302 Works

Engineering ‘smart’ viral RNA structures for stable and targeted siRNA delivery

Alyssa Hill
Innovative delivery strategies are needed in order to realize the potential of small interfering RNA (siRNA) in medicine. SiRNAs are short, double-stranded RNA molecules that silence genes by co-opting an endogenous RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. Because they act on messenger RNA (mRNA) sequences via RNAi, siRNAs hold promise as potentially curative therapies for genetic defects, autoimmune disorders, cancers, and other diseases that cannot be treated with traditional, protein-binding small molecule drugs and biologics. However, key...

ISIMIP3a landuse input data

Jan Volkholz & Sebastian Ostberg
The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) provides a framework for the collation of a consistent set of climate impact data across sectors and scales. It also provides a unique opportunity for considering interactions between climate change impacts across sectors through consistent scenarios.
The ISIMIP3a part of the third simulation round is dedicated to i) impact model evaluation and improvement and ii) detection and attribution of observed impacts according to the framework of IPCC AR5 Working...

ISIMIP3a N-fertilizer input data

Jan Volkholz & Sebastian Ostberg
The fertilization rates are based on the harmonized land use dataset by Hurtt, G. et al. (2020, see also https://luh.umd.edu). They used different sources, please read their manuscript for of further information.

Data from: Quality attracts parasites: host condition-dependent chemo-orientation of trematode larvae

Otto Seppälä & Katja Leicht
1. Environmental factors impairing physiological condition of organisms are assumed to predispose them to parasite infections. This is because host immune function is typically condition-dependent. However, poor physiological condition has been reported to reduce host susceptibility to parasites in various systems. 2. We examined whether such an effect can be due to altered exposure of hosts to active parasite transmission stages by investigating chemo-orientation of free-swimming cercariae larvae of a parasite Echinoparyphium aconiatum towards its...

Data from: Spontaneous nongenetic variation of group size creates cheater-free groups of social microbes

Michaela Amherd, Gregory J. Velicer & Olaya Rendueles
In social organisms, cheaters that gain a fitness advantage by defecting from the costs of cooperation reduce the average level of cooperation in a population. Such “cheating load” can be severe enough to cause local extinction events when cooperation is necessary for survival, but can also mediate group-level selection against cheaters across spatially structured groups that vary in cheater frequency. In cheater-laden populations, such variation could be generated by the formation of new homogeneous groups...

Data from: Only helpful when required: a longevity cost of harbouring defensive symbionts

Christoph Vorburger & Alexandre Gouskov
Maternally transmitted symbionts can spread in host populations if they provide a fitness benefit to their hosts. Hamiltonella defensa, a bacterial endosymbiont of aphids, protects hosts against parasitoids but only occurs at moderate frequencies in most aphid populations. This suggests that harbouring this symbiont is also associated with costs, yet the nature of these costs has remained elusive. Here we demonstrate an important and clearly defined cost: reduced longevity. Experimental infections with six different isolates...

Data from: A structural approach for understanding multispecies coexistence

Serguei Saavedra, Rudolf P. Rohr, Jordi Bascompte, Oscar Godoy, Nathan J.B. Kraft, Jonathan M. Levine & Nathan J. B. Kraft
Although observations of species-rich communities have long served as a primary motivation for research on the coexistence of competitors, the majority of our empirical and theoretical understanding comes from two-species systems. How much of the coexistence observed in species rich communities results from indirect effects among competitors that only emerge in diverse systems remains poorly understood. Resolving this issue requires simple, scalable, and intuitive metrics for quantifying the conditions for coexistence in multispecies systems, and...

Data from: Invasiveness of plant pathogens depends on the spatial scale of host distribution

Alexey Mikaberidze, Christopher C. Mundt & Sebastian Bonhoeffer
Plant diseases often cause serious yield losses in agriculture. A pathogen’s invasiveness can be quantified by the basic reproductive number, R0. Since pathogen transmission between host plants depends on the spatial separation between them, R0 is strongly influenced by the spatial scale of the host distribution.We present a proof of principle of a novel approach to estimate the basic reproductive number, R0, of plant pathogens as a function of the size of a field planted...

