76 Works

Data from: Comparative multi-locus phylogeography of two Palaearctic spruce bark beetles: influence of contrasting ecological strategies on genetic variation

François Mayer, Frédéric B. Piel, Anna Cassel-Lundhagen, Natalia Kirichenko, Laurent Grumiau, Bjørn Økland, Coralie Bertheau, Jean-Claude Grégoire & Patrick Mardulyn
While phylogeographic patterns of organisms are often interpreted through past environmental disturbances, mediated by climate changes, and geographic barriers, they may also be strongly influenced by species-specific traits. To investigate the impact of such traits, we focused on two Eurasian spruce bark beetles that share a similar geographic distribution, but differ in their ecology and reproduction. Ips typographus is an aggressive tree-killing species characterized by strong dispersal, whereas Dendroctonus micans is a discrete inbreeding species...

Data from: Insectivorous bats respond to vegetation complexity in urban green spaces

Marcela Suarez-Rubio, Christina Ille & Alexander Bruckner
Structural complexity is known to determine habitat quality for insectivorous bats, but how bats respond to habitat complexity in highly modified areas such as urban green spaces has been little explored. Furthermore, it is uncertain whether a recently developed measure of structural complexity is as effective as field-based surveys when applied to urban environments. We assessed whether image-derived structural complexity (MIG) was as/more effective than field-based descriptors in this environment, and evaluated the response of...

Data from: Increasing forest disturbances in Europe and their impact on carbon storage

Rupert Seidl, Mart-Jan Schelhaas, Werner Rammer & Pieter Johannes Verkerk
Disturbances from wind, bark beetles and wildfires have increased in Europe’s forests throughout the twentieth century. Climatic changes were identified as a key driver behind this increase, yet how the expected continuation of climate change will affect Europe’s forest disturbance regime remains unresolved. Increasing disturbances could strongly impact the forest carbon budget, and are suggested to contribute to the recently observed carbon sink saturation in Europe’s forests. Here we show that forest disturbance damage in...

Flowering synchrony drives reproductive success in a wind-pollinated tree

Michał Bogdziewicz, Mario Pesendorfer, Elizabeth Crone, Carlos Pérez-Izquierdo & Raul Bonal
Synchronized and quasi-periodic production of seeds by plant populations, known as masting, is implicated in many ecological processes, but how it arises remains poorly understood. Flowering and pollination dynamics are hypothesized to provide the mechanistic link for the observed relationship between weather and population‐level seed production. We report the first experimental test of the phenological synchrony hypotheses as a driver of pollen limitation in mast seeding oaks (Quercus ilex). Higher flowering synchrony yielded greater pollination...

Learned predators enhance biological control via organizational upward and trophic top-down cascades

Peter Schausberger, Demet Cekin & Alena Litin
1. Learning is a behavioral change based on memory of previous experiences and a ubiquitous phenomenon in animals. Learning effects are commonly life stage- and age-specific. In many animals, early life experiences lead to pervasive and persistent behavioral changes. 2. There is broad consensus that learning has far-reaching implications to biological control. Proximate and ultimate factors of individual learning by parasitoids and true predators are relatively well understood, yet the consequences of learning to higher...

Isotope analysis combined with DNA barcoding provide new insights into the dietary niche of khulan in the Mongolian Gobi

Martina Burnik Šturm, Steve Smith, Oyunsaikhan Ganbaatar, Bayarbaatar Buuveibaatar, Boglarka Balint, John C. Payne, Christian C. Voigt & Petra Kaczensky
With increasing livestock numbers, competition and avoidance are increasingly shaping resource availability for wild ungulates. Shifts in the dietary niche of wild ungulates are likely and can be expected to negatively affect their fitness. The Mongolian Gobi constitutes the largest remaining refuge for several threatened ungulates, but unprecedentedly high livestock numbers are sparking growing concerns over rangeland health and impacts on threatened ungulates like the Asiatic wild ass (khulan). Previous stable isotope analysis of khulan...

Data from: Diversity and distribution of Wolbachia in relation to geography, host plant affiliation and life cycle of a heterogonic gall wasp

Hannes Schuler, Scott P. Egan, Glen R. Hood, Robert W. Busbee, Amanda L. Driscoe & James R. Ott
Background: The maternally inherited endosymbiont Wolbachia is widespread in arthropods and nematodes and can play an important role in the ecology and evolution of its host through reproductive manipulation. Here, we survey Wolbachia in Belonocnema treatae, a widely distributed North American cynipid gall forming wasp that exhibits regional host specialization on three species of oaks and alternation of sexually and aseuxlly reproducing generations. We investigated whether patterns of Wolbachia infection and diversity in B. treatae...

