251 Works

Data from: Extensive gene flow over Europe and possible speciation over Eurasia in the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Laccaria amethystina complex.

Lucie Vincenot, Kazuhide Nara, Christopher Sthultz, Jessy Labbé, Marie-Pierre Dubois, Leho Tedersoo, Francis Martin & Marc-André Selosse
Biogeographic patterns and large-scale genetic structure have been little studied in ectomycorrhizal fungi, despite the ecological and economic importance of ectomycorrhizal symbioses. We coupled population genetics and phylogenetic approaches to understand spatial structure in fungal populations on a continental scale. Using 9 microsatellite markers, we characterised gene flow among 16 populations of the widespread ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Laccaria amethystina over Europe (over 2900km). We also widened our scope to two additional populations from Japan (104 km...

Data from: Mutual stabilization of rhythmic vocalization and whole-body movement

Kohei Miyata & Kazutoshi Kudo
The current study investigated the rhythmic coordination between vocalization and whole-body movement. Previous studies have reported that spatiotemporal stability in rhythmic movement increases when coordinated with a rhythmic auditory stimulus or other effector in a stable coordination pattern. Therefore, the present study conducted two experiments to investigate (1) whether there is a stable coordination pattern between vocalization and whole-body movement and (2) whether a stable coordination pattern reduces variability in whole-body movement and vocalization. In...

Data from: The genetic architecture of growth rate in juvenile Takifugu species.

Sho Hosoya, Wataru Kai, Masashi Fujita, Kadoo Miyaki, Hiroaki Suetake, Yuzuru Suzuki & Kiyoshi Kikuchi
Closely related species have often evolved dramatic differences in body size. Takifugu rubripes (fugu) is a large marine pufferfish whose genome has been sequenced, whereas T. niphobles is the smallest species among Takifugu. We show that, unsurprisingly, the juvenile growth rate of T. rubripes is higher than that of T. niphobles in a laboratory setting. We produced F2 progenies of their F1 hybrids and found one quantitative trait locus (QTL) significantly associated with variation in...

Data from: Energy expenditure of adult green turtles (Chelonia mydas) at their foraging grounds and during simulated oceanic migration

Manfred R. Enstipp, Katia Ballorain, Stéphane Ciccione, Tomoko Narazaki, Katsufumi Sato & Jean-Yves Georges
Measuring the energy requirements of animals under natural conditions and determining how acquired energy is allocated to specific activities is a central theme in ecophysiology. Turtle reproductive output is fundamentally linked with their energy balance so a detailed understanding of marine turtle energy requirements during the different phases of their life cycle at sea is essential for their conservation. We used the non-invasive accelerometry technique to investigate the activity patterns and energy expenditure (EE) of...

Data from: Evolutionarily stable disequilibrium: endless dynamics of evolution in a stationary population

Takeuchi Nobuto, Kunihiko Kaneko, Paulien Hogeweg & Nobuto Takeuchi
Evolution is often conceived as changes in the properties of a population over generations. Does this notion exhaust the possible dynamics of evolution? Life is hierarchically organized, and evolution can operate at multiple levels with conflicting tendencies. Using a minimal model of such conflicting multilevel evolution, we demonstrate the possibility of a novel mode of evolution that challenges the above notion: individuals ceaselessly modify their genetically-inherited phenotype and fitness along their lines of descent, without...

Genomic evidence for speciation with gene flow in broadcast spawning marine invertebrates

Shotaro Hirase
How early stages of speciation in free-spawning marine invertebrates proceeds is poorly understood. The Western Pacific abalones, Hatiois discus, H. madaka, and H. gigantea occur in sympatry with shared breeding season and are capable of producing viable F1 hybrids in spite of being ecologically differentiated. Population genomic analyses revealed that although the three species are genetically distinct, there is evidence for historical and ongoing gene flow among these species. Evidence from demographic modeling suggests that...

Hydraulic architecture with high-fraction of root resistance

Haruhiko Taneda & Takefumi Ikeda
The hydraulic architecture of plants constrains water transport and carbon gain through stomatal limitation to CO2 absorption. Leaf, stem, and root organs are composed of plant hydraulic architecture, of which the root is the main bottleneck of water transport for a wide range of plant species. The present study aimed to assess the ecophysiological mechanism and importance of the high fraction of root hydraulic resistance. Biomass partitioning and hydraulic conductance of leaves, stems and roots...

