relevant conservation intervention. Studies that evaluate past megafauna reintroductions are both critical and rare. 2. Between 1981 and 1996, 12 cohorts of a total of 200 juvenile (<5 years old) African savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana africana) were re-introduced to Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park (HiP), South Africa, after 100 years of absence. Here we model the population’s long...

Data from: Warming impacts on early life stages increase the vulnerability and delay the population recovery of a long-lived habitat-forming macroalga

Pol Capdevila, Bernat Hereu, Roberto Salguero-Gómez, Graciel·La Rovira, Alba Medrano, Emma Cebrian, Joaquim Garrabou, Diego K. Kersting & Cristina Linares
1. Understanding the combined effects of global and local stressors is crucial for conservation and management, yet challenging due to the different scales at which these stressors operate. Here we examine the effects of one of the most pervasive threats to marine biodiversity, ocean warming, on the early life stages of the habitat-forming macroalga Cystoseira zosteroides, its long-term consequences for population resilience and its combined effect with physical stressors. 2. First, we performed a controlled...

Data from: Body ownership and agency altered by an electromyographically-controlled robotic arm

Yuki Sato, Toshihiro Kawase, Kouji Takano, Charles Spence & Kenji Kansaku
Understanding how we consciously experience our bodies is a fundamental issue in cognitive neuroscience. Two fundamental components of this are the sense of body ownership (the experience of the body as one’s own) and the sense of agency (the feeling of control over one’s bodily actions). These constructs have been used to investigate the incorporation of prostheses. To date, however, no evidence has been provided showing whether representations of ownership and agency in amputees are...

Data from: Explosive diversification of marine fishes at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary

Michael E. Alfaro, Brant C. Faircloth, Richard C. Harrington, Laurie Sorenson, Matt Friedman, Christine E. Thacker, Carl H. Oliveros, David Černý & Thomas J. Near
The Cretaceous–Palaeogene (K–Pg) mass extinction is linked to the rapid emergence of ecologically divergent higher taxa (for example, families and orders) across terrestrial vertebrates, but its impact on the diversification of marine vertebrates is less clear. Spiny-rayed fishes (Acanthomorpha) provide an ideal system for exploring the effects of the K–Pg on fish diversification, yet despite decades of morphological and molecular phylogenetic efforts, resolution of both early diverging lineages and enormously diverse subclades remains problematic. Recent...

Data from: Multi-proxy evidence highlights a complex evolutionary legacy of maize in South America

Logan Kistler, S. Yoshi Maezumi, Jonas Gregorio De Souza, Natalia A. S. Przelomska, Flaviane Malaquias Costa, Oliver Smith, Hope Loiselle, Jazmín Ramos-Madrigal, Nathan Wales, Eduardo Rivail Ribeiro, Ryan R. Morrison, Claudia Grimaldo, Andre P. Prous, Bernardo Arriaza, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Fabio De Oliveira Freitas & Robin G. Allaby
Domesticated maize evolved from wild teosinte under human influences in Mexico beginning around 9,000 BP, traversed Central America by ~7,500 BP, and spread into South America by ~6,500 BP. Landrace and archaeological maize genomes from South America suggest that the ancestral population to South American maize was brought out of the domestication center in Mexico and became isolated from the wild teosinte gene pool before traits of domesticated maize were fixed. Deeply structured lineages then...

Data from: Plant controls on Late Quaternary whole ecosystem structure and function

Elizabeth S. Jeffers, Nicki J. Whitehouse, Adrian Lister, Gill Plunkett, Phil Barratt, Emma Smyth, Philip Lamb, Michael W. Dee, Stephen J. Brooks, Katherine J. Willis, Cynthia A. Froyd, Jenny E. Watson & Michael B. Bonsall
Plants and animals influence biomass production and nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems; however their relative importance remains unclear. We assessed the extent to which mega-herbivore species controlled plant community composition and nutrient cycling, relative to other factors during and after the Late Quaternary extinction event in Britain and Ireland, when two-thirds of the region’s mega-herbivore species went extinct. Warmer temperatures, plant-soil and plant-plant interactions, and reduced burning contributed to the expansion of woody plants and...