Data from: Ecological drift and the distribution of species diversity

Benjamin Gilbert & Jonathan M. Levine
Ecological drift causes species abundances to fluctuate randomly, lowering diversity within communities and increasing differences among otherwise equivalent communities. Despite broad interest in ecological drift, ecologists have little experimental evidence of its consequences in nature, where competitive forces modulate species abundances. We manipulated drift by imposing 40-fold variation in the size of experimentally assembled annual plant communities and holding their edge-to-interior ratios comparable. Drift over three generations was greater than predicted by neutral models, causing...

Data from: Environmental DNA reveals that rivers are conveyer belts of biodiversity information

Kristy Deiner, Emanuel A. Fronhofer, Elvira Mächler, Jean-Claude Walser & Florian Altermatt
DNA sampled from the environment (eDNA) is a useful way to uncover biodiversity patterns. By combining a conceptual model and empirical data, we test whether eDNA transported in river networks can be used as an integrative way to assess eukaryotic biodiversity for broad spatial scales and across the land–water interface. Using an eDNA metabarcode approach, we detect 296 families of eukaryotes, spanning 19 phyla across the catchment of a river. We show for a subset...

Data from: A global meta-analysis on the ecological drivers of forest restoration success

Renato Crouzeilles, Michael Curran, Mariana S. Ferreira, David B. Lindenmayer, Carlos E. V. Grelle & José M. Rey Benayas
Two billion ha have been identified globally for forest restoration. Our meta-analysis encompassing 221 study landscapes worldwide reveals forest restoration enhances biodiversity by 15–84% and vegetation structure by 36–77%, compared with degraded ecosystems. For the first time, we identify the main ecological drivers of forest restoration success (defined as a return to a reference condition, that is, old-growth forest) at both the local and landscape scale. These are as follows: the time elapsed since restoration...

Data from: Infection-induced behavioural changes reduce connectivity and the potential for disease spread in wild mice contact networks

Patricia C. Lopes, Per Block & Barbara König
Infection may modify the behaviour of the host and of its conspecifics in a group, potentially altering social connectivity. Because many infectious diseases are transmitted through social contact, social connectivity changes can impact transmission dynamics. Previous approaches to understanding disease transmission dynamics in wild populations were limited in their ability to disentangle different factors that determine the outcome of disease outbreaks. Here we ask how social connectivity is affected by infection and how this relationship...

Data from: De novo transcriptome analysis of the common New Zealand stick insect Clitarchus hookeri (Phasmatodea) reveals genes involved in olfaction, digestion and sexual reproduction

Chen Wu, Ross N Crowhurst, Alice B. Dennis, Victoria G. Twort, Shanlin Liu, Richard D. Newcomb, Howard A. Ross & Thomas R. Buckley
Phasmatodea, more commonly known as stick insects, have been poorly studied at the molecular level for several key traits, such as components of the sensory system and regulators of reproduction and development, impeding a deeper understanding of their functional biology. Here, we employ de novo transcriptome analysis to identify genes with primary functions related to female odour reception, digestion, and male sexual traits in the New Zealand common stick insect Clitarchus hookeri (White). The female...

Data from: Aphid specialization on different summer hosts is associated with strong genetic differentiation and unequal symbiont communities despite a common mating habitat

Christoph Vorburger, Jenny Herzog & Romain Rouchet
Specialization on different host plants can promote evolutionary diversification of herbivorous insects. Work on pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) has contributed significantly to the understanding of this process, demonstrating that populations associated with different host plants exhibit performance trade-offs across hosts, show adaptive host choice and genetic differentiation, and possess different communities of bacterial endosymbionts. Populations specialized on different secondary host plants during the parthenogenetic summer generations are also described for the black bean aphid (Aphis...

