90 Works

Auditory cortical representation of music favours the perceived beat

Vani G. Rajendran, Nicol S. Harper & Jan W. H. Schnupp
Previous research has shown that musical beat perception is a surprisingly complex phenomenon involving widespread neural coordination across higher-order sensory, motor, and cognitive areas. However, the question of how low-level auditory processing must necessarily shape these dynamics, and therefore perception, is not well understood. Here, we present evidence that the auditory cortical representation of music, even in the absence of motor or top-down activations, already favors the beat that will be perceived. Extracellular firing rates...

The implications of interrelated assumptions on estimates of divergence times and rates of diversification

Tom Carruthers & Robert Scotland
Phylogenies are increasingly being used as a basis to provide insight into macroevolutionary history. Here, we use simulation experiments and empirical analyses to evaluate methods that use phylogenies as a basis to make estimates of divergence times and rates of diversification. This is the first study to present a comprehensive assessment of the key variables that underpin analyses in this field – including substitution rates, speciation rates, and extinction, plus character sampling and taxon sampling....

Data from: Systematic evaluation of horizontal gene transfer between eukaryotes and viruses

Nicholas Irwin, Alexandros Pittis, Thomas Richards & Patrick Keeling
Gene exchange between viruses and their hosts acts as a key facilitator of horizontal gene transfer and is hypothesized to be a major driver of evolutionary change. Our understanding of this process comes primarily from bacteria and phage co-evolution, but the mode and functional importance of gene transfers between eukaryotes and their viruses remains anecdotal. Here we systematically characterized viral-eukaryotic gene exchange across eukaryotic and viral diversity, identifying thousands of transfers, and revealing their frequency,...

Data from: New information on the Jurassic lepidosauromorph Marmoretta oxoniensis

Elizabeth Griffiths, David Ford, Roger Benson & Susan E. Evans
The earliest known crown-group lepidosaurs are known from the Middle Triassic, however their stem group is poorly sampled, with only a few representative fossils found. This is partly due to the small size and delicate bones of early stem-lepidosaurs (=lepidosauromorphs) which make both preservation in the fossil record and subsequent discovery less likely. The mid Jurassic lepidosauromorph Marmoretta oxoniensis Evans 1991 is re-examined using high-resolution µCT scanning to reveal parts of the skull anatomy that...

Tree phenology - observer intercalibration and individual tree phenological scoring

Nicolas Delpierre, Isabelle Chuine & Eleanor Cole
We report data documenting (1) the dynamics of budburst and leaf senescence in three European natural forest tree populations over the period od 2012-2015 and (2) the variability among phenological observers as documented from seven observer inter-calibration experiments conducted in France over 2007-2017 for both the budburst and leaf senescence period.

Participatory Mapping Reveals Sociocultural Drivers of Forest Fires in Protected Areas of the Post-Conflict Colombian Amazon

Charles Tebbutt, Tahia Devisscher, Laura Obando-Cabrera, Gustavo Adolfo Gutiérrez García, María Meza Elizalde, Dolors Armenteras & Imma Oliveras
1. Wildfires have increased in protected areas (PAs) of the Colombian Amazon following the 2016 peace agreement between the Government and the Revolutionary Armed Forced of Colombia (FARC – Spanish acronym). Recent study efforts to understand this issue suffer from data scarcity and limited consultation of local stakeholder perspectives on factors affecting wildfires. 2. This study uses a social-ecological systems framework to investigate local perceptions of factors driving and / or preventing wildfires in the...

Gene-drive suppression of mosquito populations in large cages as a bridge between lab and field

Andrew Hammond, Paola Pollegioni, Tania Persampieri, Ace North, Roxana Minuz, Alessandro Trusso, Alessandro Bucci, Kyros Kyrou, Ioanna Morianou, Alekos Simoni, Tony Nolan, Ruth Müller & Andrea Crisanti
CRISPR-based gene-drives targeting the gene doublesex in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae effectively suppressed the reproductive capability of mosquito populations reared in small laboratory cages. To bridge the gap between laboratory and the field, this gene-drive technology must be challenged with vector ecology. Here we report the suppressive activity of the gene-drive in age-structured An. gambiae populations in large indoor cages that permit complex feeding and reproductive behaviours. The gene-drive element spreads rapidly through the...

The elephant in the family: Costs and benefits of elder siblings on younger offspring life-history trajectory in a matrilineal mammal

Vérane Berger, Sophie Reichert, Mirkka Lahdenperä, John Jackson, Win Htut & Virpi Lummaa
1. Many mammals grow up with siblings, and interactions between them can influence offspring phenotype and fitness. Among these interactions, sibling competition between different-age offspring should lead to reproductive and survival costs on the younger sibling, while sibling cooperation should improve younger sibling’s reproductive potential and survival. However, little is known about the consequences of sibling effects on younger offspring life history trajectory, especially in long-lived mammals. 2. We take advantage of a large, multigenerational...

