98 Works

Single cell transcriptomics of of Abedinium reveals a new early-branching dinoflagellate lineage

Elizabeth Cooney, Noriko Okamoto, Anna Cho, Elisabeth Hehenberger, Thomas Richards, Alexandra Worden, Alyson Santoro, Brian Leander & Patrick Keeling
Dinoflagellates possess many unique cellular characteristics with unresolved evolutionary histories including nuclei with greatly expanded genomes and chromatin packaged using histone-like proteins and dinoflagellate-viral nucleoproteins instead of histones, highly reduced mitochondrial genomes with extensive RNA editing, a mix of photosynthetic and cryptic secondary plastids, and tertiary plastids. Resolving the evolutionary origin of these traits requires understanding their ancestral states and early intermediates. Several deep-branching dinoflagellate lineages are good candidates for such reconstruction, however they tend...

Controlled packing and single-droplet resolution of 3D-printed functional synthetic tissues

Alessandro Alcinesio, Ravinash Krishna Kumar, Carina Monico, Idil Cazimoglu, Hagan Bayley, Oliver J. Meacock, Rebecca G. Allan, Matthew T. Cornall & Vanessa Restrepo Schild
3D-printing networks of droplets connected by interface bilayers is a powerful platform to build synthetic tissues, in which functionality relies on precisely ordered structures. However, the structural precision and consistency in assembling these structures is currently limited, which restricts intricate designs and the complexity of functions performed by synthetic tissues. Here, we report that the equilibrium contact angle (θDIB) between a pair of droplets is a key parameter that dictates the tessellation and precise positioning...

Physiological responses of rosewoods Dalbergia cochinchinensis and D. oliveri under drought and heat stresses

Tin Hang Hung, Rosemary Gooda, Gabriele Rizzuto, Thea So, Bansa Thammavong, Hoa Tri Tran, Riina Jalonen, David Boshier & John MacKay
Dalbergia cochinchinensis and D. oliveri are classified as vulnerable and endangered respectively in the IUCN Red List and under continued threat from deforestation and illegal harvesting for rosewood. Despite emerging efforts to conserve and restore these species, little is known of their responses to drought and heat stress, which are expected to increase in the Greater Mekong Subregion where the species co-occur and are endemic. In this study of isolated and combined drought and heat...

Causes and consequences of an unusually male-biased adult sex ratio in an unmanaged feral horse population

Charlotte Regan, Sarah Medill, Jocelyn Poissant & Philip McLoughlin
1. The adult sex ratio (ASR) is important within ecology due to its predicted effects on behaviour, demography, and evolution, but research examining the causes and consequences of ASR bias have lagged behind studies of sex ratios at earlier life stages. Although ungulate ASR is relatively well-studied, exceptions to the usual female-biased ASR challenge our understanding of the underlying drivers of biased ASR, and provide an opportunity to better understand its consequences. 2. Some feral...

Do meristic characters used in phylogenetic analysis evolve in an ordered manner?

Neil Brocklehurst & Yara Haridy
The use of ordered characters in phylogenetic analysis has been inconsistent through research history. It has become more widespread in recent years, and some have advocated that all characters representing continuous or meristic traits should be ordered as a matter of course. Here, using the example of dental evolution, we examine two factors that may impact on whether meristic characters actually evolve in an ordered manner: the regulatory hierarchy governing the development of teeth that...

Supplementary information for: The effects of geographic range size and abundance on extinction during a time of ‘sluggish’ evolution

Michelle Casey, Erin Saupe & Bruce Lieberman
Geographic range size and abundance are important determinants of extinction risk in fossil and extant taxa. However, the relationship between these variables and extinction risk has not been tested extensively during evolutionarily ‘quiescent’ times of low extinction and speciation in the fossil record. Here we examine the influence of geographic range size and abundance on extinction risk during the late Paleozoic (Mississippian–Permian), a time of ‘sluggish’ evolution when global rates of origination and extinction were...

