33 Works

Data from: Restoration and management for plant diversity enhances the rate of belowground ecosystem recovery

Ryan P. Klopf, Sara G. Baer, Elizabeth M. Bach & Johan Six
The positive relationship between plant diversity and ecosystem functioning has been criticized for its applicability at large scales and in less controlled environments that are relevant to land management. To inform this gap between ecological theory and application, we compared recovery rates of belowground properties using two chronosequences consisting of continuously cultivated and independently restored fields with contrasting diversity management strategies: grasslands restored with high plant richness and managed for diversity with frequent burning (n=20)...

Data from: Host effects on microbiota community assembly

Kathrin Näpflin & Paul Schmid-Hempel
1. To what extent host-associated microbiota assembly is driven by host selection or simply by happenstance remains an open question in microbiome research. 2. Here, we take a first step towards elucidating the relative importance of host selection on the establishing gut microbial community in an ecologically relevant organism. 3. We presented germ-free bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, workers from ten colonies with a “global” microbial species pool comprised of an equal mixture of the gut microbiota...

Data from: Associations among antibiotic and phage resistance phenotypes in natural and clinical Escherichia coli isolates

Richard C. Allen, Katia R. Pfrunder-Cardozo, Dominik Meinel, Adrian Egli & Alex R. Hall
The spread of antibiotic resistance is driving interest in new approaches to control bacterial pathogens. This includes applying multiple antibiotics strategically, using bacteriophages against antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and combining both types of antibacterial agents. All these approaches rely on or are impacted by associations among resistance phenotypes (where bacteria resistant to one antibacterial agent are also relatively susceptible or resistant to others). Experiments with laboratory strains have shown strong associations between some resistance phenotypes, but we...

Data from: Effects of prior exposure to antibiotics on bacterial adaptation to phages

Flor Inés Arias-Sánchez, Richard C. Allen & Alex R. Hall
Understanding adaptation to complex environments requires information about how exposure to one selection pressure affects adaptation to others. For bacteria, antibiotics and viral parasites (phages) are two of the most common selection pressures and are both relevant for treatment of bacterial infections: increasing antibiotic resistance is generating significant interest in using phages in addition or as an alternative to antibiotics. However, we lack knowledge of how exposure to antibiotics affects bacterial responses to phages. Specifically,...

Data from: Teosinte in Europe – searching for the origin of a novel weed

Miluse Trtikova, Andre Lohn, Rosa Binimelis, Ignacio Chapela, Bernadette Oehen, Niklaus Zemp, Alex Widmer & Angelika Hilbeck
A novel weed has recently emerged, causing serious agronomic damage in one of the most important maize-growing regions of Western Europe, the Northern Provinces of Spain. The weed has morphological similarities to a wild relative of maize and has generally been referred to as teosinte. However, the identity, origin or genetic composition of ‘Spanish teosinte’ was unknown. Here, we present a genome-wide analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for Spanish teosinte, sympatric populations of cultivated...

Data from: Co-occurrence and hybridization of anther-smut pathogens specialized on Dianthus hosts

Elsa Petit, Casey Silver, Amandine Cornille, Pierre Gladieux, Lisa Rosenthal, Emily Bruns, Sarah Yee, Janis Antonovics, Tatiana Giraud & Michael Hood
Host specialization has important consequences for the diversification and ecological interactions of obligate pathogens. The anther-smut disease of natural plant populations, caused by Microbotryum fungi, has been characterized by specialized host-pathogen interactions, which contribute in part to the isolation among these numerous fungal species. This study investigated the molecular variation of Microbotryum pathogens within the geographic and host-specific distributions on wild Dianthus species in southern European Alps. In contrast to prior studies on this pathogen...

Data from: A test of the hierarchical model of litter decomposition

Mark A. Bradford, G. F. Veen, Anne Bonis, Ella M. Bradford, Aimee T. Classen, J. Hans C. Cornelissen, Thomas W. Crowther, Jonathan R. De Long, Gregoire T. Freschet, Paul Kardol, Marta Manrubia-Freixa, Daniel S. Maynard, Gregory S. Newman, Richard S. P. Van Logtestijn, Maria Viketoft, David A. Wardle, William R. Wieder, Stephen A. Wood & Wim H. Van Der Putten
Our basic understanding of plant litter decomposition informs the assumptions underlying widely applied soil biogeochemical models, including those embedded in Earth system models. Confidence in projected carbon cycle-climate feedbacks therefore depends on accurate knowledge about the controls regulating the rate at which plant biomass is decomposed into products such as CO2. Here, we test underlying assumptions of the dominant conceptual model of litter decomposition. The model posits that a primary control on the rate of...

