95 Works

Data from: Variation in red fox Vulpes vulpes diet in five continents

Irene Castañeda, Tim S. Doherty, Patricia A. Fleming, Alyson M. Stobo-Wilson, John C. Z. Woinarski & Thomas M. Newsome
Understanding variation in the diet of widely distributed species can help us to predict how they respond to future environmental and anthropogenic changes. We studied the diet of the red fox Vulpes vulpes, one of the world’s most widely distributed carnivores. We compiled dietary data from 217 studies at 276 locations in five continents to assess how fox diet composition varied according to geographic location, climate, anthropogenic impact and sampling method. The diet of foxes...

Data from: What was old is new again: thermal adaptation within clonal lineages during range expansion in a fungal pathogen

Cécile Robin, Audrey Andanson, Gilles Saint-Jean, Olivier Fabreguettes & Cyril Dutech
Range-expanding species are expected to gain an increasing importance in the context of global change. They provide a great opportunity to study contemporary evolutionary changes and to unravel the mechanisms of evolution. Cryphonectria parasitica, the causal agent of chestnut blight, originating from Asia, has been spread since the beginning of the 20th century into different continents. We took advantage of the C. parasitica recent emergence in northern France to study the changes in population genetic...

Data from: An inconvenient truth about xylem resistance to embolism in the model species for refilling Laurus nobilis L.

Laurent J. Lamarque
Direct, non-invasive X-ray microtomography and optical technique observations applied in stems and leaves of intact seedlings revealed that laurel is highly resistant to drought-induced xylem embolism. Contrary to what has been brought forward, daily cycles of embolism formation and refilling are unlikely to occur in this species and to explain how it copes with drought. There has been considerable controversy regarding xylem embolism resistance for long-vesselled angiosperm species and particularly for the model species for...

Data from: Positive biodiversity-productivity relationships in forests: climate matters

Herve Jactel, Emmanuel S. Gritti, Lars Drössler, David I. Forrester, William L. Mason, Xavier Morin, Hans Pretzsch & Bastien Castagneyrol
While it is widely acknowledged that forest biodiversity contributes to climate change mitigation through improved carbon sequestration, conversely how climate affects tree species diversity - forest productivity relationships is still poorly understood. We combined the results of long-term experiments where forest mixtures and corresponding monocultures were compared on the same site to estimate the yield of mixed-species stands at a global scale, and its response to climatic factors. We found positive mixture effects on productivity...

Data from: Disentangling the genetic origins of a plant pathogen during disease spread using an original molecular epidemiology approach

Constance Xhaard, Benoît Barrès, Axelle Andrieux, Lydia Bousset, Fabien Halkett & Pascal Frey
The advent of molecular epidemiology has greatly improved our ability to identify population sources and track pathogen movement. Yet the wide spatial and temporal scales usually considered are useful only to infer historical migration pathways. In this study, Bayesian genetic assignments and a landscape epidemiology approach were combined to unravel genetic origin and annual spread during a single epidemic of a plant pathogen: the poplar rust fungus Melampsora larici-populina. The study focused on a particular...

Data from: Assessing early fitness consequences of exotic gene flow in the wild: a field study with Iberian pine relicts

Gregor M. Unger, Myriam Heuertz, Giuseppe G. Vendramin & Juan J. Robledo-Arnuncio
Gene flow from plantations of nonlocal (genetically exotic) tree provenances into natural stands of the same species is probably a widespread phenomenon, but its effects remain largely unexamined. We investigated early fitness consequences of intraspecific exotic gene flow in the wild by assessing differences in survival among native, nonlocal, and F1 intraspecific hybrid seedlings naturally established within two native pine relicts (one of Pinus pinaster and the other of P. sylvestris) surrounded by nonlocal plantations....

Data from: Fine-scale environmental control of hybridization in oaks

Lélia Lagache, Etienne K. Klein, Erwan Guichoux & Rémy J. Petit
Natural hybridization is attracting much interest in modern speciation and conservation biology studies, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear why environmental changes often increase hybridization rates. To study this question, we surveyed mating events in a mixed oak stand and developed a spatially-explicit individual-based hybridization model. This model, where hybridization is frequency dependent, pollen is non-limiting and which allows immigrant pollen to compete with local pollen, takes into account...

