Anti-predator strategies are significant components of adaptation in prey species. Aposematic prey are expected to possess effective defences that have evolved simultaneously with their warning colours. This study tested the hypothesis of the defensive function and ecological significance of the hard body in aposematic Pachyrhynchus weevils pioneered by Alfred Russel Wallace nearly 150 years ago. We used predation trials with Japalura tree lizards to assess the survivorship of ‘hard’ (mature) vs. ‘soft’ (teneral) and ‘clawed’...
Vegetative dormancy, that is the temporary absence of aboveground growth for ≥ 1 year, is paradoxical, because plants cannot photosynthesise or flower during dormant periods. We test ecological and evolutionary hypotheses for its widespread persistence. We show that dormancy has evolved numerous times. Most species displaying dormancy exhibit life‐history costs of sprouting, and of dormancy. Short‐lived and mycoheterotrophic species have higher proportions of dormant plants than long‐lived species and species with other nutritional modes. Foliage...
China manages the largest monoculture plantations in the world, with 24% being Chinese fir plantations. Maximizing the ecosystem services of Chinese fir plantations has important implications in global carbon cycle and biodiversity protection. Assisted natural regeneration (ANR) is a practice to convert degraded lands into more productive forests with great ecosystems services. However, the quantitative understanding of ANR ecosystem service benefits is very limited. We conducted a comprehensive field manipulation experiment to evaluate the ANR...
Data from: Litter type and termites regulate root decomposition across contrasting savanna land-usesStuart W. Smith, James D. M. Speed, John Bukombe, Shombe N. Hassan, Richard D. Lyamuya, Philipo Jacob Mtweve, Anders Sundsdal & Bente J. Graae
Decomposition is a vital ecosystem process, increasingly modified by human activity. Theoretical frameworks and empirical studies that aim to understand the interplay between human land-use, macro-fauna and decomposition processes have primarily focused on leaf and wood litter. For a whole-plant understanding of how land-use and macro-fauna influence decomposition, investigating root litter is required. Using litterbags, we quantified rates of root decomposition across contrasting tropical savanna land-uses, namely wildlife and fire-dominated protected areas and livestock pastureland...
Data from: Evidence of trait shifts in response to forest disturbance in Taiwanese Carabus masuzoi (Coleoptera: Carabidae)Yen-Ting Chen, Lan-Wei Yeh, I-Min Tso, Hui-Chen Lin, Liang-Kong Lin & Chung-Ping Lin
Shifts of functional traits are important because phenotypic responses of species to environmental changes caused by natural and anthropogenic disturbances are fundamental in determining the risk of population extinction. This study tested the effect of forest thinning on the body shape and male genital size of an endemic ground beetle species Carabus masuzoi (Imura and Satô 1989) (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in cypress plantations started approximately 30 years ago in central Taiwan. The beetles were sampled and...
Data from: Real or fake? natural and artificial social stimuli elicit divergent behavioral and neural responses in mangrove rivulus, Kryptolebias marmoratusCheng-Yu Li, Hans A. Hofmann, Melissa L. Harris & Ryan L. Earley
Understanding how the brain processes social information and generates adaptive behavioural responses is a major goal in neuroscience. We examined behaviour and neural activity patterns in socially relevant brain nuclei of hermaphroditic mangrove rivulus fish (Kryptolebias marmoratus) provided with different types of social stimuli: stationary model opponent, regular mirror, non-reversing mirror and live opponent. We found that: i) individuals faced with a regular mirror were less willing to interact with, delivered fewer attacks towards, and...
Data from: The first set of universal nuclear protein-coding loci markers for avian phylogenetic and population genetic studiesYang Liu, Simin Liu, Chia-Fen Yeh, Nan Zhang, Guoling Chen, Pinjia Que, Lu Dong & Shou-Hsien Li
Multiple nuclear markers provide genetic polymorphism data for molecular systematics and population genetic studies. They are especially required for the coalescent-based analyses that can be used to accurately estimate species trees and infer population demographic histories. However, in avian evolutionary studies, these powerful coalescent-based methods are hindered by the lack of a sufficient number of markers. In this study, we designed PCR primers to amplify 136 nuclear protein-coding loci (NPCLs) by scanning the published Red...
Data from: Multilocus phylogeny and revised classification for mountain dragons of the genus Japalura s.l. (Reptilia: Agamidae: Draconinae) from AsiaKai Wang, Jing Che, Simin Lin, V. Deepak, Datta-Roy Aniruddha, Ke Jiang, Jieqiong Jin, Hongman Chen & Cameron D. Siler
Although the genus Japalura s.l. has long been recognized as paraphyletic based on limited genetic sampling, its problematic taxonomy has not been revised, and phylogenetic relationships among the majority of congeners remain unknown. Here we utilize a densely sampled dataset of both multilocus genetic and morphological data to provide the first phylogenetic inference of relationships among Japalura s.l.species. Our results show that Japalura s.l. is paraphyletic, consisting of four major clades that are scattered across...
Food and parasitism can have complex effects on small mammal reproduction. In this study, we tested the effects of sex, food and parasitism on reproductive performance of the Taiwan field mouse (Apodemus semotus). In a field experiment, we increased food availability for a portion of the mice in the population by providing sorghum seeds to a set of food stations. We reduced parasite intensity of randomly-chosen mice through ivermectin treatment. We determined the number and...
Data from: Molecular assessment of Pocillopora verrucosa (Scleractinia; Pocilloporidae) distribution along a depth gradient in Ludao, TaiwanStéphane De Palmas, Derek Soto, Ming Jay Ho, Vianney Denis, Chaolun Allen Chen & Ming-Jay Ho
It can be challenging to identify scleractinian corals from the genus Pocillopora (Lamarck 1816) in the field because of their large range of inter- and intra-specific morphological variation that co-occur with changes in the physical environment. This task is made more arduous in the context of a depth gradient, where light and water current could greatly affect the morphology of the corallum. Pocillopora verrucosa (Ellis and Solander, 1786) in Taiwan was previously reported exclusively from...
National Taiwan Normal University10
Norwegian University of Science and Technology2
University of Kansas1
University of Alabama at Birmingham1
University of Sussex1
The University of Texas at Austin1
Research Institute for Nature and Forest1
Sokoine University of Agriculture1
Estonian University of Life Sciences1