90 Works

The limits of demographic buffering in coping with environmental variation

Roberto Rodríguez-Caro, Roberto Rodríguez-Caro, Pol Capdevila, Eva Graciá, Jomar Barbosa, Andrés Giménez & Rob Salguero-Gomez
Animal populations have developed multiple strategies to deal with environmental change. Among them, the demographic buffering strategy consists in constraining the temporal variation of the vital rate(s) that most affect(s) the overall performance of the population. Tortoises are known to buffer their temporal variation in adult survival, which typically has the highest contribution to the population growth rate λ, at the expense of a high variability on reproductive rates, which contribute far less to λ....

Air temperature influences early Covid-19 outbreak as indicated by worldwide mortality

Claudio Quilodrán, Mathias Currat & Juan Montoya-Burgos
The Covid-19 outbreak has triggered a global crisis that is challenging governments, health systems and the scientific community worldwide. A central question in the Covid-19 pandemic is whether climatic factors have influenced its progression. To address this question, we used mortality rates during the first three weeks of recorded mortality in 144 countries, during the first wave of the pandemic. We examined the effect of climatic variables, along with the proportion of the population older...

The evolution of size-dependent competitive interactions promotes species coexistence

Jaime Mauricio Anaya-Rojas, Ronald D Bassar, Tomos Potter, Allison Blanchette, Shay Callahan, Nick Framstead, David Reznick & Joseph Travis
1. Theory indicates that competing species coexist in a community when intraspecific competition is stronger than interspecific competition. When body size determines the outcome of competitive interactions between individuals, coexistence depends also on how resource use and the ability to compete for these resources change with body size. Testing coexistence theory in size-structured communities, therefore, requires disentangling the effects of size-dependent competitive abilities and niche shifts. 2. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the evolution...

Genotype data not consistent with clonal transmission of sea turtle fibropapillomatosis or goldfish schwannoma

Máire Ní Leathlobhair, Kelsey Yetsko, Jessica A. Farrell, Carmelo Iaria, Gabriele Marino, David J. Duffy & Elizabeth P. Murchison
Recent discoveries of transmissible cancers in multiple bivalve species suggest that direct transmission of cancer cells within species may be more common than previously thought, particularly in aquatic environments. Fibropapillomatosis occurs with high prevalence in green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) and the geographic range of disease has increased since fibropapillomatosis was first reported in this species. Widespread incidence of schwannomas, benign tumours of Schwann cell origin, reported in aquarium-bred goldfish (Carassius auratus), suggest an infectious...

International media coverage of the Bolivian jaguar trade

Yuhan Li, Melissa Arias, Amy Hinsley & E.J. Milner-Gulland
The trade in jaguar body parts is viewed as an alarming threat to the jaguar, and there is the assumption that Chinese demand is driving the trade. However, there has been little analysis of the discourses around the trade both with respect to the Chinese public, internationally and in source countries. We analysed 298 media articles in Chinese, English and Spanish languages from 2010 to 2019, to understand the disparities in reporting of this jaguar...

Bird strikes at commercial airports explained by citizen science and weather radar data

Cecilia Nilsson, Frank La Sorte, Adriaan Dokter, Kyle Horton, Benjamin Van Doren, Jeffrey Kolodzinski, Judy Shamoun-Baranes & Andrew Farnsworth
1. Aircraft collisions with birds span the entire history of human aviation, including fatal collisions during some of the first powered human flights. Much effort has been expended to reduce such collisions, but increased knowledge about bird movements and species occurrence could dramatically improve decision support and proactive measures to reduce them. Migratory movements of birds pose a unique, often overlooked, threat to aviation that is particularly difficult for individual airports to monitor and predict:...

