98 Works

A large-scale assessment of plant dispersal mode and seed traits across human-modified Amazonian forests

Joseph Hawes, Ima Vieira, Luiz Magnago, Erika Berenguer, Joice Ferreira, Luiz Aragão, Amanda Cardoso, Alexander Lees, Gareth Lennox, Joseph Tobias, Anthony Waldron & Jos Barlow
1. Quantifying the impact of habitat disturbance on ecosystem function is critical for understanding and predicting the future of tropical forests. Many studies have examined post-disturbance changes in animal traits related to mutualistic interactions with plants, but the effect of disturbance on plant traits in diverse forests has received much less attention. 2. Focusing on two study regions in the eastern Brazilian Amazon, we used a trait-based approach to examine how seed dispersal functionality within...

Data from: Tracing the patterns of non-marine turtle richness from Triassic–Palaeogene: from origin through global spread

Terri Cleary, Roger Benson, Patricia Holroyd & Paul Barrett
Turtles are key components of modern vertebrate faunas and it is predicted that their diversity and distributions will be affected by anthropogenic climate change. Despite this, few studies have attempted to provide baseline data on turtle taxonomic richness through time or assess their past responses to global environmental change. We used the extensive Triassic–Palaeogene (252–23 Ma) fossil record of terrestrial and freshwater turtles to investigate diversity patterns, finding substantial variation in richness through time and...

Multiple factors affect discrimination learning performance, but not between-individual variation, in wild mixed-species flocks of birds

Michael Reichert, Sam Crofts, Gabrielle Davidson, Josh Firth, Ipek Kulahci & John Quinn
Cognition arguably drives most behaviours in animals, but whether and why individuals in the wild vary consistently in their cognitive performance is scarcely known, especially under mixed-species scenarios. One reason for this is that quantifying the relative importance of individual, contextual, ecological and social factors remains a major challenge. We examined how many of these factors, and sources of bias, affected participation, and performance, in an initial discrimination learning experiment and two reversal learning experiments...

Structure analysis of a p53 fusion protein

Michael Landreh
The tumor suppressor p53 is a key target for cancer therapy, but its low expression levels, poor conformational stability, and high degree of disorder remain major challenges to its structural investigation. Here, we address these issues by fusing the N-terminal transactivation domain of p53 to an engineered spider silk domain termed NT*. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the disordered transactivation domain of p53 wraps around the NT* domain via a series of folding events, resulting...

Data from: Social effects on age-related and sex-specific immune cell profiles in a wild mammal

Sil Van Lieshout, Elisa Perez Badás, Michael Mason, Chris Newman, Christina Buesching, David Macdonald & Hannah Dugdale
Evidence for age-related changes in innate and adaptive immune responses is increasing in wild populations. Such changes have been linked to fitness, and knowledge of the factors driving immune response variation is important for understanding the evolution of immunity. Age-related changes in immune profiles may be due to factors such as immune system development, sex-specific behaviour and responses to environmental conditions. Social environments may also contribute to variation in immunological responses, for example, through transmission...

Data for: Three-dimensional characterization of osteocyte volumes at multiple scales, and its relationship with bone biology and genome evolution in ray-finned fishes

Donald Davesne, Armin Schmitt, Vincent Fernandez, Roger Benson & Sophie Sanchez
Osteocytes, cells embedded within the bone mineral matrix, inform on key aspects of vertebrate biology. In particular, a relationship between volumes of the osteocytes and bone growth and/or genome size has been proposed for several tetrapod lineages. However, the variation in osteocyte volume across different scales is poorly characterised, and mostly relies on incomplete, two-dimensional information. In this study, we characterise the variation of osteocyte volumes in ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii), a clade including more than...

A novel method for using RNA-seq data to identify imprinted genes in social Hymenoptera with multiply mated queens

Jack Howe, Morten Schiøtt, Qiye Li, Zongji Wang, Guojie Zhang & Jacobus Boomsma
Genomic imprinting results in parent-of-origin dependent gene expression biased towards either the maternally- or paternally-derived allele at the imprinted locus. The kinship theory of genomic imprinting argues that this unusual expression pattern is a manifestation of intra-genomic conflict between the maternally- and paternally-derived halves of the genome that arises because they are not equally related to the genomes of social partners. The theory thus predicts that imprinting may evolve wherever there are close interactions among...