Data from: Contrasting the roles of section length and instream habitat enhancement for river restoration success: a field study on 20 European restoration projects

Daniel Hering, Jukka Aroviita, Annette Baattrup-Pedersen, Karel Brabec, Tom Buijse, Frauke Ecke, Nikolai Friberg, Marek Gielczewski, Kathrin Januschke, Jan Köhler, Benjamin Kupilas, Armin W. Lorenz, Susanne Muhar, Amael Paillex, Michaela Poppe, Torsten Schmidt, Stefan Schmutz, Jan Vermaat, Piet F. M. Verdonschot, Ralf C. M. Verdonschot, Jochem Kail & Christian Wolter
1. Restoration of river hydromorphology often has limited detected effects on river biota. One frequently discussed reason is that the restored river length is insufficient to allow populations to develop and give the room for geomorphologic processes to occur. 2. We investigated ten pairs of restored river sections of which one was a large project involving a long, intensively restored river section and one represented a smaller restoration effort. The restoration effect was quantified by...

Data from: Berry production drives bottom-up effects on body mass and reproductive success in an omnivore

Anne G. Hertel, Richard Bischof, Ola Langvall, Atle Mysterud, Jonas Kindberg, Jon E. Swenson, Andreas Zedrosser & Ola Langval
Obligate herbivores dominate studies of the effects of climate change on mammals, however there is limited empirical evidence for how changes in the abundance or quality of plant food affect mammalian omnivores. Omnivores can exploit a range of different food resources over the course of a year, but they often rely on seasonally restricted highly nutritious fruiting bodies during critical life stages. Brown bears Ursus arctos in Sweden are dependent on berries for fattening before...

Data from: Polyploidisation and geographic differentiation drive diversification in a European high mountain plant group (Doronicum clusii aggregate, Asteraceae)

Clemens Pachschwöll, Pedro Escobar García, Manuela Winkler, Gerald M. Schneeweiss & Peter Schönswetter
Range shifts (especially during the Pleistocene), polyploidisation and hybridization are major factors affecting high-mountain biodiversity. A good system to study their role in the European high mountains is the Doronicum clusii aggregate (Asteraceae), whose four taxa (D. clusii s.s., D. stiriacum, D. glaciale subsp. glaciale and D. glaciale subsp. calcareum) are differentiated geographically, ecologically (basiphilous versus silicicolous) and/or via their ploidy levels (diploid versus tetraploid). Here, we use DNA sequences (three plastid and one nuclear...

Data from: How diverse is Mitopus morio? Integrative taxonomy detects cryptic species in a small-scale sample of a widespread harvestman

Wolfgang Arthofer, Hannes Rauch, Barbara Thaler-Knoflach, Karl Moder, Christoph Muster, Birgit C. Schlick-Steiner & Florian M. Steiner
Mitopus morio is a widespread harvestman species occurring in most of Europe and in moderate and cold-moderate zones of Asia and North America. The species is characterized by extreme variability in body size and leg length. As leg length is correlated with habitat temperature, M. morio has been considered as an example of Allen's rule. Recently, observations for a single location in Tyrol, Austria, indicated the absence of mating between short- and long-legged individuals. This...

Data from: Difference in reproductive mode rather than ploidy explains niche differentiation in sympatric sexual and apomictic populations of Potentilla puberula

Henar Alonso-Marcos, Flavia Domizia Nardi, Susanne Scheffknecht, Andreas Tribsch, Karl Hülber & Christoph Dobes
Apomicts tend to have larger geographical distributional ranges and to occur in ecologically more extreme environments than their sexual progenitors. However, the expression of apomixis is typically linked to polyploidy. Thus, it is a priori not clear whether intrinsic effects related to the change in the reproductive mode or rather in the ploidy drive ecological differentiation. We used sympatric sexual and apomictic populations of Potentilla puberula to test for ecological differentiation. To distinguish the effects...

Data from: Analysis of microsatellite loci in tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle) using SSR-GBS

Charalambos Neophytou, Elnura Torutaeva, Silvia Winter, Harald Meimberg, Hubert Hasenauer & Manuel Curto
Microsatellite markers are still the marker of choice for many research questions in the field of forest genetics. However, the number of available markers is often low for species that have not been studied intensively like the tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima). During the last decade, next generation sequencing (NGS) has offered advanced techniques for efficiently identifying microsatellite markers and accurately genotyping samples. Here, we identify new microsatellite markers for the tree of heaven by...