Proactive conservation to prevent habitat losses to agricultural expansion

David Williams, Michael Clark, Graeme M. Buchanan, G. Francesco Ficetola, Carlo Rondinini & David Tilman
The projected loss of millions of square kilometres of natural ecosystems to meet future demand for food, animal feed, fibre, and bioenergy crops is likely to massively escalate threats to biodiversity. Reducing these threats requires a detailed knowledge of how and where they are likely to be most severe. We developed a geographically explicit model of future agricultural land clearance based on observed historic changes and combine the outputs with species-specific habitat preferences for 19,859...

Predicting tropical tree mortality with leaf spectroscopy

Chris Doughty, Alexander Cheesman, Terhi Ruitta & Andrew Nottingham
Do tropical trees close to death have a distinct change to their leaf spectral signature? Tree mortality rates have been increasing in tropical forests globally, reducing the global carbon sink. Upcoming hyperspectral satellites could be used to predict regions close to experiencing extensive tree mortality during periods of stress, such as drought. Here we show, for a tropical rainforest in Borneo, how imminent tropical tree mortality impacts leaf physiological traits and reflectance. We measured leaf...

Data from: The latitudinal diversity gradient of tetrapods across the Permo-Triassic mass extinction and recovery interval

Bethany J. Allen, Paul B. Wignall, Daniel J. Hill, Erin E. Saupe & Alexander M. Dunhill
The decline in species richness from the equator to the poles is referred to as the latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG). Higher equatorial diversity has been recognised for over 200 years, but the consistency of this pattern in deep time remains uncertain. Examination of spatial biodiversity patterns in the past across different global climate regimes and continental configurations can reveal how LDGs have varied over Earth history and potentially differentiate between suggested causal mechanisms. The Late...

Anopheles stephensi occurrence data 1985 - 2019

Marianne Sinka, Samuel Pironon, Nicola Massey, Joshua Longbottom, Janet Hemingway, Catherine Moyes & Katherine Willis
In 2012, an unusual outbreak of malaria occurred in Djibouti City followed by increasingly severe annual outbreaks. Investigations revealed the presence of an Asian mosquito species; Anopheles stephensi, which thrives in urban environments. Anopheles stephensi has since been identified in Ethiopia and Sudan. By combining data for An. stephensi across its full range (Asia, Arabian Peninsula, Horn of Africa) with spatial models that identify the species’ preferred habitat, we provide evidence-based maps predicting the possible...

Code and data for: Familiarity breeds success: pairs that meet earlier experience increased breeding performance in a wild bird population

Antica Culina, Josh Firth & Camilla Hinde
This is a Data package that contains three separate datasets and the analysis code for a manuscript 'Familiarity breeds success: pairs that meet earlier experience increased breeding performance in a wild bird population '. The first Dataset (pairs_data_2007_10) and the second dataset (pairs_data_2011_14) contain the data used to analyse the influence of meeting time of a pair of Great tits (i.e. month in the first dataset, week in the second dataset, when a pair was...

Data from: Visualizing connectivity of ecological and evolutionary concepts – an exploration of research on plant species rarity

Jennifer Boyd, Thomas Wiegand, Braley Gentry, Zachary McCoy, Craig Tanis, Hope Klug & Michael Bonsall
Understanding the ecological and evolutionary factors that influence species rarity has important theoretical and applied implications, yet the reasons why some species are rare while others are common remain unresolved. As a novel exploration of scientific knowledge, we used network analysis conceptually to visualize the foci of a comprehensive base of >800 studies on plant species rarity within the context of ecology and evolution. In doing so, we highlight existing research strengths that could substantiate...

Vector bionomics and vectorial capacity as emergent properties of mosquito behaviors and ecology

Sean Wu, Penny Hancock, Arnaud Le Menach, Tanya Russell, Thomas Burkot, , Derek Cummings, Kelly Compton, Daniel Citron, John Marshall, Biyonka Liang, Catherine Moyes, Qian Zhang, David Smith, Samson Kiware, Anne Wilson, Thomas Scott, John Henry, Steven Lindsay, Amit Verma & Hector Sanchez C.
Mosquitoes are important vectors for pathogens that infect humans and other vertebrate animals. Some aspects of adult mosquito behavior and mosquito ecology play an important role in determining the capacity of vector populations to transmit pathogens. Here, we re-examine factors affecting the transmission of pathogens by mosquitoes using a new approach. Unlike most previous models, this framework considers the behavioral states and state transitions of adult mosquitoes through a sequence of activity bouts. We developed...