Data from: Zebra diel migrations reduce encounter risk with lions at night.

Nicolas Courbin, Andrew J. Loveridge, Herve Fritz, David W. Macdonald, Rémi Patin, Marion Valeix & Simon Chamaillé-Jammes
1. Diel migrations (DM; back and forth diel movements along an ecological gradient) undertaken by prey to avoid predators during the day have been demonstrated in many taxa in aquatic ecosystems. In terrestrial ecosystems, prey often shift between various vegetation types whose cover determine their vulnerability (i.e. likelihood of being killed when attacked). 2. We conceptualized that in terrestrial ecosystems DM could also occur, and that the contribution of DM and shifts in vegetation cover...

Data from: A new phylogenetic hypothesis of turtles with implications for the timing and number of evolutionary transitions to marine lifestyles in the group

Serjoscha W. Evers & Roger B. J. Benson
Evolutionary transitions to marine habitats occurred frequently among Mesozoic reptiles. Only one such clade survives to the present: sea turtles (Chelonioidea). Other marine turtles originated during the Mesozoic, but uncertain affinities of key fossils have obscured the number of transitions to marine life, and the timing of the origin of marine adaptation in chelonioids. Phylogenetic studies support either a highly‐inclusive chelonioid total‐group including fossil marine clades from the Jurassic and Cretaceous (e.g. protostegids, thalassochelydians, sandownids)...

Data from: Neurocranial anatomy of an enigmatic Early Devonian fish sheds light on early osteichthyan evolution

Alice M. Clement, Benedict King, Sam Giles, Brian Choo, Per Ahlberg, Gavin C. Young, John A. Long & Per E Ahlberg
The skull of ‘Ligulalepis’ from the Early Devonian of Australia (AM-F101607) has significantly expanded our knowledge of early osteichthyan anatomy, but its phylogenetic position has remained uncertain. We herein describe a second skull of ‘Ligulalepis’ and present micro-CT data on both specimens to reveal novel anatomical features, including cranial endocasts. Several features previously considered to link ‘Ligulalepis’ with actinopterygians are now considered generalized osteichthyan characters or of uncertain polarity. The presence of a lateral cranial...

Data from: A high density SNP chip for genotyping great tit (Parus major) populations and its application to studying the genetic architecture of exploration behaviour

Jun-Mo Kim, Anna W. Santure, Henry J. Barton, John L. Quinn, Eleanor F. Cole, Marcel E. Visser, Ben C. Sheldon, Martien A.M. Groenen, Kees Van Oers, Jon Slate & J.-M. Kim
High density SNP microarrays (‘SNP chips’) are a rapid, accurate and efficient method for genotyping several hundred thousand polymorphisms in large numbers of individuals. While SNP chips are routinely used in human genetics and in animal and plant breeding, they are less widely used in evolutionary and ecological research. In this paper we describe the development and application of a high density Affymetrix Axiom chip with around 500 000 SNPs, designed to perform genomics studies...

Data from: A redescription of Orovenator mayorum (Sauropsida, Diapsida) using high-resolution μCT and the consequences for early amniote phylogeny

David P. Ford, Roger B.J. Benson & Roger B. J. Benson
The earliest known neodiapsid Orovenator mayorum from the early Permian of Oklahoma is redescribed using high-resolution μCT, revealing remarkable details of the skull anatomy. Our findings are relevant to both palaeoecology (suggesting burrowing and nocturnality) and phylogeny. Orovenator and other sauropsids share at least 16 character states with varanopids, many of which were not recognised by previous studies. These include a rounded subnarial shelf of the premaxilla, a posterodorsal extension of the external naris, the...