Data from: How do leaf trait values change spatially and temporally with light availability in a grassland diversity experiment?

Dörte Bachmann, Christiane Roscher & Nina Buchmann
Complementarity in light use might increase light exploitation and could be an important mechanism explaining the coexistence of multiple species in plant communities of increasing diversity. We measured vertical light profiles and leaf traits related to light acquisition and light use in 40 mixtures of varying species richness (SR, 2, 4, 8 and 16) and functional group richness (FR, 1-4) in a large grassland biodiversity experiment at five different times during the growing season. Light...

Data from: Experimental evolution of parasitoid infectivity on symbiont-protected hosts leads to the emergence of genotype-specificity

Romain Rouchet & Christoph Vorburger
Host-parasitoid interactions may lead to strong reciprocal selection for traits involved in host defense and parasitoid counter-defense. In aphids, individuals harboring the facultative bacterial endosymbiont Hamiltonella defensa exhibit enhanced resistance to parasitoid wasps. We used an experimental evolution approach to investigate the ability of the parasitoid wasp Lysiphlebus fabarum to adapt to the presence of H. defensa in its aphid host Aphis fabae. Sexual populations of the parasitoid were exposed for eleven generations to a...

Data from: Intransitive competition is common across five major taxonomic groups and is driven by productivity, competitive rank and functional traits.

Santiago Soliveres, Anika Lehmann, Steffen Boch, Florian Altermatt, Francesco Carrara, Thomas W. Crowther, Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Anne Kempel, Daniel S. Maynard, Matthias C. Rillig, Brajesh K. Singh, Pankaj Trivedi & Eric Allan
1. Competition can be fully hierarchical or intransitive, and this degree of hierarchy is driven by multiple factors, including environmental conditions, the functional traits of the species involved or the topology of competition networks. Studies simultaneously analyzing these drivers of competition hierarchy are rare. Additionally, organisms compete either directly or via interference competition for resources or space, within a local neighbourhood or across the habitat. Therefore, the drivers of competition could change accordingly and depend...

Data from: Are Bitcoin bubbles predictable? Combining a generalized Metcalfe's law and the LPPLS model

Spencer Wheatley, Didier Sornette, Tobias Huber, Max Reppen & Robert Gantner
We develop a strong diagnostic for bubbles and crashes in Bitcoin, by analyzing the coincidence (and its absence) of fundamental and technical indicators. Using a generalized Metcalfe's law based on network properties, a fundamental value is quantified and shown to be heavily exceeded, on at least four occasions, by bubbles that grow and burst. In these bubbles, we detect a universal super-exponential unsustainable growth. We model this universal pattern with the Log-Periodic Power Law Singularity...

Data from: Yield of temperate forage grassland species is either largely resistant or resilient to experimental summer drought

Daniel Hofer, Matthias Suter, Eamon Haughey, John A. Finn, Nyncke J. Hoekstra, Nina Buchmann & Andreas Lüscher
Due to climate change, an increasing frequency and severity of drought events are expected to impair grassland productivity, particularly of intensively managed temperate grasslands. To assess drought impacts, a common field experiment to manipulate precipitation was set up at three sites (two Swiss and one Irish) using monocultures and mixtures with two and four key forage species. Species differed in their functional traits: a shallow-rooted non-legume (Lolium perenne L.), a deep-rooted non-legume (Cichorium intybus L.),...

Data from: Rapid evolution of symbiont-mediated resistance compromises biological control of aphids by parasitoids

Heidi Kaech, Hugo Mathé-Hubert, Alice Dennis, Christoph Vorburger & Alice B. Dennis
There is growing interest in biological control as a sustainable and environmentally friendly way to control pest insects. Aphids are among the most detrimental agricultural pests worldwide, and parasitoid wasps are frequently employed for their control. The use of asexual parasitoids may improve the effectiveness of biological control because only females kill hosts and because asexual populations have a higher growth rate than sexuals. However, asexuals may have a reduced capacity to track evolutionary change...

