302 Works

Data from: Combined effects of mutualistic rhizobacteria counteract virus-induced suppression of indirect plant defenses in soybean

Hannier Pullido, Kerry E. Mauck, Consuelo M. De Moraes & Mark C. Mescher
It is increasingly clear that microbial plant symbionts can influence interactions between their plant hosts and other organisms. Yet, such effects remain poorly understood, particularly under ecologically realistic conditions where plants simultaneously interact with diverse mutualists and antagonists. Here we examine how the effects of a plant virus on indirect plant defenses against its insect vector are influenced by co-occurrence of other microbial plant symbionts. Using a multi-factorial design, we manipulated colonization of soybean using...

Data from: Social genes are selection hotspots in kin groups of a soil microbe

Sébastien Wielgoss, Rebekka Wolfensberger, Lei Sun, Francesca Fiegna & Gregory J. Velicer
The composition of cooperative systems, including animal societies, organismal bodies, and microbial groups, reflects their past and shapes their future evolution. However, genomic diversity within many multiunit systems remains uncharacterized, limiting our ability to understand and compare their evolutionary character. We have analyzed genomic and social-phenotype variation among 120 natural isolates of the cooperative bacterium Myxococcus xanthus derived from six multicellular fruiting bodies. Each fruiting body was composed of multiple lineages radiating from a unique...

Data from: Dissimilarity of individual microsatellite profiles under different mutation models: empirical approach

Evsey Kosman & Jukka Jokela
Microsatellites (simple sequence repeats, SSRs) still remain popular molecular markers for studying neutral genetic variation. Two alternative models outline how new microsatellite alleles evolve. Infinite alleles model (IAM) assumes that all possible alleles are equally likely to result from a mutation, while stepwise mutation model (SMM) describes microsatellite evolution as stepwise adding or subtracting single repeat units. Genetic relationships between individuals can be analyzed in higher precision when assuming the SMM scenario with allele size...

Behavioral interactions between bacterivorous nematodes and predatory bacteria in a synthetic community

Nicola Mayrhofer, Gregory J. Velicer, Kaitlin A. Schaal & Marie Vasse
Theory and empirical studies in metazoans predict that apex predators should shape the behavior and ecology of mesopredators and prey at lower trophic levels. Despite the ecological importance of microbial communities, few studies of predatory microbes examine such behavioral responses and the multiplicity of trophic interactions. Here, we sought to assemble a three-level microbial food chain and to test for behavioral interactions between the predatory nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the predatory social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus...

Similar cost of Hamiltonella defensa in experimental and natural aphid-endosymbiont associations

Heidi Kaech, Christoph Vorburger & Stephanie Jud
Endosymbiont-conferred resistance to parasitoids is common in aphids, but comes at a cost to the host in the absence of parasitoids. In black bean aphids (Aphis fabae), costs in terms of reduced lifespan and lifetime reproduction were demonstrated by introducing eleven isolates of the protective symbiont Hamiltonella defensa into previously uninfected aphid clones. Transfection of H. defensa isolates into a common genetic background allows to compare the costs of different endosymbiont isolates unconfounded by host...

Data for: Immobilization of molecular catalysts on electrode surfaces using host–guest interactions

S. David Tilley, Laurent Sévery, Jacek Szczerbiński, Mert Taskin, Isik Tuncay, Fernanda Nunes, Chiara Cignarella, Gabriele Tocci, Olivier Blacque, Juerg Osterwalder, Renato Zenobi & Marcella Iannuzzi
Anchoring molecular catalysts on electrode surfaces combines the high selectivity and activity of molecular systems with the practicality of heterogeneous systems. Molecular catalysts, however, are far less stable than traditional heterogeneous electrocatalysts, and therefore a method to easily replace anchored molecular catalysts that have degraded could make such electrosynthetic systems more attractive. Here, we apply a non-covalent ‘click’ chemistry approach to reversibly bind molecular electrocatalysts to electrode surfaces through host–guest complexation with surface-anchored cyclodextrins. The...