Emergence of kinship structures and descent systems: multi-level evolutionary simulation and empirical data analyses

Kenji Itao & Kunihiko Kaneko
In clan societies, people are categorised into several cultural groups, so-called clans, within which they believe to share common ancestors. Clan attributions provide certain rules for marriage and descent. Anthropologists have revealed several kinship structures and their corresponding cultural characteristics, following such rules. We previously introduced an agent-based model of kinship structures. Here, we propose a simplified model in which competing societies evolve. The societies themselves comprise multiple evolving families with parameters for cultural traits...

Data from: Quantitative evaluation of posture control in rats with inferior olive lesions

Tetsuro Funato, Yota Sato, Yamato Sato, Soichiro Fujiki, Shinya Aoi, Kazuo Tsuchiya & Dai Yanagihara
Impairment of inferior olivary neurons (IONs) affects whole-body movements and results in abnormal gait and posture. Because IONs are activated by unpredicted motion rather than regular body movements, the postural dysfunction caused by ION lesions is expected to involve factors other than simple loss of feedback control. In this study, we measured the postural movements of rats with pharmacological ION lesions (IO rats) trained to stand on their hindlimbs. The coordination of body segments, as...

Data from: Female sociality and sexual conflict shape offspring survival in a Neotropical primate

Urs Kalbitzer, Mackenzie L. Bergstrom, Sarah D. Carnegie, Eva C. Wikberg, Shoji Kawamura, Fernando A. Campos, Katharine M. Jack & Linda M. Fedigan
Most mammals live in social groups in which members form differentiated social relationships. Individuals may vary in their degree of sociality, and this variation can be associated with differential fitness. In some species, for example, female sociality has a positive effect on infant survival. However, investigations of such cases are still rare, and no previous study has considered how male infanticide might constrain effects of female sociality on infant survival. Infanticide is part of the...

Data from: Variation in ligand responses of the bitter taste receptors TAS2R1 and TAS2R4 among New World monkeys

Kei Tsutsui, Masahiro Otoh, Kodama Sakurai, Nami Suzuki-Hashido, Takashi Hayakawa, Takumi Misaka, Yoshiro Ishimaru, Filippo Aureli, Amanda D. Melin, Shoji Kawamura & Hiroo Imai
Background: New World monkeys (NWMs) are unique in that they exhibit remarkable interspecific variation in color vision and feeding behavior, making them an excellent model for studying sensory ecology. However, it is largely unknown whether non-visual senses co-vary with feeding ecology, especially gustation, which is expected to be indispensable in food selection. Bitter taste, which is mediated by bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) in the tongue, helps organisms avoid ingesting potentially toxic substances in food. In...

Data from: Speed dependency in α-motoneuron activity and locomotor modules in human locomotion: indirect evidence for phylogenetically conserved spinal circuits

Hikaru Yokoyama, Tetsuya Ogawa, Masahiro Shinya, Noritaka Kawashima & Kimitaka Nakazawa
Coordinated locomotor muscle activity is generated by the spinal central pattern generators (CPGs). Vertebrate studies have demonstrated the following two characteristics of the speed control mechanisms of the spinal CPGs: (i) rostral segment activation is indispensable for achieving high-speed locomotion; and (ii) specific combinations between spinal interneuronal modules and motoneuron (MN) pools are sequentially activated with increasing speed. Here, to investigate whether similar control mechanisms exist in humans, we examined spinal neural activity during varied-speed...

Data from: The landscape of realized homologous recombination in pathogenic bacteria

Koji Yahara, Xavier Didelot, Keith A. Jolley, Ichizo Kobayashi, Martin C. J. Maiden, Samuel K. Sheppard & Daniel Falush
Recombination enhances the adaptive potential of organisms by allowing genetic variants to be tested on multiple genomic backgrounds. Its distribution in the genome can provide insight into the evolutionary forces that underlie traits such as the emergence of pathogenicity. Here we examined landscapes of realized homologous recombination of 500 genomes from ten bacterial species, and found all species have ‘hot’ regions with elevated rates relative to the genome average. We examined the size, gene content...

Data from: Enhancing insights into foraging specialization in the world’s largest fish using a multi-tissue, multi-isotope approach

Alex Wyatt, Rui Matusmoto, Yoshito Chikaraishi, Yosuke Miyairi, Yusuke Yokoyama, Keiichi Sato, Naohiko Ohkouchi & Toshi Nagata
Intra-species variability in foraging strategies may be common, which has significant implications for efforts to understand and manage enigmatic species like the whale shark Rhincodon typus. The ecological relevance of differences in tissue isotopes within and between individuals in the context of foraging however depends on understanding tissue turnover times and carbon (Δ13C) and nitrogen (Δ15N) discrimination, which can vary with physiology, metabolism and diet quality. Here we examine isotope dynamics in captive R. typus...