The apparent exponential radiation of Phanerozoic land vertebrates is an artefact of spatial sampling biases

Roger Close, Roger Benson, John Alroy, Matthew Carrano, Terri Cleary, Emma Dunne, Philip Mannion, Mark Uhen & Richard Butler
There is no consensus about how terrestrial biodiversity was assembled through deep time, and in particular whether it has risen exponentially over the Phanerozoic. Using a database of 38,711 fossil occurrences, we show that the spatial extent of the ‘global’ terrestrial tetrapod fossil record itself expands exponentially through the Phanerozoic, and that this spatial variation explains around 75% of the variation in known fossil species counts. Controlling for this bias, we find that regional-scale terrestrial...

Data from: Genome-wide association analysis of type 2 diabetes in the EPIC-InterAct study

Lina Cai, Eleanor Wheeler, Nicola D. Kerrison, Jian'an Luan, Panos Deloukas, Paul W. Franks, Pilar Amiano, Eva Ardanaz, Catalina Bonet, Guy Fagherazzi, Leif C. Groop, Rudolf Kaaks, José María Huerta, Giovanna Masala, Peter M. Nilsson, Kim Overvad, Valeria Pala, Salvatore Panico, Miguel Rodriguez-Barranco, Olov Rolandsson, Carlotta Sacerdote, Matthias B. Schulze, Annemieke M.W. Spijkeman, Anne Tjonneland, Rosario Tumino … & Nicholas J. Wareham
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a global public health challenge. Whilst the advent of genome-wide association studies has identified >400 genetic variants associated with T2D, our understanding of its biological mechanisms and translational insights is still limited. The EPIC-InterAct project, centred in 8 countries in the European Prospective Investigations into Cancer and Nutrition study, is one of the largest prospective studies of T2D. Established as a nested case-cohort study to investigate the interplay between genetic...

Effect of ecological factors on fine-scale patterns of social structure in African lions

Moreangels Mbizah, Damien Farine, Marion Valeix, Jane Hunt, David Macdonald & Andrew Loveridge
1. Environmental variations can influence the extent to which individuals interact with other individuals by changing the value of grouping. It is well known that many species can form and disband groups, often in response to the distribution and abundance of resources. 2. While previous studies showed that resources influence the broad-scale structure of animal groups, knowledge gaps remain on whether they affect fine-scale patterns of association among individuals within groups. 3. We quantify association...

Data from: Complexity of frequency receptive fields predicts tonotopic variability across species

Quentin Gaucher, Mariangela Panniello, Aleksandar Ivanov, Johannes Dahmen, Andrew King & Kerry Walker
Primary cortical areas contain maps of sensory features, including sound frequency in primary auditory cortex (A1). Two-photon calcium imaging in mice has confirmed the presence of these global tonotopic maps, while uncovering an unexpected local variability in the stimulus preferences of individual neurons in A1 and other primary regions. Here we show that local heterogeneity of frequency preferences is not unique to rodents. Using two-photon calcium imaging in layers 2/3, we found that local variance...

Data from: Exploring movement decisions: can Bayesian movement-state models explain crop consumption behaviour in elephants (Loxodonta africana)?

Susanne Vogel, Ben Lambert, Anna Songhurst, Graham McCulloch, Amanda Stronza & Tim Coulson
1. Animal movements towards goals or targets are based upon either maximization of resources or risk avoidance, and the way animals move can reveal information about their motivation for movement. 2. We use Bayesian movement models and hourly GPS-fixes to distinguish animal movements into movement states and analyse the influence of environmental variables on being in and switching to a state. Specifically, we apply our models to understand elephant movement decisions surrounding agricultural fields and...

