80 Works

Data from: Climate structures genetic variation across a species' elevation range: a test of range limits hypotheses

Jason P. Sexton, Matthew B. Hufford, Ashley Bateman, David B. Lowry, Harald Meimberg, Sharon Y. Strauss, Kevin J. Rice & Ashley C.Bateman
Gene flow may influence the formation of species range limits, yet little is known about the patterns of gene flow with respect to environmental gradients or proximity to range limits. With rapid environmental change it is especially important to understand patterns of gene flow to inform conservation efforts. Here we investigate the species range of the selfing, annual plant, Mimulus laciniatus, in the California Sierra Nevada. We assessed genetic variation, gene flow, and population abundance...

Data from: The hitchhiker's guide to Europe: the infection dynamics of an ongoing Wolbachia invasion and mitochondrial selective sweep in Rhagoletis cerasi

Hannes Schuler, Kirsten Koeppler, Sabine Daxböck-Horvath, Bilal Rasool, Susanne Krumboeck, Dietmar Schwarz, Thomas Hoffmeister, Birgit Schlick-Steiner, Florian Steiner, Arndt Telschow, Christian Stauffer, Wolfgang Arthofer, Markus Riegler, Birgit C. Schlick-Steiner, Florian M. Steiner & Thomas S. Hoffmeister
Wolbachia is a maternally inherited and ubiquitous endosymbiont of insects. It can hijack host reproduction by manipulations such as cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) to enhance vertical transmission. Horizontal transmission of Wolbachia can also result in the colonization of new mitochondrial lineages. In this study, we present a 15-year-long survey of Wolbachia in the cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis cerasi across Europe and the spatiotemporal distribution of two prevalent strains, wCer1 and wCer2, and associated mitochondrial haplotypes in...

Data from: Spatial variability in tree regeneration after wildfire delays and dampens future bark beetle outbreaks

Rupert Seidl, Daniel C. Donato, Kenneth F. Raffa & Monica G. Turner
Climate change is altering the frequency and severity of forest disturbances such as wildfires and bark beetle outbreaks, thereby increasing the potential for sequential disturbances to interact. Interactions can amplify or dampen disturbances, yet the direction and magnitude of future disturbance interactions are difficult to anticipate because underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We tested how variability in postfire forest development affects future susceptibility to bark beetle outbreaks, focusing on mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and...

Population structure and genetic diversity of sheep breeds in the Kyrgyzstan

Tatiana Deniskova, Arsen Dotsev, Eugenia Lushihina, Alexey Shakhin, Elisabeth Kunz, Henry Reyer, Klaus Wimmers, Negar Khayatzadeh, Johann Sölkner, Alexander Sermyagin, Asankadyr Zhunushev, Gottfried Brem & Natalia Zinovieva
Sheep are a main livestock species of Kyrgyzstan, a Central Asian country with predominating mountain terrain. The current gene pool of local sheep resources has been forming under diverse climate conditions from the era of the trading caravans of the Great Silk Road, through the Soviet period of large-scale livestock improvements, which was followed by the deep crisis at the end of the 20th century, up to now. However, not much is known about the...

Data from: Estimating population density of insectivorous bats based on stationary acoustic detectors: a case study

Markus Milchram, Marcela Suarez-Rubio, Annika Schröder & Alexander Bruckner
1. Automated recording units are commonly used by consultants to assess environmental impacts and to monitor animal populations. Although estimating population density of bats using stationary acoustic detectors is key for evaluating environmental impacts, estimating densities from call activity data is only possible through recently developed numerical methods, as the recognition of calling individuals is impossible. 2. We tested the applicability of generalized random encounter models (gREMs) for determining population densities of three bat species...

Data from: Conservation of a domestic metapopulation structured into related and partly admixed strains

Jelena Ramljak, Gjoko Bunevski, Hysen Bytyqi, Božidarka Marković, Muhamed Brka, Ante Ivanković, Kristaq Kume, Srđan Stojanović, Vasil Nikolov, Mojca Simčič, Johann Soelkner, Elisabeth Kunz, Sophie Rothammer, Doris Seichter, Hans-Peter Grünenfelder, Elli T. Broxham, Waltraud Kugler & Ivica Medugorac
Preservation of genetic diversity is one of the most pressing challenges in the planetary boundaries concept. Within this context, we focused on genetic diversity in a native, unselected and highly admixed domesticated metapopulation. A set of 1828 individuals from 60 different cattle breeds was analysed using a medium density SNP chip. Among these breeds, 14 Buša strains formed a metapopulation represented by 350 individuals, while the remaining 46 breeds represented the global cattle population. Genetic...