Fast and furious: Early differences in growth rate drive short-term plant dominance and exclusion under eutrophication

Yann Hautier, Zhang Pengfei, Mariet Hefting, Merel Soons, George Kowalchuk, Mark Rees, Andrew Hector, Lindsay Turnbull, Xiaolong Zhou, Zhi Guo, Chengjin Chu, Guozhen Du & Yann Hautier
1. The reduction of plant diversity following eutrophication threatens many ecosystems worldwide. Yet, the mechanisms by which species are lost following nutrient enrichment are still not completely understood, nor are the details of when such mechanisms act during the growing season, which hampers understanding and the development of mitigation strategies. 2. Using a common garden competition experiment, we found that early-season differences in growth rates among five perennial grass species measured in monoculture predicted short-term...

Data from: Temporal dynamics of competitive fertilization in social groups of red junglefowl (Gallus gallus) shed new light on avian sperm competition

Rômulo Carleial, Grant C. McDonald, Lewis G. Spurgin, Eleanor A. Fairfield, Yunke Wang, David S. Richardson & Tommaso Pizzari
Studies of birds have made a fundamental contribution to elucidating sperm competition processes, experimentally demonstrating the role of individual mechanisms in competitive fertilisation. However, the relative importance of these mechanisms and the way in which they interact under natural conditions remain largely unexplored. Here, we conduct a detailed behavioural study of freely-mating replicate groups of red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, to predict the probability that competing males fertilise individual eggs over the course of 10-day trials....

Data from: Evolution and epidemic spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Brazil

Darlan S. Candido, Ingra M. Claro, Jaqueline G. De Jesus, William M. Souza, Filipe R. R. Moreira, Simon Dellicour, Thomas A. Mellan, Louis Du Plessis, Rafael H. M. Pereira, Flavia C. S. Sales, Erika R. Manuli, Julien Thézé, Luiz Almeida, Mariane T. Menezes, Carolina M. Voloch, Marcilio J. Fumagalli, Thaís M. Coletti, Camila A. M. Da Silva, Mariana S. Ramundo, Mariene R. Amorim, Henrique H. Hoeltgebaum, Swapnil Mishra, Mandev S. Gill, Luiz M. Carvalho, Lewis F. Buss … & Nuno R. Faria
Brazil currently has one of the fastest growing SARS-CoV-2 epidemics in the world. Owing to limited available data, assessments of the impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) on virus spread remain challenging. Using a mobility-driven transmission model, we show that NPIs reduced the reproduction number from >3 to 1–1.6 in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Sequencing of 427 new genomes and analysis of a geographically representative genomic dataset identified >100 international virus introductions in Brazil....

Data from: Evaluation of the Laguerre-Gaussian mode purity produced by 3D-printed microwave spiral phase plates

Dmitry Isakov, Yingwei Wu, Ben Allen, Chris Stevens, Patrick Grant & Greg Gibbons
Computer-aided design software and additive manufacturing provide flexibility in the direct fabrication of multi-material devices. This design and fabrication versatility has been investigated for the manufacture of dielectric spiral phase plates (SPP) to generate electromagnetic waves with helical wave-fronts. Three types of SPPs designed to produce an orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode number l=|1| were additively manufactured using multi-material extrusion and multijet fabrication methods. The phase mode and mode characteristics of transformed helical microwaves as...

Data from: The costs and benefits of paternal care in fish: a meta-analysis

Rebecca Goldberg, Philip Downing, Ashleigh Griffin & Jonathan Green
Male-only parental care, while rare in most animals, is a widespread strategy within teleost fish. The costs and benefits to males of acting as sole carer are highly variable between fish species making it challenging to determine the selective pressures driving the evolution of male-only care to such a high prevalence. We conducted a phylogenetic meta-analysis to examine the costs and benefits of paternal care across fish species. We found no evidence that providing care...

An interpolated biogeographic framework for tropical Africa using plant species distributions and the physical environment

Cicely Marshall, Jan Wieringa & William Hawthorne
Aim: Existing phytogeographic frameworks for tropical Africa lack either spatial completeness, unit definitions smaller than the regional scale, or a quantitative approach. We investigate whether physical environmental variables can be used to interpolate floristically defined vegetation units, presenting an interpolated, hierarchical, quantitative phytogeographic framework for tropical Africa, which is compared to previously defined regions. Location: Tropical mainland Africa 24°N to 24°S. Taxon: 31,046 vascular plant species and infraspecific taxa. Methods: We calculate a betasim dissimilarity...