Data from: Model-assisted analysis of sugar metabolism throughout tomato fruit development reveals enzyme and carrier properties in relation to vacuole expansion

Bertrand P. Beauvoit, Sophie Colombié, Antoine Monier, Marie-Hélène Andrieu, Benoit Biais, Camille Bénard, Catherine Chéniclet, Martine Dieuaide-Noubhani, Christine Nazaret, Jean-Pierre Mazat & Yves Gibon
A kinetic model combining enzyme activity measurements and subcellular compartmentation was parameterized to fit the sucrose, hexose, and glucose-6-P contents of pericarp throughout tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit development. The model was further validated using independent data obtained from domesticated and wild tomato species and on transgenic lines. A hierarchical clustering analysis of the calculated fluxes and enzyme capacities together revealed stage-dependent features. Cell division was characterized by a high sucrolytic activity of the vacuole, whereas...

Data from: Range expansion compromises adaptive evolution in an outcrossing plant

Santiago C. Gonzalez-Martinez, Kate Ridout & John R. Pannell
Neutral genetic diversity gradients have long been used to infer the colonization history of species, but range expansion may also influence the efficacy of natural selection and patterns of non-synonymous polymorphism in different parts of a species’ range. Recent theory predicts both an accumulation of deleterious mutations and a reduction in the efficacy of positive selection as a result of range expansion. These signatures have been sought in a number of studies of the human...

Data from: Capturing neutral and adaptive genetic diversity for conservation in a highly structured tree species

Isabel Rodríguez-Quilón, Luis Santos-Del-Blanco, María Jesús Serra-Varela, Jarkko Koskela, Santiago César González-Martínez & Ricardo Alía
Preserving intraspecific genetic diversity is essential for long-term forest sustainability in a climate change scenario. Despite that, genetic information is largely neglected in conservation planning, and how conservation units should be defined is still heatedly debated. Here, we use maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.), an outcrossing long lived tree with a highly fragmented distribution in the Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot, to prove the importance of accounting for genetic variation - at both neutral molecular markers and...

Data from: Dryopithecine palaeobiodiversity in the Iberian Miocene revisited on the basis of molar endostructural morphology

Josep Fortuny, Clément Zanolli, Federico Bernardini, Claudio Tuniz & David M. Alba
Extensive fieldwork at Abocador de Can Mata (NE Iberian Peninsula) has uncovered a previously unsuspected diversity of catarrhine primates in the middle Miocene (12.5–11.6 Ma) of Europe. However, the distinction of the great ape genera Pierolapithecus and Anoiapithecus from Dryopithecus—supported by craniodental differences—has been disputed by some authors. Here we revisit the diversity of great apes (dryopithecines) from the Iberian Miocene based on molar 3D endostructural morphology (relative enamel thickness, enamel distribution, and enamel-dentine junction...

High variation in hydraulic efficiency but not xylem safety between roots and branches in four temperate broad-leaved tree species

Torben Lübbe, Laurent J. Lamarque, Sylvain Delzon, José M. Torres-Ruiz, Régis Burlett, Christoph Leuschner & Bernhard Schuldt
Xylem hydraulic safety and efficiency are key traits determining tree fitness in a warmer and drier world. While numerous plant hydraulic studies have focused on branches, our understanding of root hydraulic functioning remains limited, although roots control water uptake, influence stomatal regulation and have commonly been considered as the most vulnerable organ along the hydraulic pathway. We investigated 11 traits related to xylem safety and efficiency along the hydraulic pathway in four temperate broad-leaved tree...

Crop diversity benefits carabid and pollinator communities in landscapes with semi-natural habitats

Guillermo Aguilera Núñez, Tomas Roslin, Kirsten Miller, Giovanni Tamburini, Klaus Birkhofer, Berta Caballero-Lopez, Sandra Lindström, Erik Öckinger, , Adrien Rusch, Henrik Smith & Riccardo Bommarco
1. In agricultural landscapes, arthropods provide essential ecosystem services such as biological pest control and pollination. Intensified crop management practices and homogenization of landscapes have led to declines among such organisms. Semi-natural habitats, associated with high numbers of these organisms, are increasingly lost from agricultural landscapes but diversification by increasing crop diversity has been proposed as a way to reverse observed arthropod declines and thus restore ecosystem services. However, whether or not an increase in...