Data from: Genome-wide SNP analysis unveils genetic structure and phylogeographic history of snow sheep (Ovis nivicola) populations inhabiting the Verkhoyansk Mountains and Momsky Ridge (northeastern Siberia)

Arsen V. Dotsev, Tatiana E. Deniskova, Innokentiy M. Okhlopkov, Gabor Mészáros, Johann Sölkner, Henry Reyer, Klaus Wimmers, Gottfried Brem & Natalia A. Zinovieva
Insights into the genetic characteristics of a species provide important information for wildlife conservation programs. Here, we used the OvineSNP50 BeadChip developed for domestic sheep to examine population structure and evaluate genetic diversity of snow sheep (Ovis nivicola) inhabiting Verkhoyansk Range and Momsky Ridge. A total of 1121 polymorphic SNPs were used to test 80 specimens representing five populations, including four populations of the Verkhoyansk Mountain chain: Kharaulakh Ridge–Tiksi Bay (TIK, n = 22), Orulgan...

Data from: Biodiversity along temperate forest succession

Torben Hilmers, Nicolas Friess, Claus Bässler, Marco Heurich, Roland Brandl, Hans Pretzsch, Rupert Seidl & Jörg Müller
1. The successional dynamics of forests – from canopy openings to regeneration, maturation and decay – influences the amount and heterogeneity of resources available for forest-dwelling organisms. Conservation has largely focused only on selected stages of forest succession (e.g. late-seral stages). However, to develop comprehensive conservation strategies and to understand the impact of forest management on biodiversity, a quantitative understanding of how different trophic groups vary over the course of succession is needed. 2. We...

Data from: Ensemble approach for potential habitat mapping of invasive Prosopis in Turkana, Kenya

Wai-Tim Ng, Alexsandro Cândido De Oliveira Silva, Purity Rima, Clement Atzberger & Markus Immitzer
Aim: Prosopis spp. are an invasive alien plant species native to the Americas and well adapted to thrive in arid environments. In Kenya, several remote‐sensing studies conclude that the genus is well established throughout the country and is rapidly in‐ vading new areas. This research aims to model the potential habitat of Prosopis spp. by using an ensemble model consisting of four species distribution models. Furthermore, environmental and expert knowledge‐based variables are assessed. Location: Turkana...

Data from: Trait evolution in topical rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) trees is related to dry season intensity

Kanin Rungwattana, Poonipope Kasemsap, Thitaporn Phumichai, Nicha Kanpanon, Ratchanee Rattanawong, Peter Hietz & Poonpipope Kasemsap
1. Drought shapes the distribution and survival of trees even in tropical wet forests, and the wood and leaf trait spectra are used to understand drought adaptations. However, trait variation may result from ontogenetic adjustment or be related to tree size, and not reflect evolutionary adaptations. 2. Intraspecific variation in adaptations to drought can be an important factor in a species’ distribution and response to climate change, but excluding potentially confounding factors and proving adaptive...

Landscape simplification increases vineyard pest outbreaks and insecticide use

Daniel Paredes, Jay Rosenheim, Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer, Silvia Winter & Daniel Karp
Diversifying agricultural landscapes may mitigate biodiversity declines and improve pest management. Yet landscapes are rarely managed to suppress pests, in part because researchers seldom measure key variables related to pest outbreaks and insecticides that drive management decisions. We used a 13-year government database to analyze landscape effects on European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana) outbreaks and insecticides across ~400 Spanish vineyards. At harvest, we found pest outbreaks increased four-fold in simplified, vineyard-dominated landscapes compared to complex...

Data from: Transcriptomic regulation of seasonal coat color change in hares

Mafalda Sousa Ferreira, Paulo Célio Alves, Colin M. Callahan, Iwona Giska, Liliana Farelo, Hannes Jenny, L. Scott Mills, Klaus Hackländer, Jeffrey M. Good & José Melo-Ferreira
Color molts from summer brown to winter white coats have evolved in several species to maintain camouflage year-round in environments with seasonal snow. Despite the eco-evolutionary relevance of this key phenological adaptation, its molecular regulation has only recently begun to be addressed. Here, we analyze skin transcription changes during the autumn molt of the mountain hare (Lepus timidus) and integrate the results with an established model of gene regulation across the spring molt of the...