Both consumptive and non-consumptive effects of predators impact mosquito populations and have implications for disease transmission

Marie C Russell, Catherine M Herzog, Zachary Gajewski, Chloe Ramsay, Fadoua El Moustaid, Michelle V Evans, Trishna Desai, Nicole L Gottdenker, Sara L Hermann, Alison G Power & Andrew C McCall
Predator-prey interactions influence prey traits through both consumptive and non-consumptive effects, and variation in these traits can shape vector-borne disease dynamics. Meta-analysis methods were employed to generate predation effect sizes by different categories of predators and mosquito prey. This analysis showed that multiple families of aquatic predators are effective in consumptively reducing mosquito survival, and that the survival of Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex mosquitoes is negatively impacted by consumptive effects of predators. Mosquito larval size...

The relationship between sternum variation and mode of locomotion in birds

Talia M. Lowi-Merri, Roger B. J. Benson, Santiago Claramunt & David C. Evans
Background: The origin of powered avian flight was a locomotor innovation that expanded the ecological potential of maniraptoran dinosaurs, leading to remarkable variation in modern birds (Neornithes). The avian sternum is the anchor for the major flight muscles and, despite varying widely in morphology, has not been extensively studied from evolutionary or functional perspectives. We quantify sternal variation across a broad phylogenetic scope of birds using 3D geometric morphometrics methods. Using this comprehensive dataset, we...

Data from: Ancestral ecological regime shapes reaction to food limitation in the Least Killifish, Heterandria formosa

Anja Felmy, Jeff Leips & Joseph Travis
Populations with different densities often show genetically-based differences in life histories. The divergent life histories could be driven by several agents of selection, one of which is variation in per-capita food levels. Its relationship with population density is complex, as it depends on overall food availability, individual metabolic demand, and food-independent factors potentially affecting density, such as predation intensity. Here we present a case study of two populations of a small live-bearing freshwater fish, one...

RepeatModeler and RepeatMasker output files

Reuben Nowell, Christopher Wilson, Pedro Almeida, Philipp Schiffer, Diego Fontaneto, Lutz Becks, Fernando Rodriguez, Irina Arkhipova & Timothy Barraclough
Transposable elements (TEs) are selfish genomic parasites whose ability to spread autonomously is facilitated by sexual reproduction in their hosts. If hosts become obligately asexual, TE frequencies and dynamics are predicted to change dramatically, but the long-term outcome is unclear. Here, we test current theory using whole-genome sequence data from eight species of bdelloid rotifers, a class of invertebrates in which males are thus far unknown. Contrary to expectations, we find a variety of active...

Data from: The molecular phylogeny of Chionaster nivalis reveals a novel order of psychrophilic and globally distributed Tremellomycetes (Fungi, Basidiomycota)

Nicholas Irwin, Chantelle Twynstra, Varsha Mathur & Patrick Keeling
Snow and ice present challenging substrates for cellular growth, yet microbial snow communities not only exist, but are diverse and ecologically impactful. These communities are dominated by green algae, but additional organisms, such as fungi, are also abundant and may be important for nutrient cycling, syntrophic interactions, and community structure in general. However, little is known about these non-algal community members, including their taxonomic affiliations. An example of this is Chionaster nivalis, a unicellular fungus...

Data for: Plasmids do not consistently stabilize cooperation across bacteria, but may promote broad pathogen host-range

Anna Dewar
Horizontal gene transfer via plasmids could favour cooperation in bacteria, because transfer of a cooperative gene turns non-cooperative cheats into cooperators. This hypothesis has received support from theoretical, genomic and experimental analyses. In contrast, we show here, with a comparative analysis across 51 diverse species, that genes for extracellular proteins, which are likely to act as cooperative ‘public goods’, were not more likely to be carried on either: (i) plasmids compared to chromosomes; or (ii)...

Anthropogenic land‐use change shapes bird diversity along the eastern Himalayan altitudinal gradient

Ugyen Penjor, Rinzin Jamtsho & Sherub Sherub
Globally, the conversion of natural forest into agricultural land and human settlement has altered avian diversity and structure often leading to functional and/or phylogenetic homogenisation. While the effects of land-use change on avian functional and phylogenetic diversity is well studied in the tropics, it is poorly understood and scarcely studied in the Himalayas, let alone in the eastern Himalayan bird communities. This dataset comprises observations of 336 bird species from a replicated point-count transect survey...