Pleistocene dynamics of the Eurasian steppe as a driving force of evolution: Phylogenetic history of the genus Capsella (Brassicaceae)

Anze Zerdoner Calasan, Herbert Hurka, Dmitry A. German, Simon Pfanzelt, Frank Blattner, Anna Seidl & Barbara Neuffer
Capsella is a model plant genus of the Brassicaceae, closely related to Arabidopsis. To disentangle its biogeographical history and intrageneric phylogenetic relationships, 282 individuals of all five currently recognised Capsella species were genotyped, using a restriction digest-based next generation sequencing method. Our analysis retrieved two main lineages within Capsella that split c. one million years ago, with western C. grandiflora and C. rubella forming a sister lineage to the eastern clade consisting of C. orientalis....

Data from: Ecological differentiation, lack of hybrids involving diploids, and asymmetric gene flow between polyploids in narrow contact zones of Senecio carniolicus (syn. Jacobaea carniolica, Asteraceae)

Karl Hülber, Michaela Sonnleitner, Jan Suda, Jana Krejčíková, Peter Schönswetter, Gerald M. Schneeweiss & Manuela Winkler
Areas of immediate contact of different cytotypes offer a unique opportunity to study evolutionary dynamics within heteroploid species and to assess isolation mechanisms governing coexistence of cytotypes of different ploidy. The degree of reproductive isolation of cytotypes, i.e., the frequency of heteroploid crosses and subsequent formation of viable and (partly) fertile hybrids, plays a crucial role for the long-term integrity of lineages in contact zones. Here, we assessed fine-scale distribution, spatial clustering and ecological niches...

Data from: Architecture of the sperm whale forehead facilitates ramming combat

Olga Panagiotopoulou, Panagiotis Spyridis, Hyab Mehari Abraha, David R. Carrier & Todd C. Pataky
Herman Melville’s novel Moby Dick was inspired by historical instances in which large sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus L.) sank 19th century whaling ships by ramming them with their foreheads. The immense forehead of sperm whales is possibly the largest, and one of the strangest, anatomical structures in the animal kingdom. It contains two large oil-filled compartments, known as the “spermaceti organ” and “junk”, that constitute up to one-quarter of body mass and extend one-third of...

Data from: A novel method to infer the origin of polyploids from AFLP data reveals that the Alpine polyploid complex of Senecio carniolicus (Asteraceae) evolved mainly via autopolyploidy

Manuela Winkler, Pedro Escobar García, Andreas Gattringer, Michaela Sonnleitner, Karl Hülber, Peter Schönswetter & Gerald M. Schneeweiss
Despite its evolutionary and ecological relevance the mode of polyploid origin has been notoriously difficult to be reconstructed from molecular data. Here, we present a method to identify the putative parents of polyploids and thus to infer the mode of their origin (auto- versus allopolyploidy) from Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) data. To this end, we use Cohen's d of distances between in silico polyploids, generated within a priori defined scenarios of origin from a...

Data from: Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape composition

Daniel S. Karp, Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer, Timothy D. Meehan, Emily A. Martin, Fabrice DeClerck, Heather Grab, Claudio Gratton, Lauren Hunt, Ashley E. Larsen, Alejandra Martínez-Salinas, Megan E. O’Rourke, Adrien Rusch, Katja Poveda, Mattias Jonsson, Jay A. Rosenheim, Nancy A. Schellhorn, Teja Tscharntke, Stephen D. Wratten, Wei Zhang, Aaron L. Iverson, Lynn S. Adler, Matthias Albrecht, Audrey Alignier, Gina M. Angelella, Muhammad Zubair Anjum … & Yi Zou
The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win–win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on pests are inconclusive. The observed heterogeneity in species responses to noncrop habitat may be biological in origin or could result from variation in how habitat and biocontrol are...

Data from: Small beetle, large-scale drivers: how regional and landscape factors affect outbreaks of the European spruce bark beetle

Rupert Seidl, Jörg Müller, Torsten Hothorn, Claus Bässler, Marco Heurich & Markus Kautz
Unprecedented bark beetle outbreaks have been observed for a variety of forest ecosystems recently, and damage is expected to further intensify as a consequence of climate change. In Central Europe, the response of ecosystem management to increasing infestation risk has hitherto focused largely on the stand level, while the contingency of outbreak dynamics on large-scale drivers remains poorly understood. To investigate how factors beyond the local scale contribute to the infestation risk from Ips typographus...