Data from: Socio-economic impact classification of alien taxa (SEICAT)

Sven Bacher, Tim M. Blackburn, Franz Essl, Piero Genovesi, Jaakko Heikkilä, Jonathan M. Jeschke, Glyn Jones, Reuben Keller, Marc Kenis, Christoph Kueffer, Angeliki F. Martinou, Wolfgang Nentwig, Jan Pergl, Petr Pyšek, Wolfgang Rabitsch, David M. Richardson, Helen E. Roy, Wolf-Christian Saul, Riccardo Scalera, Montserrat Vila, John R. U. Wilson, Sabina Kumschick & Sabrina Kumschick
Many alien taxa are known to cause socio-economic impacts by affecting the different constituents of human well-being (security; material and non-material assets; health; social, spiritual and cultural relations; freedom of choice and action). Attempts to quantify socio-economic impacts in monetary terms are unlikely to provide a useful basis for evaluating and comparing impacts of alien taxa because they are notoriously difficult to measure and important aspects of human well-being are ignored. Here, we propose a...

Data from: Cheaper isn’t always worse: more protective isolates of a defensive symbiont are less costly to the aphid host

Luis Cayetano, Lukas Rothacher, Jean-Christophe Simon, Christoph Vorburger & J.-C. Simon
Defences against parasites are typically associated with costs to the host that contribute to the maintenance of variation in resistance. This also applies to the defence provided by the facultative bacterial endosymbiont Hamiltonella defensa, which protects its aphid hosts against parasitoid wasps while imposing life-history costs. To investigate the cost–benefit relationship within protected hosts, we introduced multiple isolates of H. defensa to the same genetic backgrounds of black bean aphids, Aphis fabae, and we quantified...

Data from: Back from the brink: potential for genetic rescue in a critically endangered tree

Aline Finger, Chris J Kettle, Christopher N Kaiser-Bunbury, Terence Valentin, Denis Matatiken, Damien Dudee & Jaboury Ghazoul
Rare plant species are vulnerable to genetic erosion and inbreeding associated with small population size and isolation due to increasing fragmentation, though the degree to which these problems undermine population viability remains debated. We explore genetic and reproductive processes in the critically endangered long-lived tropical tree Medusagyne oppositifolia, an endemic to the Seychelles with a naturally patchy distribution. This species is failing to recruit in three of its four populations. We evaluate whether recruitment failure...

Data from: Plant life history stage and nurse age change the development of ecological networks in an arid ecosystem

Gianalberto Losapio, Francisco I. Pugnaire, Michael J. O'Brien & Christian Schöb
Understanding how ecological networks are organised over the course of an organism’s lifetime is crucial for predicting the dynamics of interacting populations and communities across temporal scales. However, most studies so far considered only one life history stage at a time, such as adult, when studying networks of interacting species. Therefore, knowledge about how multiple life history stages affect the development and stability of plant–plant association networks is lacking. We measured the understory adult plant...

Data from: Dynamic NF-κB and E2F interactions control the priority and timing of inflammatory signalling and cell proliferation

John M. Ankers, Raheela Awais, Nicholas A. Jones, James Boyd, Sheila Ryan, Anotony D. Adamson, Claire V. Harper, Lloyd Bridge, David G. Spiller, Dean A. Jackson, Pawel Paszek, Violaine Sée & Micheal R. H. White
Dynamic cellular systems reprogram gene expression to ensure appropriate cellular fate responses to specific extracellular cues. Here we demonstrate that the dynamics of Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF-κB) signalling and the cell cycle are prioritised differently depending on the timing of an inflammatory signal. Using iterative experimental and computational analyses, we show physical and functional interactions between NF-κB and the E2 Factor 1 (E2F-1) and E2 Factor 4 (E2F-4) cell cycle regulators. These interactions modulate...

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  • Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich
  • ETH Zurich
  • University of Zurich
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology
  • Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research
  • Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research
  • University of Oxford
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
  • University of Lausanne
  • University of East Anglia