Data from: Combining micro-volume isotope analysis and numerical simulation to reproduce fish migration history

Tatsuya Sakamoto, Kosei Komatsu, Kotaro Shirai, Tomihiko Higuchi, Toyoho Ishimura, Takashi Setou, Yasuhiro Kamimura, Chikako Watanabe & Atsushi Kawabata
1. Tracking the movement of migratory fish is of great importance for efficient conservation, although this has been technically difficult to achieve in small fish to which artificial tags cannot be attached. 2. We show that migration history can be reproduced by combining high-resolution otolith stable oxygen isotope ratio (δ18O) analysis and numerical simulation. 3. High-precision micro-milling and micro-volume carbonate analysing systems had the remarkable capability of extracting the otolith δ18O profiles with 10–30 days...

Data from: Anchored phylogenomics illuminates the skipper butterfly tree of life

Emmanuel F.A. Toussaint, Jesse W. Breinholt, Chandra Earl, Andrew D. Warren, Andrew V.Z. Brower, Masaya Yago, Kelly M. Dexter, Marianne Espeland, Naomi E. Pierce, David J. Lohman & Akito Y. Kawahara
Butterflies (Papilionoidea) are perhaps the most charismatic insect lineage, yet phylogenetic relationships among them remain incompletely studied and controversial. We sequenced nearly 400 loci using Anchored Hybrid Enrichment and sampled all tribes and more than 120 genera of skippers (Hesperiidae), one of the most species-rich and poorly studied butterfly families. Maximum-likelihood, parsimony and coalescent multi-species methods all converged on a novel, robust phylogenetic hypothesis for skippers. Different optimality criteria and methodologies recovered almost identical phylogenetic...

Data from: Convergent evolution of body color between sympatric freshwater fishes via different visual sensory evolution

Javier Montenegro, Koji Mochida, Kumi Matsui, Daniel F. Mokodongan, Bayu K. A. Sumarto, Sjamsu A. Lawelle, Andy B. Nofrianto, Renny K. Hadiaty, Kawilarang W. A. Masengi, Lengxob Yong, Nobuyuki Inomata, Takahiro Irie, Yasuyuki Hashiguchi, Yohey Terai, Jun Kitano & Kazunori Yamahira
Although there are many examples of color evolution potentially driven by sensory drive, only few studies have examined whether distinct species inhabiting the same environments evolve similar body colors via shared sensory mechanisms. In this study, we tested whether two sympatric freshwater fish taxa, halfbeaks of the genus Nomorhamphus and ricefishes of the genus Oryzias in Sulawesi Island, converge in both body color and visual sensitivity. After reconstructing the phylogeny separately for Nomorhamphus and Oryzias...

Data from: Modularity speeds up motor learning by overcoming mechanical bias in musculoskeletal geometry

Shota Hagio & Motoki Kouzaki
We can easily learn and perform a variety of movements that fundamentally require complex neuromuscular control. Many empirical findings have demonstrated that a wide range of complex muscle activation patterns could be well captured by the combination of a few functional modules, the so-called muscle synergies. Modularity represented by muscle synergies would simplify the control of a redundant neuromuscular system. However, how the reduction of neuromuscular redundancy through a modular controller contributes to sensorimotor learning...

Data from: Drivers of vegetative dormancy across herbaceous perennial plant species

Richard P. Shefferson, Tiiu Kull, Michael J. Hutchings, Marc-André Selosse, Hans Jacquemyn, Kimberly M. Kellett, Eric S. Menges, Richard B. Primack, Juha Tuomi, Kirsi Alahuhta, Sonja Hurskainen, Helen M. Alexander, Derek S. Anderson, Rein Brys, Emilia Brzosko, Slavomir Dostálik, Katharine Gregg, Zdeněk Ipser, Anne Jäkäläniemi, Jana Jersáková, W. Dean Kettle, Melissa K. McCormick, Ana Mendoza, Michael T. Miller, Asbjørn Moen … & Dennis F. Whigham
Vegetative dormancy, that is the temporary absence of aboveground growth for ≥ 1 year, is paradoxical, because plants cannot photosynthesise or flower during dormant periods. We test ecological and evolutionary hypotheses for its widespread persistence. We show that dormancy has evolved numerous times. Most species displaying dormancy exhibit life‐history costs of sprouting, and of dormancy. Short‐lived and mycoheterotrophic species have higher proportions of dormant plants than long‐lived species and species with other nutritional modes. Foliage...