Data from 'Caroline Signori-Müller et al. 2021. Variation of non-structural carbohydrates across the fast-slow continuum in Amazon forest canopy trees. Functional Ecology. DOI: 10.1111/1365-2435.13971'

Caroline Signori-Müller, Rafael S. Oliveira, Julia Valentim Tavares, Francisco Carvalho Diniz, Martin Gilpin, Fernanda de V. Barros, Manuel J. Marca Zevallos, Carlos A. Salas Yupayccana, Alex Nina, Mauro Brum, Timothy R. Baker, Eric G. Cosio, Yadvinder Malhi, Abel Monteagudo Mendoza, Oliver L. Phillips, Lucy Rowland1, Norma Salinas, Rodolfo Vasquez, Maurizio Mencuccini & David Galbraith

More or less? The effect of symbiont density in protective mutualisms

Georgia Drew
Symbionts can provide hosts with effective protection from natural enemies, but it can sometimes come at a cost. It is unclear to what extent the density of symbionts modulates the cost and benefits of conferred protection. Here we use a meta-analysis of 103 effect sizes from a broad taxonomic range of protective symbioses, to show that the degree of both protection and cost afforded to hosts is a positive function of symbiont density. We found...

Exploring the mechanisms of coordinated chick provisioning in the Manx shearwater (Puffinus puffinus)

Natasha Gillies, Chris Tyson, Joe Wynn, Martyna Syposz, Cécile Vansteenberghe & Tim Guilford
Many species that provide care for their offspring in tandem with a partner coordinate their activities to maximise the efficiency of their investment. However, it is not well known exactly how this coordination is achieved. Manx shearwaters Puffinus puffinus are Procellariiform seabirds that exhibit a dual foraging strategy during chick provisioning in which long foraging trips to maintain condition are alternated with short, frequent trips to feed the offspring. This strategy is employed in a...

Date From: The myriad of complex demographic responses of terrestrial mammals to climate change and gaps of knowledge: A global analysis

Maria Paniw, Tamora James, C. Ruth Archer, Gesa Römer, Sam Levin, Aldo Compagnoni, Judy Che-Castaldo, Joanne Bennett, Andrew Mooney, Dylan Childs, Arpat Ozgul, Owen Jones, Jean Burns, Andrew Beckerman, Abir Patwari, Nora Sanchez-Gassen, Tiffany Knight & Roberto Salguero-Gómez
Approximately 25% of mammals are currently threatened with extinction, a risk that is amplified under climate change. Species persistence under climate change is determined by the combined effects of climatic factors on multiple demographic rates (survival, development, reproduction), and hence, population dynamics. Thus, to quantify which species and regions on Earth are most vulnerable to climate-driven extinction, a global understanding of how different demographic rates respond to climate is urgently needed. Here, we perform a...

Data and experiment files from: Payoff-based learning best explains the rate of decline in cooperation across 237 public-goods games

Maxwell Burton-Chellew & Stuart West
What motivates human behaviour in social dilemmas? The results of public goods games are commonly interpreted as showing that humans are altruistically motivated to benefit others. However, there is a competing ‘confused learners’ hypothesis: that individuals start the game either uncertain or mistaken (confused), and then learn from experience how to improve their payoff (payoff-based learning). We: (1) show that these competing hypotheses can be differentiated by how they predict contributions should decline over time;...

Host genotype and genetic diversity shape the evolution of a novel bacterial infection

Alice Ekroth & Kayla King
Pathogens continue to emerge from increased contact with novel host species. Whilst these hosts can represent distinct environments for pathogens, the impacts of host genetic background on how a pathogen evolves post-emergence are unclear. In a novel interaction, we experimentally evolved a pathogen (Staphylococcus aureus) in populations of wild nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans) to test whether host genotype and genetic diversity affect pathogen evolution. After 10 rounds of selection, we found that pathogen virulence evolved to...

