92 Works

Data from: Competitive asymmetry and local adaptation in Trinidadian guppies

Tomos Potter, Leighton King, Joseph Travis & Ronald D. Bassar
1. The outcome of competition between individuals often depends on body-size. These competitive asymmetries can drive variation in demographic rates, influencing the ecology and evolution of life-histories. The magnitude and direction of such asymmetries differ among taxa, yet little is known empirically about how adaptation to resource limitation alters competitive asymmetries. 2. Here, we investigate the relationship between size-dependent competitive ability and adaptation to resource limitation. 3. We examined size-dependent competition in two ecotypes of...

Data from: A new actinopterygian from the Late Devonian Gogo Formation, Western Australia

Brian Choo, Jing Lu, Sam Giles, Kate Trinajstic & John A. Long
The study of early actinopterygians (ray-finned fishes) from the Devonian has been hampered by imperfect preservation in the majority of taxa. The Late Devonian (early Frasnian) Gogo Formation of north-western Western Australia is notable in producing complete fossil actinopterygians with exceptional three-dimensional preservation of both the dermal and endoskeletal anatomy. Four taxa have been described and have proved invaluable in understanding the anatomy of early representatives of this clade. Here, we present a fifth Gogo...

Data from: The application of self-limiting transgenic insects in managing resistance in experimental metapopulations

Liqin Zhou, Nina Alphey, Adam S. Walker, Laura M. Travers, Neil I. Morrison, Michael B. Bonsall & Ben Raymond
1. The mass release of transgenic insects carrying female lethal self-limiting genes can reduce pest insect populations. Theoretically, substantial releases can be a novel resistance management tool, since wild type alleles conferring susceptibility to pesticides can dilute resistance alleles in target populations. A potential barrier to the deployment of this technology is the need for large-scale area wide releases. Here we address whether localized releases of transgenic insects could provide an alternative, means of population...

Data from: Synchronous diversification of Sulawesi's iconic artiodactyls driven by recent geological events

Laurent A. F. Frantz, Anna Rudzinski, Abang Mansyursyah Surya Nugraha, Allowen Evin, James Burton, Ardern Hulme-Beaman, Anna Linderholm, Ross Barnett, Rodrigo Vega, Evan K. Irving-Pease, James Haile, Richard Allen, Kristin Leus, Jill Shephard, Mia Hillyer, Sarah Gillemot, Jeroen Van Den Hurk, Sharron Ogle, Cristina Atofanei, Mark G. Thomas, Friederike Johansson, Abdul Haris Mustari, John Williams, Kusdiantoro Mohamad, Chandramaya Siska Damayanti … & Greger Larson
The high degree of endemism on Sulawesi has previously been suggested to have vicariant origins, dating back 40 Myr ago. Recent studies, however, suggest that much of Sulawesi’s fauna assembled over the last 15 Myr. Here, we test the hypothesis that more recent uplift of previously submerged portions of land on Sulawesi promoted diversification, and that much of its faunal assemblage is much younger than the island itself. To do so, we combined palaeogeographical reconstructions...

Data from: Low siring success of females with an acquired male function illustrates the legacy of sexual dimorphism in constraining the breakdown of dioecy

Luis Santos Del Blanco, Eleri Tudor & John R. Pannell
Evolutionary transitions from dioecy to functional hermaphroditism must overcome the inertia of sexual dimorphism because modified males or females will express the opposite sexual function for which their phenotypes have been optimized. We tested this prediction by assessing the siring success of monoecious individuals of the plant Mercurialis annua with an acquired male function but that are phenotypically still female-like. We found that pollen dispersed by female-like monoecious individuals was ~ 1/3 poorer at siring...

Data from: Variation in defence strategies in the metal hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens is indicative of synergies and trade-offs between forms of defence

Helen N. Fones, Gail M. Preston & J. Andrew C. Smith
The metal hyperaccumulator, N. caerulescens, uses metals as a defence against pathogens. Earlier work has suggested both trade-offs and synergies between metals and inducible defences. Different populations of N. caerulescens vary in metal accumulation. Here, we test the hypothesis that this produces different outcomes in trade-offs between defences. We compare zinc concentrations, glucosinolate concentrations, and inducible stress responses, including ROS and cell death, in four N. caerulescens populations, and relate these to the growth of...