Data from: Non-glandular trichomes of Solanum carolinense deter feeding by Manduca sexta caterpillars and cause damage to the gut peritrophic matrix

Rupesh R. Kariyat, Jason D. Smith, Andrew G. Stephenson, Consuelo M. De Moraes & Mark C. Mescher
Plant trichomes constitute a first line of defence against insect herbivores. The pre- and post-ingestive defensive functions of glandular trichomes are well documented and include direct toxicity, adhesion, antinutrition and defence gene induction. By contrast, the defensive functions of non-glandular trichomes are less well characterized, although these structures are thought to serve as physical barriers that impede herbivore feeding and movement. We experimentally varied the density of stellate non-glandular trichomes in several ways to explore...

Data from: Population genetics and adaptation along elevation gradients in invasive Solidago canadensis

Emily V. Moran, Andrea Reid & Jonathan M. Levine
Gene flow between populations may either support local adaptation by supplying genetic variation on which selection may act, or counteract it if maladapted alleles arrive faster than can be purged by selection. Although both such effects have been documented within plant species' native ranges, how the balance of these forces influences local adaptation in invasive plant populations is less clear, in part because introduced species often have lower genetic variation initially but also tend to...

Data from: Nesting sites of giant honey bees modulated by landscape patterns

Charlotte Pavageau, Cédric Gaucherel, Claude Garcia & Jaboury Ghazoul
1. The composition of agro-ecological landscapes is thought to have important implications for the production of major crops through its effects on pollinator abundance and behaviour. 2. We explored the roles of land cover and land cover heterogeneity on bee nest distribution for Apis dorsata, a key species for coffee pollination, in a complex agroforest landscape. We emphasized scaling and non-uniform effects by combining two different approaches of spatial analysis, the point-pattern analysis and surface-pattern...

Data from: Cryptic lineages of a common alpine mayfly show strong life-history divergence

Marie Leys, Irene Keller, Christopher T. Robinson & Katja Räsänen
Understanding ecological divergence of morphologically similar but genetically distinct species – previously considered as a single morphospecies – is of key importance in evolutionary ecology and conservation biology. Despite their morphological similarity, cryptic species may have evolved distinct adaptations. If such ecological divergence is unaccounted for, any predictions about their responses to environmental change and biodiversity loss may be biased. We used spatio-temporally replicated field surveys of larval cohort structure and population genetic analyses (using...

Data from: Ranking quantitative resistance to Septoria tritici blotch in elite wheat cultivars using automated image analysis

Petteri Karisto, Andreas Hund, Kang Yu, Jonas Anderegg, Achim Walter, Fabio Mascher, Bruce A. McDonald & Alexey Mikaberidze
Quantitative resistance is likely to be more durable than major gene resistance for controlling Septoria tritici blotch (STB) on wheat. Earlier studies hypothesized that resistance affecting the degree of host damage, as measured by the percentage of leaf area covered by STB lesions, is distinct from resistance that affects pathogen reproduction, as measured by the density of pycnidia produced within lesions. We tested this hypothesis using a collection of 335 elite European winter wheat cultivars...

Data from: No carbon \"bet hedging\" in pine seedlings under prolonged summer drought and elevated CO2

Christoph Bachofen, Barbara Moser, Günter Hoch, Jaboury Ghazoul, Tom Wohlgemuth & Thomas Wohlgemuth
More frequent drought episodes are expected to cause higher mortality in isohydric tree species such as pines, because individuals close their stomata early during drought in order to maintain constant needle water potentials. It has been suggested that trees delay the ensuing carbon starvation by actively storing carbon at the expense of growth (“bet hedging”). Because such a strategy is only adaptive in drought-prone regions, we hypothesise that the degree of carbon “bet hedging” should...

Data from: Tracing coco de mer’s reproductive history: pollen and nutrient limitation reduce fecundity

Emma J. Morgan, Christopher N. Kaiser-Bunbury, Peter J. Edwards, Frauke Fleischer-Dogley & Christopher J. Kettle
Habitat degradation can reduce or even prevent the reproduction of previously abundant plant species. To develop appropriate management strategies, we need to understand the reasons for reduced recruitment in degraded ecosystems. The dioecious coco de mer palm (Lodoicea maldivica) produces by far the largest seeds of any plant. It is a keystone species in an ancient palm forest that occurs only on two small islands in the Seychelles, yet contemporary rates of seed production are...