Data from: Effects of breathing movement on the reduction of postural sway during postural-cognitive dual tasking

Kohtaroh Hagio, Hiroki Obata & Kimitaka Nakazawa
An execution of cognitive processing interferes with postural sway during quiet standing. It reduces sway variability in young adults, but the mechanism is not clear. To elucidate the mechanisms, we focused on breathing in the present study. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether a decrease in postural sway amplitude during a postural-cognitive task is related to the change in breathing movement. The center of pressure (COP) was recorded via a force plate...

Data from: Dynamical state transitions into addictive behaviour and their early-warning signals

Jerome Clifford Foo, Hamid Reza Noori, Ikuhiro Yamaguchi, Valentina Vengeliene, Alejandro Cosa-Linan, Toru Nakamura, Kenji Morita, Rainer Spanagel & Yoshiharu Yamamoto
The theory of critical transitions in complex systems (ecosystems, climate, etc.), and especially its ability to predict abrupt changes by early-warning signals based on analysis of fluctuations close to tipping points, is seen as a promising avenue to study disease dynamics. However, the biomedical field still lacks a clear demonstration of this concept. Here, we used a well-established animal model in which initial alcohol exposure followed by deprivation and subsequent reintroduction of alcohol induces excessive...

Data from: A late Pleistocene marine glacial refugium in the south-west of Hainan Island, China: Phylogeographical insights from the brown alga Sargassum polycystum

Zi-Min Hu, Attachai Kantachumpoo, Ruo-Yu Liu, Zhong-Min Sun, Jian-Ting Yao, Teruhisa Komatsu, Shinya Uwai & De-Lin Duan
Aim: Hainan Island, southern China, is characterized by rich diversity and endemism of marine organisms, yet the underpinning mechanisms and processes contributing to speciation and diversification are poorly understood. Here, the brown alga Sargassum polycystum is used as a model to identify putative marine glacial refugia and explore biogeographical patterns driven by climate change in the late Pleistocene ice ages. Location: South-East Asia. Methods: Mitochondrial cox1 and cox3 and nuclear internal transcribed spacer-2 (ITS2) were...

Data from: Repeated evolution and reversibility of self-fertilization in the volvocine green algae

Erik R. Hanschen, Matthew D. Herron, John J. Wiens, Hisayoshi Nozaki & Richard E. Michod
Outcrossing and self-fertilization are fundamental strategies of sexual reproduction, each with different evolutionary costs and benefits. Self-fertilization is thought to be an evolutionary “dead-end” strategy, beneficial in the short term but costly in the long term, resulting in self-fertilizing species that occupy only the tips of phylogenetic trees. Here, we use volvocine green algae to investigate the evolution of self-fertilization. We use ancestral-state reconstructions to show that self-fertilization has repeatedly evolved from outcrossing ancestors and...

Data from: Rapid transporter regulation prevents substrate flow traffic jams in boron transport

Naoyuki Sotta, Susan Duncan, Mayuki Tanaka, Takafumi Sato, Athanasius F. M. Maree, Toru Fujiwara & Verônica A. Grieneisen
Nutrient uptake by roots often involves substrate-dependent regulated nutrient transporters. For robust uptake, the system requires a regulatory circuit within cells and a collective, coordinated behaviour across the tissue. A paradigm for such systems is boron uptake, known for its directional transport and homeostasis, as boron is essential for plant growth but toxic at high concentrations. In Arabidopsis thaliana Boron up- take occurs via diffusion facilitators (NIPs) and exporters (BORs), each presenting distinct polarity. Intriguingly,...

Data from: Optogenetic dissection of descending behavioral control in Drosophila

Jessica Cande, Shigehiro Namiki, Jirui Qiu, Wyatt Korff, Gwyneth M. Card, Joshua W. Shaevitz, David L. Stern & Gordon J. Berman
In most animals, the brain makes behavioral decisions that are transmitted by descending neurons to the nerve cord circuitry that produces behaviors. In insects, only a few descending neurons have been associated with specific behaviors. To explore how descending neurons control an insect's movements, we developed a novel method to systematically assay the behavioral effects of activating individual neurons on freely behaving terrestrial D. melanogaster. We calculated a two-dimensional representation of the entire behavior space...

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  • University of Tokyo
  • Tohoku University
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  • Kyoto University
  • National Institute for Environmental Studies
  • Chiba Institute of Technology
  • National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
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  • Kyushu University
  • The University of Tokyo