Data from: The insect-focused classification of fruit syndromes in tropical rainforests: an inter-continental comparison

Chris Dahl, Richard Ctvrtecka, Sofia Gripenberg, Owen T. Lewis, Simon T. Segar, Petr Klimes, Katerina Sam, Dominic Rinan, Jonah Filip, Roll Lilip, Pitoon Kongnoo, Montarika Panmeng, Sutipun Putnaul, Manat Reungaew, Marleny Rivera, Hector Barrios, Stuart J. Davies, Sarayudh Bunyavejchewin, Joseph S. Wright, George D. Weiblen, Vojtech Novotny & Yves Basset.
We propose a new classification of rainforest plants into eight fruit syndromes, based on fruit morphology and other traits relevant to fruit-feeding insects. This classification is compared with other systems based on plant morphology or traits relevant to vertebrate fruit dispersers. Our syndromes are based on fruits sampled from 1,192 plant species at three Forest Global Earth Observatory plots: Barro Colorado Island (Panama), Khao Chong (Thailand) and Wanang (Papua New Guinea). The three plots differed...

Data from: Completing the hybridization triangle: the inheritance of genetic incompatibilities during homoploid hybrid speciation in ragworts (Senecio).

Adrian C. Brennan, Simon J. Hiscock & Richard J. Abbott
A new homoploid hybrid lineage needs to establish a degree of reproductive isolation from its parent species if it is to persist as an independent entity, but the role hybridization plays in this process is known in only a handful of cases. The homoploid hybrid ragwort species, Senecio squalidus, (Oxford ragwort) originated following the introduction of hybrid plants to the UK approximately 320 years ago. The source of the hybrid plants was from a naturally...

Data from: No evidence for sibling or parent-offspring coadaptation in a wild population of blue tits, despite high power.

Caroline Thomson, Jarrod D. Hadfield & Caroline E. Thomson
Parent and offspring behaviours are expected to act as both the agents and targets of selection. This may generate parent-offspring coadaptation in which parent and offspring behaviours become genetically correlated in a way that increases inclusive fitness. Cross-fostering has been used to study parent-offspring coadaptation, with the prediction that offspring raised by non-relatives, or parents raising non-relatives, should suffer fitness costs. Using long-term data from more than 400 partially crossed broods of blue tits (Cyanistes...

Microclimate proxy measurements from a logging gradient in Malaysian Borneo

B. Blonder, S. Both, D.A. Coomes, D.M.O. Elias, T. Jucker, J. Kvasnica, N. Majalap, Y.S. Malhi, T. Riutta & M. Svátek
Temperatures recorded 5cm above the forest floor in a gridded design (1 to 13m distance) within three, 1 hectare forest plots in Sabah, Borneo. The dataset also includes air temperature data from a nearby weather station at the same temporal resolution, and spatially-interpolated measurements of topography and canopy structure in each forest plot at a 1m resolution. iButton temperature measurement 5cm above the forest floor in gridded design (1-13m distance) within three 1-ha forest plots...

Strain measurements on 21 trees in Wytham Woods, UK

T. Jackson
This data contains the strain and wind data collected for 21 trees in Wytham Woods, a mature temperate woodland in southern England, from September 2015 to June 2016. This data was collected in order to (a) extract the resonant frequencies of trees, (b) to estimate the critical wind speeds at which the trees would break and (c) to test a finite element model of tree-wind dynamics. The strain data was collected at 4Hz using two...

Avifauna occurrence data from a longitudinal experiment in human-modified Amazonian forests affected by the 2015-16 El Niño drought and associated fires

A. Lees, N. Moura, F.M. Franca, J.N. Ferreira, T. Gardner, E. Berenguer, L. Chesini, C. Andertti & J. Barlow
This data set includes longitudinal occurrence of bird species at 36 forest plots – half of which burned during the 2015-16 El Niño drought – distributed across a gradient of prior human disturbance in the Brazilian Amazon. Data was collected in 2010 and 2016 (around 6 years before, and one year after the 2015-16 El Niño, respectively) as part of the projects ‘Assessing ENSO-induced Fire Impacts in tropical Rainforest Ecosystems’ (AFIRE) and ‘Biodiversity and Ecosystem...

Data from: Mutual fitness benefits arise during coevolution in a nematode-defensive microbe model

Charlotte Rafaluk-Mohr, Ben Ashby, Dylan A. Dahan & Kayla C. King
Species interactions can shift along the parasitism-mutualism continuum. However, the consequences of these transitions for coevolutionary interactions remain unclear. We experimentally coevolved a novel species interaction between Caenorhabditis elegans hosts and a mildly parasitic bacterium, Enterococcus faecalis, with host-protective properties against virulent Staphylococcus aureus. Coinfections drove the evolutionary transition of the C.elegans-E. faecalis relationship towards a reciprocally beneficial interaction. As E. faecalis evolved to protect nematodes against S. aureus infection, hosts adapted by accommodating greater...