Attack behaviour in naive Gyrfalcons is modelled by the same guidance law as in Peregrines, but at a lower guidance gain

Caroline Brighton
The aerial hunting behaviours of birds are strongly influenced by flight morphology and ecology, but little is known of how this relates to the behavioural algorithms guiding flight. Here we use GPS loggers to record the attack trajectories of captive-bred Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) during their maiden flights against robotic aerial targets, which we compare to existing flight data from Peregrines (Falco peregrinus). The attack trajectories of both species are well modelled by a proportional navigation...

Why don't all animals avoid inbreeding?

Victoria Pike, Charlie Cornwallis & Ashleigh Griffin
Individuals are expected to avoid mating with relatives as inbreeding can reduce offspring fitness, a phenomenon known as inbreeding depression. This has led to the widespread assumption that selection will favour individuals that avoid mating with relatives. However, the strength of inbreeding avoidance is variable across species and there are numerous cases where related mates are not avoided. Here we test if the frequency that related males and females encounter each other explains variation in...

Social network centrality predicts dietary decisions in wild great tits

Keith Mc Mahon
Foraging in groups provides many benefits but also carries costs, such as competition. Social individuals can potentially alleviate competition by broadening their dietary niches through incorporating new foods. However, individuals have less information about the nutritional quality, and safety, of novel foods compared to familiar-foods. Individuals experiencing the most competitive social environments might be expected to be most likely to respond by incorporating novel foods, but it has previously been challenging to test directly how...

A reassessment of the enigmatic diapsid Paliguana whitei and the early history of Lepidosauromorpha

David Paul Ford, Susan Evans, Jonah Choiniere, Vincent Fernandez & Roger Benson
Lepidosaurs include lizards, snakes, amphisbaenians and the tuatara, comprising a highly speciose evolutionary radiation with widely varying anatomical traits. Their stem-lineage originated by the late middle Permian 259 million years ago, but its early fossil record is poorly documented, obscuring the origins of key anatomical and functional traits of the group. Paliguana whitei, from the Early Triassic of South Africa, is an enigmatic fossil species with potential to provide information on this. However, its anatomy...

Ocean and ice without waves data for role of surface gravity waves in aquaplanet ocean climates

Joshua Studholme, Margarita Markina & Sergey Gulev
This data corresponds to the runs analysed in the manscript: Role of Surface Gravity Waves in Aquaplanet Ocean Climates (JAMES, 2021). In this work, we present a set of idealised numerical experiments that demonstrate the thermodynamic and dynamic implications of surface gravity waves for the oceanic climate of an aquaplanet. We study the impact of accounting for modulations by such waves upon air-sea momentum fluxes, Langmuir circulation and the Stokes-Coriolis force. This dataset is made...

Videos related to: Noise matters: Elephants show risk-avoidance behaviour in response to human-generated seismic cues

Beth Mortimer, James Walker, David Leaderboard, Michael Reinwald & David Deballen
African elephants (Loxodonta africana) use many sensory modes to gather information about their environment, including the detection of seismic, or ground-based, vibrations. Seismic information is known to include elephant-generated signals, but also potentially encompasses biotic cues that are commonly referred to as ‘noise’. To investigate seismic information transfer in elephants beyond communication, here we tested the hypothesis that wild elephants detect and discriminate between seismic vibrations that differ in their noise types, whether elephant- or...

Registration Year

  • 2021
    90

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    90

Affiliations

  • University of Oxford
    89
  • Yale University
    6
  • University College London
    5
  • Institute of Oceanology. PP Shirshov Russian Academy of Sciences
    4
  • University of Leeds
    4
  • University of Florida
    3
  • University of Georgia
    2
  • University of Groningen
    2
  • University of Cambridge
    2
  • German Center for Integrative Biodiversity Research
    2