Relatedness modulates density-dependent cannibalism rates in Drosophila

Adam Fisher, Sally Le Page, Andri Manser, Daniel Lewis, Gregory Holwell, Stuart Wigby & Tom Price
1. Cannibalism is taxonomically widespread, and can have large impacts on individual fitness and population-level processes. As such, identifying how cannibalism rates vary in response to ecological cues is important for predicting species evolution and population dynamics. 2. In this study, we aimed to identify several eco-evolutionary factors that affect cannibalism rate and measure how they interacted with one another. 3. To do this, we conducted two experiments using complimentary methods to measure how cannibalism...

Causes of delayed outbreak responses and their impacts on epidemic spread

Yun Tao, Matthew Ferrari, Katriona Shea, William Probeert, Michael Runge, Kevin Lafferty & Michael Tildesley
Livestock diseases have devastating consequences economically, socially, and politically across the globe. In certain systems, pathogens remain viable after host death, which enables residual transmissions from infected carcasses. Rapid culling and carcass disposal are well-established strategies for stamping out an outbreak and limiting its impact, however, wait-times for these procedures, i.e., response delays, are typically farm-specific and time-varying due to logistical constraints. Failing to incorporate variable response delays in epidemiological models may understate outbreak projections...

Comparative analysis of angiogenesis models: MATLAB data files

William Martinson
This data set contains the MATLAB files that were used to generate figures located in the article "Comparative analysis of angiogenesis models" (J. Math. Biol, in press). The article's abstract may be found below. Although discrete approaches are increasingly employed to model biological phenomena, it remains unclear how complex, population-level behaviours in such frameworks arise from the rules used to represent interactions between individuals. Discrete-to-continuum approaches, which are used to derive systems of coarse-grained equations...

Data from: Magnesium efflux from Drosophila Kenyon Cells is critical for normal and diet-enhanced long-term memory

Yanying Wu
Dietary magnesium (Mg2+) supplementation can enhance memory in young and aged rats. Memory-enhancing capacity was largely ascribed to increases in hippocampal synaptic density and elevated expression of the NR2B subunit of the NMDA-type glutamate receptor. Here we show that Mg2+ feeding also enhances long-term memory in Drosophila. Normal and Mg2+ enhanced fly memory appears independent of NMDA receptors in the mushroom body and instead requires expression of a conserved CNNM-type Mg2+-efflux transporter encoded by the...

Intraspecific variation in symbiont density in an insect-microbe symbiosis

Benjamin Parker, Jan Hrcek, Ailsa McLean, Charles Godfray & Jennifer Brisson
Many insects host vertically-transmitted microbes, which can confer benefits to their hosts but are costly to maintain and regulate. A key feature of these symbioses is variation: for example, symbiont density can vary among host and symbiont genotypes. However, the evolutionary forces maintaining this variation remain unclear. We studied variation in symbiont density using the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) and the bacterium Regiella insecticola, a symbiont that can protect its host against fungal pathogens. We...

Data from: A Silurian ophiuroid with soft tissue preservation

Reece Carter, Mark Sutton, Derek Briggs, David Siveter & Derek Siveter
Palaeozoic brittle stars are not equipped with the fused arm ossicles (vertebrae) that facilitate the remarkable mode of walking that characterizes living forms. Here we describe a stem ophiuroid from the Herefordshire Lagerstätte (Silurian, Wenlock Series) which is remarkable in preserving the body cavity uncompacted and long tube feet which lack suckers. We tentatively assign the specimen to Protaster. The morphology of the arms and attitude of the specimen suggest that locomotion was achieved by...

Evolutionary versatility of the avian neck

Ryan Marek, Peter Falkingham, Roger Benson, James Gardiner, Thomas Maddox & Karl Bates
Bird necks display unparalleled levels of morphological diversity compared to other vertebrates, yet it is unclear what factors have structured this variation. Using 3D geometric morphometrics and multivariate statistics we show that the avian cervical column is a hierarchical morpho-functional appendage, with varying magnitudes of ecologically-driven morphological variation at different scales of organisation. Contrary to expectations given the widely-varying ecological functions of necks in different species, we find that regional modularity of the avian neck...

Registration Year

  • 2021
    90

Resource Types

  • Dataset
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Affiliations

  • University of Oxford
    89
  • Yale University
    6
  • University College London
    5
  • Institute of Oceanology. PP Shirshov Russian Academy of Sciences
    4
  • University of Leeds
    4
  • University of Florida
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  • University of Georgia
    2
  • University of Groningen
    2
  • University of Cambridge
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  • German Center for Integrative Biodiversity Research
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