Data from: Fitness benefits to bacteria of carrying prophages and prophage-encoded antibiotic-resistance genes peak in different environments

Carolin Wendling, Alex Hall & Dominik Refardt
Understanding the role of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in adaptation is a key challenge in evolutionary biology. In microbes, an important mechanism of HGT is prophage acquisition (phage genomes integrated into bacterial chromosomes). Prophages can influence bacterial fitness via transfer of beneficial genes (including antibiotic-resistance genes, ARGs), protection from superinfecting phages, or switching to a lytic lifecycle which releases free phages infectious to competitors. We expect these effects to depend on environmental conditions because of,...

Impacts of beekeeping on wild bee diversity and pollination networks in the Aegean Archipelago

Amparo Lázaro, Andreas Mueller, Andreas Ebmer, Holger Dathe, Erwin Scheuchl, Maximilian Schwarz, Stephan Risch, Alain Pauly, Jelle Devalez, Thomas Tscheulin, Carmelo Gómez-Martínez, Evangelos Papas, John Pickering, Nickolas Waser & Theodora Petanidou
Maintaining the diversity of wild bees is a priority for preserving ecosystem function and promoting stability and productivity of agroecosystems. However, wild bee communities face many threats and beekeeping could be one of them, because honey bees may have a strong potential to outcompete wild pollinators when placed at high densities. Yet, we still know little about how beekeeping intensity affects wild bee diversity and their pollinator interactions. Here, we explore how honey bee density...

Plant volatiles induced by herbivore eggs prime defenses and mediate shifts in the reproductive strategy of receiving plants

Foteini Paschalidou, Lisa Eyman, James Sims, James Buckley, Nina Fatouros, Consuelo De Moraes & Mark Mescher
Plants can detect cues associated with the risk of future herbivory and modify defense phenotypes accordingly; however, our current understanding is limited both with respect to the range of early warning cues to which plants respond and the nature of the responses. Here we report that exposure to volatile emissions from plant tissues infested with herbivore eggs promotes stronger defense responses to subsequent herbivory in two Brassica species. Furthermore, exposure to these volatile cues elicited...

Immune challenges increase network centrality in a queenless ant

Giacomo Alciatore, Line V. Ugelvig, Erik Frank, Jérémie Bidaux, Asaf Gal, Thomas Schmitt, Daniel J.C. Kronauer & Yuko Ulrich
Social animals display a wide range of behavioural defences against infectious diseases, some of which inherently increase social contacts with infectious individuals (e.g., mutual grooming), while others decrease them (e.g., social exclusion). These defences often rely on the detection of infectious individuals, but this can be achieved in several ways that are difficult to differentiate. Here, we combine non-pathogenic immune challenges with automated tracking in colonies of the clonal raider ant to ask whether ants...

Data from: Genomic signatures of convergent adaptation to Alpine environments in three Brassicaceae species

Christian Rellstab, Stefan Zoller, Christian Sailer, Andrew Tedder, Felix Gugerli, Kentaro K. Shimizu, Rolf Holderegger, Alex Widmer & Martin C. Fischer
It has long been discussed to what extent related species develop similar genetic mechanisms to adapt to similar environments. Most studies documenting such convergence have either used different lineages within species or surveyed only a limited portion of the genome. Here, we investigated whether similar or different sets of orthologous genes were involved in genetic adaptation of natural populations of three related plant species to similar environmental gradients in the Alps. We used whole-genome pooled...

Mating patterns influence vulnerability to the extinction vortex

Joanne Godwin, Alyson J. Lumley, Łukasz Michalczyk, Oliver Y. Martin & Matthew J. G. Gage
Earth’s biodiversity is undergoing mass extinction due to anthropogenic compounding of environmental, demographic and genetic stresses. These different stresses can trap populations within a reinforcing feedback loop known as the extinction vortex, in which synergistic pressures build upon one another through time, driving down population viability. Sexual selection, the widespread evolutionary force arising from competition, choice and reproductive variance within animal mating patterns, could have vital consequences for population viability and the extinction vortex: 1)...