Ant-hill heterogeneity and grassland management

Timothy King
1. In many grasslands, some ants act as ecological engineers to produce long-lasting soil structures which have a considerable influence on the patterns and dynamics of plant, vertebrate and invertebrate species. They promote species richness and diversity. 2. The yellow meadow ant, Lasius flavus, is the most abundant allogenic ecological engineer in grazed European grasslands, producing vegetated long-lasting mounds. Its ratio of influence to biomass is remarkably high. Grassland restoration projects frequently attempt to re-introduce...

Data from: An assay to investigate factors influencing initial orientation in nocturnally fledging seabirds.

Martyna Syposz, Oliver Padget, Joe Wynn, Natasha Gillies, Annette Fayet & Tim Guilford
The first solitary migration of juvenile birds is difficult to study because of a low juvenile survival rates and sometimes long delays in return to the breeding grounds. Consequently, little is known about this crucial life event for many bird species, in particular the sensory guidance mechanisms facilitating the first migratory journey. Initial orientation during the first migration is a key measure to investigate these mechanisms. Here, we developed an assay to measure initial orientation...

Gro for GooD Rainfall Data from 23 Manual Rain Gauges, Kwale County, Kenya

Calvince Wara, Patrick Thomson, Jacob Katuva & Mike Thomas
The dataset consists of daily rainfall data for 23 manual rain gauge stations installed by Gro for GooD project within and about the study area. The installed stations covering four river catchments name Ramisi River, Mukurumudzi River, Mtawa River and Mwachema River in Kwale County. The dataset period is from January 2016 to November 2018. Gro for GooD - Groundwater Risk Management for Growth and Development.

South African Census 2001, CASASP imputed data

Drosophila-parasitoid interactions along an elevation gradient in an Australian rainforest, 2016

C.T. Jeffs, J.C.D. Terry, M. Higgie, A. Jandová, H. Konvičková, J.J. Brown, C-H. Lue, M. Schiffer, E.K. O’Brien, J. Bridle, J. Hrček & O.T. Lewis
The dataset contains records of Drosophila flies and associated parasitic wasps collected along two elevational (temperature) gradients from Australian rainforest site. The data is presented at the individual Drosophila pupae level. It describes patterns of parasitism levels from 14 sites and the structure of quantitative food webs at six sites. Also included are temperature records from each site.

Reconstructing Ecological Niche Evolution via Ancestral State Reconstruction with Uncertainty Incorporated

Hannah Owens, Vivian Ribiero, Erin Saupe, Marlon E. Cobos, Peter Hosner, Jacob Cooper, Abdallah Samy, Vijay Barve, Narayani Barve, Carlos Muñoz & A. Townsend Peterson
Reconstructing ecological niche evolution can provide insight into the biogeography and diversification of evolving lineages. However, comparative phylogenetic methods can infer the history of ecological niche evolution inaccurately because (1) species’ niches are often poorly characterized; and (2) phylogenetic comparative methods rely on niche summary statistics rather than full estimates of species’ environmental tolerances. Here we propose a new framework for coding ecological niches and reconstructing their evolution that explicitly acknowledges and incorporates the uncertainty...

Support for the habitat amount hypothesis from a global synthesis of species density studies

James Watling, Víctor Arroyo-Rodríguez, Marion Pfeifer, Lander Baeten, Cristina Banks-Leite, Laura Cisneros, Rebecca Fang, Caroli Hamel-Leigue, Thibault Lachat, Inara Leal, Luc Lens, Hugh Possingham, Dinarzarde Raheem, Danilo Ribeiro, Eleanor Slade, Nicolas Urbina-Cardona, Eric Wood & Lenore Fahrig
Decades of research suggest that species richness depends on spatial characteristics of habitat patches, especially their size and isolation. In contrast, the habitat amount hypothesis predicts that: 1) species richness in plots of fixed size (species density) is more strongly and positively related to the amount of habitat around the plot than to patch size or isolation; 2) habitat amount better predicts species density than patch size and isolation combined, 3) there is no effect...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    98

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    98

Affiliations

  • University of Oxford
    98
  • Imperial College London
    11
  • University of Cambridge
    6
  • University of Leeds
    6
  • University of Birmingham
    6
  • University of Exeter
    5
  • University of Copenhagen
    4
  • University of Sheffield
    4
  • University of Southampton
    3
  • Anglia Ruskin University
    2