Data from: Infanticide as a male reproductive strategy has a nutritive risk effect in brown bears

Sam M. J. G. Steyaert, Christine Reusch, Sven Brunberg, Jon E. Swenson, Klaus Hackländer, Andreas Zedrosser & K. Hacklander
Behavioral strategies to reduce predation can incur costs (i.e. risk effects). A common strategy to avoid predation is spatiotemporal avoidance of predators, in which prey typically trade optimal resources for safety. Analogous with predator-prey theory, risk effects should also arise in species with sexually selected infanticide (SSI), in which females with dependent offspring avoid infanticidal males. In brown bears (Ursus arctos), SSI is common and explains spatiotemporal segregation among reproductive classes. Here, we show that...

Data from: Latitudinal and altitudinal patterns of plant community diversity on mountain summits across the tropical Andes

Francisco Cuesta, Priscilla Muriel, Luis D. Llambí, Stephan Halloy, Nikolay Aguirre, Stephan Beck, Julieta Carilla, Rosa I. Meneses, Soledad Cuello, Alfredo Grau, Luis E. Gámez, Javier Irazábal, Jorge Jacome, Ricardo Jaramillo, Lirey Ramírez, Natalia Samaniego, David Suárez-Duque, Natali Thompson, Alfredo Tupayachi, Paul Viñas, Karina Yager, María T. Becerra, Harald Pauli & William D. Gosling
The high tropical Andes host one of the richest alpine floras of the world, with exceptionally high levels of endemism and turnover rates. Yet, little is known about the patterns and processes that structure altitudinal and latitudinal variation in plant community diversity. Herein we present the first continental-scale comparative study of plant community diversity on summits of the tropical Andes. Data were obtained from 792 permanent vegetation plots (1m2) within 50 summits, distributed along a...

Data from: Population structure and diversity of an invasive pine needle pathogen reflects anthropogenic activity

Irene Barnes, Michael J. Wingfield, Ignazio Carbone, Thomas Kirisits & Brenda D. Wingfield
Dothistroma septosporum is a haploid fungal pathogen that causes a serious needle blight disease of pines, particularly as an invasive alien species on Pinus radiata in the Southern Hemisphere. During the course of the last two decades, the pathogen has also incited unexpected epidemics on native and non-native pine hosts in the Northern Hemisphere. Although the biology and ecology of the pathogen has been well documented, there is a distinct lack of knowledge regarding its...

Data from: The impacts of climate change and disturbance on spatio-temporal trajectories of biodiversity in a temperate forest landscape

Dominik Thom, Werner Rammer, Thomas Dirnboeck, Jörg Müller, Johannes Kobler, Klaus Katzensteiner, Norbert Helm & Rupert Seidl
The ongoing changes to climate challenge the conservation of forest biodiversity. Yet, in thermally limited systems, such as temperate forests, not all species groups might be affected negatively. Furthermore, simultaneous changes in the disturbance regime have the potential to mitigate climate-related impacts on forest species. Here, we (i) investigated the potential long-term effect of climate change on biodiversity in a mountain forest landscape, (ii) assessed the effects of different disturbance frequencies, severities and sizes and...

Genetic variation in an ephemeral mudflat species: the role of the soil seed bank and dispersal in river and secondary anthropogenic habitats

Karin Tremetsberger, Joerg Boeckelmann, Katerina Sumberova, Gudrun Kohl, Heinrich Grausgruber & Karl-Georg Bernhardt
Many ephemeral mudflat species, which rely on a soil seed bank to build up the next generation, are endangered in their natural habitat due to the widespread regulation of rivers. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the role of the soil seed bank and dispersal for the maintenance of genetic diversity in populations of near-natural river habitats and anthropogenic habitats created by traditional fish farming practices using Cyperus fuscus as a model....

Data from: Host plant-related genomic differentiation in the European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L., 1758) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

Vid Bakovic, Hannes Schuler, Martin Schebeck, Jeffrey L. Feder, Christian Stauffer & Gregory J. Ragland
Elucidating the mechanisms and conditions facilitating the formation of biodiversity are central topics in evolutionary biology. A growing number of studies imply that divergent ecological selection may often play a critical role in speciation by counteracting the homogenising effects of gene flow. Several examples involve phytophagous insects, where divergent selection pressures associated with host plant shifts may generate reproductive isolation, promoting speciation. Here, we use ddRADseq to assess the population structure and to test for...

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