How does increasing mast seeding frequency affect population dynamics of seed consumers? Wild boar as a case study

Laura Touzot, Eliane Schermer, Samuel Venner, Sylvain Delzon, Cyril Rousset, Eric Baubet, Jean-Michel Gaillard & Marlène Gamelon
Mast seeding in temperate oak populations shapes the dynamics of seed consumers and numerous communities. Mast seeding responds positively to warm spring temperatures and is therefore expected to increase under global warming. We investigated the potential effects of changes in oak mast seeding on wild boar population dynamics, a widespread and abundant consumer species. Using long-term monitoring data, we showed that abundant acorn production enhances the proportion of breeding females. With a body mass-structured population...

Data from: Entropic bonding of the type 1 pilus from experiment and simulation

Fabiano Corsetti, Alvaro Alonso-Caballero, Simon Poly, Raul Perez-Jimenez & Emilio Artacho
The type 1 pilus is a bacterial filament consisting of a long coiled proteic chain of subunits joined together by non-covalent bonding between complementing β-strands. Its strength and structural stability are critical for its anchoring function in uropathogenic Escherichia coli bacteria. The pulling and unravelling of the FimG subunit of the pilus was recently studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments and steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations [A. Alonso-Caballero et al., Nature Commun. 9, 2758...

Data from: Development of genomic tools in a widespread tropical tree, Symphonia globulifera L.f.: a new low-coverage draft genome, SNP and SSR markers

Sanna Olsson, Pedro Seoane Zonjic, Rocío Bautista, M. Gonzalo Claros, Santiago C. González-Martínez, Ivan Scotti, Caroline Scotti-Saintagne, Olivier J. Hardy & Myriam Heuertz
Population genetic studies in tropical plants are often challenging because of limited information on taxonomy, phylogenetic relationships and distribution ranges, scarce genomic information and logistic challenges in sampling. We describe a strategy to develop robust and widely applicable genetic markers based on a modest development of genomic resources in the ancient tropical tree species Symphonia globulifera L.f. (Clusiaceae), a keystone species in African and Neotropical rainforests. We provide the first low-coverage (11X) fragmented draft genome...

Data from: Functional limb muscle innervation prior to cholinergic transmitter specification during early metamorphosis in Xenopus

François M. Lambert, Laura Cardoit, Elric Courty, Marion Bougerol, Muriel Thoby-Brisson, John Simmers, Hervé Tostivint, Didier Le Ray & Francois M Lambert
In vertebrates, functional motoneurons are defined as differentiated neurons that are connected to a central premotor network and activate peripheral muscle using acetylcholine. Generally, motoneurons and muscles develop simultaneously during embryogenesis. However, during Xenopus metamorphosis, developing limb motoneurons must reach their target muscles through the already established larval cholinergic axial neuromuscular system. Here, we demonstrate that at metamorphosis onset, spinal neurons retrogradely labeled from the emerging hindlimbs initially express neither choline acetyltransferase nor vesicular acetylcholine...

Data from: The balance of canopy and soil effects determines intraspecific differences in foundation species’ effects on associated plants

Nuria Pistón, Richard Michalet, Christian Schöb, Petr Macek, Cris Armas & Francisco I. Pugnaire
1. The impact of plant-plant interactions on species diversity patterns has been broadly addressed in stressful environments, such as alpine ecosystems, where foundation species promote species richness by creating habitat for other species. However, foundation species with contrasting phenotypes might modify the microhabitat differently, which would alter the subordinate community composition, and coincide with distinct feedback effects of those subordinate species on the foundation species. However, the precise interaction mechanisms that facilitate species are not...

Data from: Comparison of pollen gene flow among four European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) populations characterized by different management regimes

Andrea Piotti, Stefano Leonardi, Joukje Buiteveld, Thomas Geburek, Sophie Gerber, Koen Kramer, Cristina Vettori & Giovanni G. Vendramin
The study of dispersal capability of a species can provide essential information for the management and conservation of its genetic variability. Comparison of gene flow rates among populations characterized by different management and evolutionary histories allows one to decipher the role of factors such as isolation and tree density on gene movements. We used two paternity analysis approaches and different strategies to handle possible presence of genotyping errors to obtain robust estimates of pollen flow...