Resource pulses influence the spatio-temporal dynamics of a large carnivore population

Femke Broekhuis, Nicholas Elliot, Kosiom Keiwua, Kelvin Koinet, David Macdonald, Niels Mogensen, David Thuo & Arjun Gopalaswamy
Resource availability is a key component in animal ecology, yet the manner in which carnivore populations respond to spatial and temporal fluctuations of resources remains unclear. We take a population-level approach to determine how resource pulses, in this case a temporary hyper-abundance of prey, influence the densities and space-use of cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus. The Maasai Mara in Kenya experiences an annual migration of > 1.4 million wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus and large numbers of zebras Equus...

Aerial attack strategies of hawks hunting bats, and the adaptive benefits of swarming

Caroline Brighton
Aggregation can reduce an individual’s predation risk, by decreasing predator hunting efficiency or displacing predation onto others. Here we explore how the behaviors of predator and prey influence catch success and predation risk in Swainson’s hawks Buteo swainsoni attacking swarming Brazilian free-tailed bats Tadarida brasiliensis on emergence. Lone bats including stragglers have a high relative risk of predation, representing ~5% of the catch but ~0.2% of the population. Attacks on the column were no less...

Trait-similarity and trait-hierarchy jointly determine fine-scale spatial associations of resident and invasive ant species

Mark K. L. Wong, Toby P. N. Tsang, Owen T. Lewis & Benoit Guénard
Interspecific competition, a dominant process structuring ecological communities, is influenced by species' phenotypic differences. Limiting similarity theory holds that species with similar traits should compete intensely ("trait-similarity"). In contrast, competing theories including modern coexistence theory emphasize that species with traits conferring competitive advantages should outcompete others ("trait-hierarchy"). Either or both of these mechanisms may drive competitive exclusion, but their relative importance and interacting effects are rarely studied. Here, we explore empirically whether trait-similarity and trait-hierarchy...

Weekly volume of water pumped for handpumps monitored with Smart Handpump technology, Kwale County, Kenya

Patrick Thomson
This dataset contains a summary of the weekly volumetric output of pumps monitored using Smart Handpump sensors for 2014 and 2015. Grants that permitted the data collection include: Groundwater Risk Management for Growth and Development project (NE/M008894/1) funded by NERC/ESRC/DFID’s UPGro programme; New mobile citizens and waterpoint sustainability in rural Africa (ES/J018120/1) ESRC-DFID; Groundwater Risks and Institutional Responses for Poverty Reduction in Rural Africa (NE/L001950/1) funded by NERC/ESRC/DFID’s UPGro programme Notes: 1. The accuracy of...

Surface and Meteorological Data at Sand Creek, Great Sand Dunes National Park, Colorado, USA in March and April 2019

Joanna Nield, Pauline Delorme, Giles Wiggs & Matthew Baddock
Wind, sediment transport and surface morphological data collected at Sand Creek during a month long field campaign in March and April 2019 to investigate protodune development under bimodal winds. Data is used in the accepted paper ‘Dune initiation in a bimodal wind regime’, Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface, by Delorme, P., Wiggs, G.F.S., Baddock, M.C., Claudin, P., Nield, J.M. and Valdez, A. (accepted 18th September 2020, article reference number 2020JF005757R; https://repository.lboro.ac.uk/articles/Dune_initiation_in_a_bimodal_wind_regime/12973817) Surface morphological data:...

Data and code for: Stochastic bacterial population dynamics restrict the establishment of antibiotic resistance from single cells

Helen K. Alexander & R. Craig MacLean
This dataset contains experimental data and custom R code for likelihood-based model-fitting associated with the manuscript "Stochastic bacterial population dynamics restrict the establishment of antibiotic resistance from single cells". In particular, we estimate the per-cell establishment probability (i.e. probability that a single cell gives rise to a large population) of a resistant strain, in the presence of antibiotics at concentrations below its standard minimum inhibitory concentration. The experiments are conducted here with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while...