Data from: The importance of competition for light depends on productivity and disturbance

Yann Hautier, Eva Vojtech & Andy Hector
Eutrophication is a major cause of biodiversity loss. In grasslands this appears to occur due to asymmetric competition for light following the increases in aboveground biomass production. Here, we report the results of an experiment with five grass species that tests how well competitive outcomes can be predicted under a factorial combination of fertilized and disturbed (frequent cutting) conditions. Under fertile conditions our results confirm earlier success in predicting short-term competitive outcomes based on light...

Data from: Zebra diel migrations reduce encounter risk with lions at night.

Nicolas Courbin, Andrew J. Loveridge, Herve Fritz, David W. Macdonald, Rémi Patin, Marion Valeix & Simon Chamaillé-Jammes
1. Diel migrations (DM; back and forth diel movements along an ecological gradient) undertaken by prey to avoid predators during the day have been demonstrated in many taxa in aquatic ecosystems. In terrestrial ecosystems, prey often shift between various vegetation types whose cover determine their vulnerability (i.e. likelihood of being killed when attacked). 2. We conceptualized that in terrestrial ecosystems DM could also occur, and that the contribution of DM and shifts in vegetation cover...

Data from: Acoustic stability in hyrax snorts: vocal tightrope-walkers or wrathful verbal assailants?

Yishai A. Weissman, Vlad Demartsev, Amiyaal Ilany, Adi Barocas, Einat Bar-Ziv, Inbar Shnitser, Eli Geffen, Lee Koren & Inbar Shnitzer
The source-filter theory proposes that information on caller properties is communicated through acoustic qualities, as physical state and performance ability are reflected in the voice. Vocal stability, manifested through harshness is especially intriguing, and has rarely been explored although harsh sounds are prevalent in nature. Male rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis) produce loud complex calls that we term songs. Only the calls of older, socially dominant males, include a harsh sound termed snort. As snorts are...

Data from: Positive effects of liana cutting on seedlings are reduced during El Niño-induced drought

Michael J. O'Brien, Christopher D. Philipson, Glen Reynolds, Dzaeman Dzulkifli, Jake L. Snaddon, Robert Ong & Andy Hector
1. Liana cutting is a management practice currently applied to encourage seedling regeneration and tree growth in some logged tropical forests. However, there is limited empirical evidence of its effects on forest demographic rates in Southeast Asia. 2. We used 22 four-hectare plots in the Sabah Biodiversity Experiment (a reduced impact logging site) enrichment line planted with 16 dipterocarp species to assess the effects of complete liana cutting on tree growth and survival. We compared...

Data from: Aeroecology of a solar eclipse

Cecilia Nilsson, Kyle G. Horton, Adriaan M. Dokter, Benjamin M. Van Doren & Andrew Farnsworth
Light cues elicit strong responses from nearly all forms of life, perhaps most notably as circadian rhythms entrained by periods of daylight and darkness. Atypical periods of darkness, like solar eclipses, provide rare opportunities to study biological responses to light cues. By using a continental scale radar network, we investigated responses of flying animals to the total solar eclipse of 21 August 2017. We quantified the number of biological targets in the atmosphere at 143...

Data from: Warming impacts on early life stages increase the vulnerability and delay the population recovery of a long-lived habitat-forming macroalga

Pol Capdevila, Bernat Hereu, Roberto Salguero-Gómez, Graciel·La Rovira, Alba Medrano, Emma Cebrian, Joaquim Garrabou, Diego K. Kersting & Cristina Linares
1. Understanding the combined effects of global and local stressors is crucial for conservation and management, yet challenging due to the different scales at which these stressors operate. Here we examine the effects of one of the most pervasive threats to marine biodiversity, ocean warming, on the early life stages of the habitat-forming macroalga Cystoseira zosteroides, its long-term consequences for population resilience and its combined effect with physical stressors. 2. First, we performed a controlled...