Adaptation to drought is coupled with slow growth, but independent from phenology in marginal silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) populations

Katalin Csillery, Nina Buchmann & Bruno Fady
Drought is one of the most important selection pressures for forest trees in the context of climate change. Yet, the different evolutionary mechanisms, and their environmental drivers, by which certain populations become more drought tolerant than others is still little understood. We studied adaptation to drought in 16 silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) populations from the French Mediterranean Alps by combining observations on seedlings from a large scale greenhouse experiment (N=8199) and on adult tress...

Extreme environments filter functionally rich communities of Atlantic Forest treefrogs along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients

Andrea Paz
Understanding how environmental filtering and biotic interactions structure communities across elevational and latitudinal gradients is still a matter of debate. To provide insight into their relative importance, we explore the mismatch between three dimensions of biodiversity (taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic), and compare their patterns to null models of random community assembly. We focus on a highly diverse tropical group: the tree frogs (hylids) of the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. For that, we combined geographic distribution...

Community composition of bacteria isolated from Swiss banknotes varies depending on collection environment

Anna Bischofberger & Alex Hall
Humans interact constantly with surfaces and associated microbial communities in the environment. The factors shaping the composition of these communities are poorly understood: some proposed explanations emphasize the influence of local habitat conditions (niche-based explanations), while others point to geographic structure and the distance among sampled locations (dispersal-based explanations). However, the relative roles of these different drivers for microbial community assembly on human-associated surfaces are not clear. Here, we used a combination of sampling, sequencing...

FGF-2-dependent signaling activated in aged human skeletal muscle promotes intramuscular adipogenesis

Sebastian Mathes, Alexandra Fahrner, Umesh Ghoshdastider, Hannes A. Rüdiger, Michael Leunig, Christian Wolfrum & Jan Krützfeldt
Aged skeletal muscle is markedly affected by fatty muscle infiltration and strategies to reduce the occurrence of intramuscular adipocytes are urgently needed. Here, we show that fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) not only stimulates muscle growth, but also promotes intramuscular adipogenesis. Using multiple screening assays upstream and downstream of microRNA (miR)-29a signaling, we located the secreted protein and adipogenic inhibitor SPARC to an FGF-2 signaling pathway that is conserved between skeletal muscle cells from mice and...

Dataset of nanoplastic transport in soil via bioturbation by Lumbricus terrestris

Wiebke Mareile Heinze, Denise M. Mitrano, Elma Lahive, John Koestel & Geert Cornelis
The dataset comprises data acquired in laboratory-based process-studies with microcosms on the transport of nanoplastics (polystyrene, 256 nm diameter) in an agricultural soil via bioturbation over the course of 4 weeks. Transport of nanoplastics was monitored through the use of palladium (Pd)-doped nanoplastics (0.24 % w/w) by analyzing soil samples at specific depths (0-2 cm, 2-6 cm, 6-15 cm, 15-29 cm) after defined experimental times (7, 14, 21, 28 days). Microcosms consisted of 30 cm...

Data from: Putting vascular epiphytes on the traits map

Peter Hietz, Katrin Wagner, Flavio Nunes Ramos, Juliano Sarmento Cabral, Gerhard Zotz, Claudia Agudelo, Ana Maria Benavides, Manuel Cach Pérez, Catherine Cardelús, Nahelli Chilpa Galván, Lucas Costa, Rodolfo De Paula Oliveiras, Helena Einzmann, Rafael Farias, Valeria Guzmán Jacob, Michael Kessler, Catherine Kirby, Holger Kreft, Thorsten Krömer, Jamie Males, Samuel Monsalve Correa, Maria Moreno, Gunnar Petter, Casandra Reyes, Alfredo Saldaña … & Carrie Woods
Epiphyte trait data for the paper Hietz et al. 2021 Putting vascular epiphytes on the traits map. Journal of Ecology Plant functional traits impact the fitness and environmental niche of plants. Major plant functional types have been characterized by their trait spectrum, and the environmental and phylogenetic imprints on traits have advanced several ecological fields. Yet very few trait data on epiphytes, which represent almost 10% of vascular plants, are available. We collated >80,000 mostly...