Data from: Comparative analysis of the shape and size of the middle ear cavity of turtles reveals no correlation with habitat ecology

Christian Foth, Serjoscha W. Evers, Walter G. Joyce, Virginie S. Volpato & Roger B. J. Benson
The middle ear of turtles differs from other reptiles in being separated into two distinct compartments. Several ideas have been proposed as to why the middle ear is compartmentalized in turtles, most suggesting a relationship with underwater hearing. Extant turtle species span fully marine to strictly terrestrial habitats, and ecomorphological hypotheses of turtle hearing predict that this should correlate with variation in the structure of the middle ear due to differences in the fluid properties...

Behavior data from T-maze assay

Yanying Wu
Dietary magnesium (Mg2+) supplementation can enhance memory in young and aged rats. Memory-enhancing capacity was largely ascribed to increases in hippocampal synaptic density and elevated expression of the NR2B subunit of the NMDA-type glutamate receptor. Here we show that Mg2+ feeding also enhances long-term memory in Drosophila. Normal and Mg2+ enhanced fly memory appears independent of NMDA receptors in the mushroom body and instead requires expression of a conserved CNNM-type Mg2+-efflux transporter encoded by the...

Increased epigenetic diversity and transient epigenetic memory in response to salinity stress in Thlaspi arvense

Yabin Guan, Yupeng Geng, Na Chang, Yuewan Zhao, Xiaoying Qin, Shugang Lu, James Crabbe & Ticao Zhang
Epigenetic diversity could play an important role in adaptive evolution of organisms, especially for plant species occurring in new and stressful environments. Thlaspi arvense (pennycress), a valuable oilseed crop, is widespread in temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. In this study, we investigated the effect of salinity stress on the epigenetic variation of DNA methylation and epigenetic stress memory in pennycress using methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) markers. We examined how the status of DNA methylation...

Data from: A circuit mechanism for decision making biases and NMDA receptor hypofunction

Sean Cavanagh, Norman Lam, John Murray, Laurence Hunt & Steven Kennerley
Decision-making biases can be features of normal behaviour, or deficits underlying neuropsychiatric symptoms. We used behavioural psychophysics, spiking-circuit modelling and pharmacological manipulations to explore decision-making biases during evidence integration. Monkeys showed a pro-variance bias (PVB): a preference to choose options with more variable evidence. The PVB was also present in a spiking circuit model, revealing a potential neural mechanism for this behaviour. To model possible effects of NMDA receptor (NMDA-R) antagonism on this behaviour, we...

The role of boundary length and adjacent patch contrast in guppy mate choice: Dataset, Matlab and R codes

Adelaide Sibeaux, Thomas Camduras & John A. Endler
The presence of various combinations of adjacent colours within polymorphic species’ colour pattern could have a major impact on mate choice. We studied the role of pattern geometry in predicting mate choice in guppies using boundary strength analysis (BSA). BSA estimates the visual contrast intensity between two adjacent colour patches (ΔS) weighted by the lengths of the boundaries between these adjacent colour patches. We measured both the chromatic (hue and saturation) and achromatic (luminance) ΔS...

Teaching and learning in ecology: a horizon scan of emerging challenges and solutions

Zenobia Lewis, Julia Cooke, Yoseph Araya, Karen Bacon, Joanna Bagniewska, Lesley Batty, Tom Bishop, Moya Burns, Magda Charalambous, David Daversa, Liam Dougherty, Miranda Dyson, Adam Fisher, Dan Forman, Cristina Garcia, Ewan Harney, Thomas Hesselberg, Elizabeth John, Robert Knell, Kadmiel Maseyk, Alice Mauchline, Julie Peacock, Angelo Pernetto, Jeremy Pritchard, William Sutherland … & Nicholas Worsfold
We currently face significant, anthropogenic, global environmental challenges and therole of ecologists in mitigating these challenges is arguably more important than ever. Consequently there is an urgent need to recruit and train future generations of ecologists, both those whose main area is ecology, but also those involved in the geological, biological and environmental sciences. Here we present the results of a horizon scanning exercise that identified current and future challenges facing the teaching of ecology,...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    98

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  • Dataset
    98

Affiliations

  • University of Oxford
    98
  • Imperial College London
    11
  • University of Cambridge
    6
  • University of Leeds
    6
  • University of Birmingham
    6
  • University of Exeter
    5
  • University of Copenhagen
    4
  • University of Sheffield
    4
  • University of Southampton
    3
  • Anglia Ruskin University
    2