Functional biogeography of Neotropical moist forests: trait-climate relationships and assembly patterns of tree communities

Bruno Pinho, Marcelo Tabarelli, Cajo Ter Braak, S. J. Wright, Victor Arroyo-Rodriguez, Maíra Benchimol, Bettina Engelbrecht, Simon Pierce, Peter Hietz, Bráulio Santos, Carlos Peres, Sandra Müller, Ian Wright, Frans Bongers, Madelon Lohbeck, Ülo Niinemets, Martijn Slot, Steven Jansen, Davi Jamelli, Renato Augusto Ferreira De Lima, Nathan Swenson, Richard Condit, Jos Barlow, Ferry Slik, Manuel Hernández-Ruedas … & Felipe Melo
Aim: Here we examine the functional profile of regional tree species pools across the latitudinal distribution of Neotropical moist forests, and test trait-climate relationships among local communities. We expected opportunistic strategies (acquisitive traits, small seeds) to be overrepresented in species pools further from the equator due to long-term instability, but also in terms of abundance in local communities in currently wetter, warmer and more seasonal climates. Location: Neotropics. Time period: Recent. Major taxa studied: Trees....

Hunting suitability model - a new tool for managing wild ungulates

Paul Griesberger, Leopold Obermair, Josef Zandl, Gabrielle Stalder, Walter Arnold & Klaus Hackländer
Rising numbers of wild ungulates in human-dominated landscapes of Europe can induce negative effects like damages to forests. Therefore, effective wildlife management, including harvesting through hunting is becoming increasingly important. However, current hunting practices often fail to diminish those negative effects, as many ungulate species retreat to areas unsuitable for hunting. This predator-avoidance behaviour makes it difficult to fulfill the demand of reducing population numbers. Thus, there is an urgent need for innovative and effective...

STR genotypes of 195 black grouse individuals

Florian Kunz & Marcia Sittenthaler
The data file contains the individual genotypes of 195 black grouse (Lyrurus tetrix) individuals, genotyped at 9 STR (microsatellite) loci. The data is curated into 10 subpopulations as decribed in the accompanied publication. The data is uploaded in the commonly used genepop file format.

Functional traits and their plasticity shift from tolerant to avoidant under extreme drought

Rosa Elisabeth Kramp, Pierre Liancourt, Maximiliane Herberich, Lara Saul, Sophie Weides, Katja Tielbörger & Maria Májeková
Under climate change, extreme droughts will limit water availability for plants. However, the species-specific responses make it difficult to draw general conclusions. We hypothesized that changes in species’ abundance in response to extreme drought can be best explained by a set of water economic traits under ambient conditions in combination with the ability to adjust these traits towards higher drought resistance. We conducted a four-year field experiment in temperate grasslands using rainout shelters with 30%...

Data from: Drivers of foliar 15N trends in southern China over the last century

Songbo Tang, Jianfeng Liu, Frank S. Gilliam, Peter Hietz, Zhiheng Wang, Xiankai Lu, Feiyan Zeng, Dazhi Wen, Enqing Hou, Yuan Lai, Yunting Fang, Ying Tu, Dan Xi, Zhiqun Huang, Dianxiang Zhang, Rong Wang & Yuanwen Kuang
Foliar stable nitrogen (N) isotopes (δ15N) generally reflect N availability to plants and have been used to infer about changes thereof. However, previous studies of temporal trends in foliar δ15N have ignored the influence of confounding factors, leading to uncertainties on its indication to N availability. In this study, we measured foliar δ15N of 1,811 herbarium specimens from 12 plant species collected in southern China forests from 1920 to 2010. We explored how changes in...

Data from: Population structure and diversity of an invasive pine needle pathogen reflects anthropogenic activity

Irene Barnes, Michael J. Wingfield, Ignazio Carbone, Thomas Kirisits & Brenda D. Wingfield
Dothistroma septosporum is a haploid fungal pathogen that causes a serious needle blight disease of pines, particularly as an invasive alien species on Pinus radiata in the Southern Hemisphere. During the course of the last two decades, the pathogen has also incited unexpected epidemics on native and non-native pine hosts in the Northern Hemisphere. Although the biology and ecology of the pathogen has been well documented, there is a distinct lack of knowledge regarding its...

Data from: Ecological differentiation, lack of hybrids involving diploids, and asymmetric gene flow between polyploids in narrow contact zones of Senecio carniolicus (syn. Jacobaea carniolica, Asteraceae)

Karl Hülber, Michaela Sonnleitner, Jan Suda, Jana Krejčíková, Peter Schönswetter, Gerald M. Schneeweiss & Manuela Winkler
Areas of immediate contact of different cytotypes offer a unique opportunity to study evolutionary dynamics within heteroploid species and to assess isolation mechanisms governing coexistence of cytotypes of different ploidy. The degree of reproductive isolation of cytotypes, i.e., the frequency of heteroploid crosses and subsequent formation of viable and (partly) fertile hybrids, plays a crucial role for the long-term integrity of lineages in contact zones. Here, we assessed fine-scale distribution, spatial clustering and ecological niches...