Data from: Tropical dung beetle morphological traits predict functional traits and show intra-specific differences across land uses

Elizabeth H. Raine, Claudia L. Gray, Darren J. Mann & Eleanor M. Slade
1. Functional traits and functional diversity measures are increasingly being used to examine land use effects on biodiversity and community assembly rules. 2. Morphological traits are frequently derived from a mean value of many individuals, and used directly as functional traits. However, this approach overlooks the importance of intraspecific differences. 3. We collected morphometric data from over 1700 individuals of 12 species of dung beetle to establish whether morphological measurements can be used as predictors...

Data from: Positive effects of liana cutting on seedlings are reduced during El Niño-induced drought

Michael J. O'Brien, Christopher D. Philipson, Glen Reynolds, Dzaeman Dzulkifli, Jake L. Snaddon, Robert Ong & Andy Hector
1. Liana cutting is a management practice currently applied to encourage seedling regeneration and tree growth in some logged tropical forests. However, there is limited empirical evidence of its effects on forest demographic rates in Southeast Asia. 2. We used 22 four-hectare plots in the Sabah Biodiversity Experiment (a reduced impact logging site) enrichment line planted with 16 dipterocarp species to assess the effects of complete liana cutting on tree growth and survival. We compared...

Data from: Aeroecology of a solar eclipse

Cecilia Nilsson, Kyle G. Horton, Adriaan M. Dokter, Benjamin M. Van Doren & Andrew Farnsworth
Light cues elicit strong responses from nearly all forms of life, perhaps most notably as circadian rhythms entrained by periods of daylight and darkness. Atypical periods of darkness, like solar eclipses, provide rare opportunities to study biological responses to light cues. By using a continental scale radar network, we investigated responses of flying animals to the total solar eclipse of 21 August 2017. We quantified the number of biological targets in the atmosphere at 143...

Sex differences in helping effort reveal the effect of future reproduction on cooperative behaviour in birds

Philip A. Downing, Ashleigh S. Griffin & Charlie K. Cornwallis
The evolution of helping behaviour in species that breed cooperatively in family groups is typically attributed to kin selection alone. However, in many species, helpers go on to inherit breeding positions in their natal groups, but the extent to which this contributes to selection for helping is unclear, as the future reproductive success of helpers is often unknown. To quantify the role of future reproduction in the evolution of helping, we compared the helping effort...

Data from: Mutual fitness benefits arise during coevolution in a nematode-defensive microbe model

Charlotte Rafaluk-Mohr, Ben Ashby, Dylan A. Dahan & Kayla C. King
Species interactions can shift along the parasitism-mutualism continuum. However, the consequences of these transitions for coevolutionary interactions remain unclear. We experimentally coevolved a novel species interaction between Caenorhabditis elegans hosts and a mildly parasitic bacterium, Enterococcus faecalis, with host-protective properties against virulent Staphylococcus aureus. Coinfections drove the evolutionary transition of the C.elegans-E. faecalis relationship towards a reciprocally beneficial interaction. As E. faecalis evolved to protect nematodes against S. aureus infection, hosts adapted by accommodating greater...

Data from: Shock and stabilisation following long-term drought in tropical forest from 15 years of litterfall dynamics

Lucy Rowland, Antonio C. L. Da Costa, Alex A. R. Oliveira, Samuel S. Almeida, Leandro V. Ferreira, Yadvinder Malhi, Dan B. Metcalfe, Maurizio Mencuccini, John Grace & Patrick Meir
Litterfall dynamics in tropical forests are a good indicator of overall tropical forest function, indicative of carbon invested in both photosynthesising tissues and reproductive organs such as flowers and fruits. These dynamics are sensitive to changes in climate, such as drought, but little is known about the long-term responses of tropical forest litterfall dynamics to extended drought stress. We present a 15-year dataset of litterfall (leaf, flower and fruit, and twigs) from the world's only...