Data from: Inferring selection in instances of long‐range colonization: the Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) in the Mediterranean Basin

Rose Ruiz Daniels, Richard S. Taylor, María Jesús Serra-Varela, Giovanni G. Vendramin, Santiago C. González-Martínez & Delphine Grivet
Teasing apart the effects of natural selection and demography on current allele frequencies is challenging, due to both processes leaving a similar molecular footprint. In particular, when attempting to identify selection in species that have undergone a recent range expansion, the increase of genetic drift at the edges of range expansions (“allele surfing”) can be a confounded factor. To address this potential issue, we first assess the long-range colonisation history of the Aleppo pine across...

Data from: Grape moth density in Bordeaux vineyards depends on local habitat management despite effects of landscape heterogeneity on their biological control

Adrien Rusch, Lionel Delbac & Denis Thiéry
1. Biological control of crop pests is a major ecosystem service affected by several variables acting at multiple spatial scales. Among these variables, heterogeneity at the habitat and landscape scales are known key drivers of trophic interactions and pest density in agroecosystems. However, studies that try to disentangle their relative effects in perennial cropping systems are scarce and nothing is known about their impacts on insect pest density and pesticide applications. 2. We examined the...

Data from: Comparative assessment of SSR and SNP markers for inferring the population genetic structure of the common fungus Armillaria cepistipes

Tetyana Tsykun, Christian Rellstab, Cyril Dutech, György Sipos & Simone Prospero
During the last years, simple sequence repeats (SSRs, also known as microsatellites) and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have become the most popular molecular markers for describing neutral genetic variation in populations of a wide range of organisms. However, only a limited number of studies has focused on comparing the performance of these two types of markers for describing the underlying genetic structure of wild populations. Moreover, none of these studies targeted fungi, the group of organisms...

Data from: Latitudinal variation in plant chemical defences drives latitudinal patterns of leaf herbivory

Xoaquón Moreira, Bastien Castagneyrol, Luis Abdala-Roberts, Jorge C. Berny-Mier Y Terán, Bart G. H. Timmermans, Hans Henrik Kehlet Bruun, Felisa Covelo, Gaétan Glauser, Sergio Rasmann, Ayco J. M. Tack & Hans Henrik Bruun
A long-standing paradigm in ecology holds that herbivore pressure and thus plant defences increase towards lower latitudes. However, recent work has challenged this prediction where studies have found no relationship or opposite trends where herbivory or plant defences increase at higher latitudes. Here we tested for latitudinal variation in herbivory, chemical defences (phenolic compounds), and nutritional traits (phosphorus and nitrogen) in leaves of a long-lived tree species, the English oak Quercus robur. We further investigated...

Data from: Loss of connectivity among island-dwelling Peary caribou following sea ice decline

Deborah A. Jenkins, Nicolas Lecomte, James A. Schaefer, Steffen M. Olsen, Didier Swingedouw, Steeve D. Côté, Loïc Pellissier & Glenn Yannic
Global warming threatens to reduce population connectivity for terrestrial wildlife through significant and rapid changes to sea ice. Using genetic fingerprinting, we contrasted extant connectivity in island-dwelling Peary caribou in northern Canada with continental-migratory caribou. We next examined if sea-ice contractions in the last decades modulated population connectivity and explored the possible impact of future climate change on long-term connectivity among island caribou. We found a strong correlation between genetic and geodesic distances for both...

Data from: Genetic differentiation of the pine processionary moth at the southern edge of its range: contrasting patterns between mitochondrial and nuclear markers

Mhamed El Mokhefi, Carole Kerdelhué, Christian Burban, Andrea Battisti, Gahdab Chakali & Mauro Simonato
The pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) is an important pest of coniferous forests at the southern edge of its range in Maghreb. Based on mitochondrial markers, a strong genetic differentiation was previously found in this species between western (pityocampa clade) and eastern Maghreb populations (ENA clade), with the contact zone between the clades located in Algeria. We focused on the moth range in Algeria, using both mitochondrial (a 648 bp fragment of the tRNA-cox2) and...

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