Data from: Infanticide as a male reproductive strategy has a nutritive risk effect in brown bears

Sam M. J. G. Steyaert, Christine Reusch, Sven Brunberg, Jon E. Swenson, Klaus Hackländer, Andreas Zedrosser & K. Hacklander
Behavioral strategies to reduce predation can incur costs (i.e. risk effects). A common strategy to avoid predation is spatiotemporal avoidance of predators, in which prey typically trade optimal resources for safety. Analogous with predator-prey theory, risk effects should also arise in species with sexually selected infanticide (SSI), in which females with dependent offspring avoid infanticidal males. In brown bears (Ursus arctos), SSI is common and explains spatiotemporal segregation among reproductive classes. Here, we show that...

Data from: Small beetle, large-scale drivers: how regional and landscape factors affect outbreaks of the European spruce bark beetle

Rupert Seidl, Jörg Müller, Torsten Hothorn, Claus Bässler, Marco Heurich & Markus Kautz
Unprecedented bark beetle outbreaks have been observed for a variety of forest ecosystems recently, and damage is expected to further intensify as a consequence of climate change. In Central Europe, the response of ecosystem management to increasing infestation risk has hitherto focused largely on the stand level, while the contingency of outbreak dynamics on large-scale drivers remains poorly understood. To investigate how factors beyond the local scale contribute to the infestation risk from Ips typographus...

Data from: Architecture of the sperm whale forehead facilitates ramming combat

Olga Panagiotopoulou, Panagiotis Spyridis, Hyab Mehari Abraha, David R. Carrier & Todd C. Pataky
Herman Melville’s novel Moby Dick was inspired by historical instances in which large sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus L.) sank 19th century whaling ships by ramming them with their foreheads. The immense forehead of sperm whales is possibly the largest, and one of the strangest, anatomical structures in the animal kingdom. It contains two large oil-filled compartments, known as the “spermaceti organ” and “junk”, that constitute up to one-quarter of body mass and extend one-third of...

Data from: The impacts of climate change and disturbance on spatio-temporal trajectories of biodiversity in a temperate forest landscape

Dominik Thom, Werner Rammer, Thomas Dirnboeck, Jörg Müller, Johannes Kobler, Klaus Katzensteiner, Norbert Helm & Rupert Seidl
The ongoing changes to climate challenge the conservation of forest biodiversity. Yet, in thermally limited systems, such as temperate forests, not all species groups might be affected negatively. Furthermore, simultaneous changes in the disturbance regime have the potential to mitigate climate-related impacts on forest species. Here, we (i) investigated the potential long-term effect of climate change on biodiversity in a mountain forest landscape, (ii) assessed the effects of different disturbance frequencies, severities and sizes and...

Data from: Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape composition

Daniel S. Karp, Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer, Timothy D. Meehan, Emily A. Martin, Fabrice DeClerck, Heather Grab, Claudio Gratton, Lauren Hunt, Ashley E. Larsen, Alejandra Martínez-Salinas, Megan E. O’Rourke, Adrien Rusch, Katja Poveda, Mattias Jonsson, Jay A. Rosenheim, Nancy A. Schellhorn, Teja Tscharntke, Stephen D. Wratten, Wei Zhang, Aaron L. Iverson, Lynn S. Adler, Matthias Albrecht, Audrey Alignier, Gina M. Angelella, Muhammad Zubair Anjum … & Yi Zou
The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win–win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on pests are inconclusive. The observed heterogeneity in species responses to noncrop habitat may be biological in origin or could result from variation in how habitat and biocontrol are...

Data from: Latitudinal and altitudinal patterns of plant community diversity on mountain summits across the tropical Andes

Francisco Cuesta, Priscilla Muriel, Luis D. Llambí, Stephan Halloy, Nikolay Aguirre, Stephan Beck, Julieta Carilla, Rosa I. Meneses, Soledad Cuello, Alfredo Grau, Luis E. Gámez, Javier Irazábal, Jorge Jacome, Ricardo Jaramillo, Lirey Ramírez, Natalia Samaniego, David Suárez-Duque, Natali Thompson, Alfredo Tupayachi, Paul Viñas, Karina Yager, María T. Becerra, Harald Pauli & William D. Gosling
The high tropical Andes host one of the richest alpine floras of the world, with exceptionally high levels of endemism and turnover rates. Yet, little is known about the patterns and processes that structure altitudinal and latitudinal variation in plant community diversity. Herein we present the first continental-scale comparative study of plant community diversity on summits of the tropical Andes. Data were obtained from 792 permanent vegetation plots (1m2) within 50 summits, distributed along a...

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