Data from: Tropical dung beetle morphological traits predict functional traits and show intra-specific differences across land uses

Elizabeth H. Raine, Claudia L. Gray, Darren J. Mann & Eleanor M. Slade
1. Functional traits and functional diversity measures are increasingly being used to examine land use effects on biodiversity and community assembly rules. 2. Morphological traits are frequently derived from a mean value of many individuals, and used directly as functional traits. However, this approach overlooks the importance of intraspecific differences. 3. We collected morphometric data from over 1700 individuals of 12 species of dung beetle to establish whether morphological measurements can be used as predictors...

Data from: Demography and social dynamics of an African elephant population 35 years after reintroduction as juveniles

Timothy R. Kuiper, Dave J. Druce & Heleen C. Druce
1. Given their vulnerability to local extinction, the reintroduction of megafauna species (often long-lived, ecologically-influential and highly-social) is an increasingly relevant conservation intervention. Studies that evaluate past megafauna reintroductions are both critical and rare. 2. Between 1981 and 1996, 12 cohorts of a total of 200 juvenile (<5 years old) African savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana africana) were re-introduced to Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park (HiP), South Africa, after 100 years of absence. Here we model the population’s long...

Data from: A new phylogenetic hypothesis of turtles with implications for the timing and number of evolutionary transitions to marine lifestyles in the group

Serjoscha W. Evers & Roger B. J. Benson
Evolutionary transitions to marine habitats occurred frequently among Mesozoic reptiles. Only one such clade survives to the present: sea turtles (Chelonioidea). Other marine turtles originated during the Mesozoic, but uncertain affinities of key fossils have obscured the number of transitions to marine life, and the timing of the origin of marine adaptation in chelonioids. Phylogenetic studies support either a highly‐inclusive chelonioid total‐group including fossil marine clades from the Jurassic and Cretaceous (e.g. protostegids, thalassochelydians, sandownids)...

Data from: Multi-proxy evidence highlights a complex evolutionary legacy of maize in South America

Logan Kistler, S. Yoshi Maezumi, Jonas Gregorio De Souza, Natalia A. S. Przelomska, Flaviane Malaquias Costa, Oliver Smith, Hope Loiselle, Jazmín Ramos-Madrigal, Nathan Wales, Eduardo Rivail Ribeiro, Ryan R. Morrison, Claudia Grimaldo, Andre P. Prous, Bernardo Arriaza, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Fabio De Oliveira Freitas & Robin G. Allaby
Domesticated maize evolved from wild teosinte under human influences in Mexico beginning around 9,000 BP, traversed Central America by ~7,500 BP, and spread into South America by ~6,500 BP. Landrace and archaeological maize genomes from South America suggest that the ancestral population to South American maize was brought out of the domestication center in Mexico and became isolated from the wild teosinte gene pool before traits of domesticated maize were fixed. Deeply structured lineages then...

Data from: A high density SNP chip for genotyping great tit (Parus major) populations and its application to studying the genetic architecture of exploration behaviour

Jun-Mo Kim, Anna W. Santure, Henry J. Barton, John L. Quinn, Eleanor F. Cole, Marcel E. Visser, Ben C. Sheldon, Martien A.M. Groenen, Kees Van Oers, Jon Slate & J.-M. Kim
High density SNP microarrays (‘SNP chips’) are a rapid, accurate and efficient method for genotyping several hundred thousand polymorphisms in large numbers of individuals. While SNP chips are routinely used in human genetics and in animal and plant breeding, they are less widely used in evolutionary and ecological research. In this paper we describe the development and application of a high density Affymetrix Axiom chip with around 500 000 SNPs, designed to perform genomics studies...

Data from: Shock and stabilisation following long-term drought in tropical forest from 15 years of litterfall dynamics

Lucy Rowland, Antonio C. L. Da Costa, Alex A. R. Oliveira, Samuel S. Almeida, Leandro V. Ferreira, Yadvinder Malhi, Dan B. Metcalfe, Maurizio Mencuccini, John Grace & Patrick Meir
Litterfall dynamics in tropical forests are a good indicator of overall tropical forest function, indicative of carbon invested in both photosynthesising tissues and reproductive organs such as flowers and fruits. These dynamics are sensitive to changes in climate, such as drought, but little is known about the long-term responses of tropical forest litterfall dynamics to extended drought stress. We present a 15-year dataset of litterfall (leaf, flower and fruit, and twigs) from the world's only...

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  • University of Oxford
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  • University of Zurich
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  • University of Minnesota
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  • Australian National University
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  • University of Edinburgh
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  • University of Exeter
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  • Durham University
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  • University of Sheffield
    3
  • National Museum
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  • University of Sussex
    2