Data from: Fine-root exploitation strategies differ in tropical old-growth and logged-over forests in Ghana

Shalom D. Addo-Danso, Cindy E. Prescott, Stephen Adu-Bredu, Akwasi Duah-Gyamfi, Sam Moore, Robert D. Guy, David I. Forrester, Kennedy Owusu-Afriyie, Peter L. Marshall, Yadvinder Malhi. & Yadvinder Malhi
Understanding the changes in root exploitation strategies during post-logging recovery is important for predicting forest productivity and carbon dynamics in tropical forests. We sampled fine (diameter < 2 mm) roots using the soil-core method to quantify fine-root biomass, and architectural and morphological traits to determine root exploitation strategies in an old-growth forest and in a 54-year-old logged-over forest influenced by similar parent material and climate. Seven root traits were considered: four associated with resource exploitation...

Data from: Acoustic stability in hyrax snorts: vocal tightrope-walkers or wrathful verbal assailants?

Yishai A. Weissman, Vlad Demartsev, Amiyaal Ilany, Adi Barocas, Einat Bar-Ziv, Inbar Shnitser, Eli Geffen, Lee Koren & Inbar Shnitzer
The source-filter theory proposes that information on caller properties is communicated through acoustic qualities, as physical state and performance ability are reflected in the voice. Vocal stability, manifested through harshness is especially intriguing, and has rarely been explored although harsh sounds are prevalent in nature. Male rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis) produce loud complex calls that we term songs. Only the calls of older, socially dominant males, include a harsh sound termed snort. As snorts are...

Data from: Multi-modal signal evolution in birds: re-examining a standard proxy for sexual selection

Christopher R. Cooney, Hannah E.A. MacGregor, Nathalie Seddon, Joseph A. Tobias & Hannah E. A. MacGregor
Sexual selection is proposed to be an important driver of speciation and phenotypic diversification in animal systems. However, previous phylogenetic tests have produced conflicting results, perhaps because they have focused on a single signalling modality (visual ornaments), whereas sexual selection may act on alternative signalling modalities (e.g. acoustic ornaments). Here we compile phenotypic data from 259 avian sister species pairs to assess the relationship between visible plumage dichromatism—a standard index of sexual selection in birds—and...

Environmental conditions at saiga calving and die-off sites in Kazakhstan, 1979 to 2016

S. Robinson
This dataset describes environmental conditions at 135 Saiga antelope calving sites (from a total of 214) in Kazakhstan where the predictor variables required for the modelling were available at sufficient resolution. Data collected included climatic variables associated with haemorrhagic septicaemia in the literature, including humidity, temperature and precipitation. Indicators of vegetation biomass, phenology and length of the winter preceding calving were represented using the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), snow depth and snow presence data....

Data from: Competition between sympatric wolf taxa: an example involving African and Ethiopian Wolves

Tariku Mekonnen Gutema, Anagaw Atickem, Afework Bekele, Claudio Sillero-Zubiri, Mohammed Kasso, Diress Tsegaye, Vivek V. Venkataraman, Peter J. Fashing, Dietmar Zinner & Nils C. Stenseth
Carnivore populations are declining globally due to range contraction, persecution and prey depletion. One consequence of these patterns is increased range and niche overlap with other carnivores, and thus an elevated potential for competitive exclusion. Here we document competition between an endangered canid, the Ethiopian wolf (EW), and the newly discovered African wolf (AW) in central Ethiopia. The diet of the ecological specialist EW was dominated by rodents whereas the AW consumed more diverse diet...

Registration Year

  • 2018
    92

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    92

Affiliations

  • University of Oxford
    92
  • University of Zurich
    7
  • University of Minnesota
    4
  • Australian National University
    4
  • University of Edinburgh
    4
  • University of Exeter
    4
  • Durham University
    3
  • University of Sheffield
    3
  • National Museum
    2
  • University of Sussex
    2