DRIAMS: Database of Resistance Information on Antimicrobials and MALDI-TOF Mass Spectra

Caroline Weis, Aline Cuénod, Bastian Rieck, Karsten Borgwardt & Adrian Egli
Early administration of effective antimicrobial treatments is critical for the outcome of infections and the prevention of treatment resistance. Antimicrobial resistance testing enables the selection of optimal antibiotic treatments, but current culture-based techniques can take up to 72 hours to generate results. We have developed a novel machine learning approach to predict antimicrobial resistance directly from MALDI-TOF mass spectra profiles of clinical samples. We trained calibrated classifiers on a newly-created publicly available database of mass...

ISIMIP3a N-deposition input data

Jia Yang & Hanqin Tian
The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) provides a framework for the collation of a consistent set of climate impact data across sectors and scales. It also provides a unique opportunity for considering interactions between climate change impacts across sectors through consistent scenarios.
The ISIMIP3a part of the third simulation round is dedicated to i) impact model evaluation and improvement and ii) detection and attribution of observed impacts according to the framework of IPCC AR5 Working...

ISIMIP3a N-deposition input data

Jia Yang & Hanqin Tian
Nitrogen deposition data was interpolated to 0.5° by 0.5° by the nearest grid. Data from 2015 to 2021 are taken from 2014 as it is assumed to be same (Tian et al. 2018).

ISIMIP3a landuse input data

Jan Volkholz & Sebastian Ostberg
The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) provides a framework for the collation of a consistent set of climate impact data across sectors and scales. It also provides a unique opportunity for considering interactions between climate change impacts across sectors through consistent scenarios.
The ISIMIP3a part of the third simulation round is dedicated to i) impact model evaluation and improvement and ii) detection and attribution of observed impacts according to the framework of IPCC AR5 Working...

Data from: Is floral divergence sufficient to maintain species boundaries upon secondary contact in Mediterranean food-deceptive orchids?

Giovanni Scopece, Anis Zitari, Ahmed N. Helal, Alex Widmer, Salvatore Cozzolino, A Widmer & A N Helal
Analysing the processes that determine whether species boundaries are maintained upon secondary contact may shed light on the early phase of speciation. In Anacamptis morio and A. longicornu, two Mediterranean orchid sister-species, we used molecular and morphological analyses, together with estimates of pollination success and experimental crosses, to assess whether floral isolation can shelter the species' genomes from genetic admixture upon secondary contact. We found substantial genetic and morphological homogenization in sympatric populations in combination...

Data from: Genetic divergence in morphology-performance mapping between Misty Lake and inlet stickleback

Andrew P Hendry, K Hudson, J A Walker, K Räsänen & L J Chapman
Different environments should select for different aspects of organismal performance, which should lead to correlated divergence in morphological traits that influence performance. The result should be genetic divergence in aspects of performance, morphology, and associations (“maps”) between morphology and performance. Testing this hypothesis requires quantifying performance and morphology in multiple populations after controlling for environmental differences, but this is rarely done. We used a common-garden experiment to examine morphology and several aspects of swimming performance...

Data from: Climate effects on life cycle variation and population genetic architecture of the black bean aphid, Aphis fabae

Christoph Sandrock, Jabraeil Razmjou & Christoph Vorburger
Aphid species commonly have different reproductive modes ranging from cyclical to obligate parthenogenesis. The distribution of life cycle variation in aphids is generally determined by ecological forces, mainly climate, because only sexually produced diapausing eggs can survive harsh winters. Aphids are thus interesting models to investigate intrinsic and environmental factors shaping the competition among sexual and asexual lineages. We conducted a Europe-wide sampling of black bean aphids, Aphis fabae, and combined population genetic analyses based...

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