Data from: Plant spines deter herbivory by restricting caterpillar movement

Rupesh R. Kariyat, Sean B. Hardison, Consuelo M. De Moraes & Mark C. Mescher
The spines of flowering plants are thought to function primarily in defence against mammalian herbivores; however, we previously reported that feeding by Manduca sexta caterpillars on the leaves of horsenettle plants (Solanum carolinense) induces increased development of internode spines on new growth. To determine whether and how spines impact caterpillar feeding, we conducted assays with three Solanaceous plant species that vary in spine numbers (S. carolinense, S. atropurpureum and S. aethiopicum) and also manipulated spine...

Data from: A web platform for landuse, climate, demography, hydrology and beach erosion in the Black Sea catchment

Anthony Lehmann, Yaniss Guigoz, Nicolas Ray, Emanuele Mancuso, Karim C. Abbaspour, Elham Rouholahnejad Freund, Karin Allenbach, Andrea De Bono, Marc Fasel, Ana Gago-Silva, Roger Bär, Pierre Lacroix & Grégory Giuliani
The Black Sea catchment (BSC) is facing important demographic, climatic and landuse changes that may increase pollution, vulnerability and scarcity of water resources, as well as beach erosion through sea level rise. Limited access to reliable time-series monitoring data from environmental, statistical, and socio-economical sources is a major barrier to policy development and decision-making. To address these issues, a web-based platform was developed to enable discovery and access to key environmental information for the region....

Data from: Water-borne pharmaceuticals reduce phenotypic diversity and response capacity of natural phytoplankton communities

Francesco Pomati, Jukka Jokela, Sara Castiglioni, Mirdul K. Thomas & Luca Nizzetto
Chemical micropollutants occur worldwide in the environment at low concentrations and in complex mixtures, and how they affect the ecology of natural systems is still uncertain. Dynamics of natural communities are driven by the interaction between individual organisms and their growth environment, which is mediated by the organisms' expressed phenotypic traits. We tested whether exposure to a mixture of 12 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP) influences phenotypic trait diversity in lake phytoplankton communities and...

Data from: Vegetation recovery in tidal marshes reveals critical slowing down under increased inundation

Jim Van Belzen, Johan Van De Koppel, Matthew L. Kirwan, Daphne Van Der Wal, Peter M. J. Herman, Vasilis Dakos, Sonia Kéfi, Marten Scheffer, Glenn R. Guntenspergen & Tjeerd J. Bouma
A declining rate of recovery following disturbance has been proposed as an important early warning for impending tipping points in complex systems. Despite extensive theoretical and laboratory studies, this ‘critical slowing down’ remains largely untested in the complex settings of real-world ecosystems. Here, we provide both observational and experimental support of critical slowing down along natural stress gradients in tidal marsh ecosystems. Time series of aerial images of European marsh development reveal a consistent lengthening...

Data from: Interaction rewiring and the rapid turnover of plant-pollinator networks

Paul J. CaraDonna, William K. Petry, Ross M. Brennan, James L. Cunningham, Judith L. Bronstein, Nickolas M. Waser & Nathan J. Sanders
Whether species interactions are static or change over time has wide-reaching ecological and evolutionary consequences. However, species interaction networks are typically constructed from temporally aggregated interaction data, thereby implicitly assuming that interactions are fixed. This approach has advanced our understanding of communities, but it obscures the timescale at which interactions form (or dissolve) and the drivers and consequences of such dynamics. We address this knowledge gap by quantifying the within-season turnover of plant–pollinator interactions from...

Data from: Interannual variations in needle and sapwood traits of Pinus edulis branches under an experimental drought

Marceau Guerin, Dario Martin-Benito, Georg Von Arx, Laia Andreu Hayles, Kevin L. Griffin, Rayann Hamdan, Nate G. McDowell, Robert Muscarella, Will Pockman, Pierre Gentine, William Pockman & Laia Andreu-Hayles
1) In the Southwest United States, recent large-scale die-offs of conifers raise the question of their resilience and mortality under droughts. To date, little is known about the interannual structural response to droughts. 2) We hypothesized that piñon pines (Pinus edulis) respond to drought by reducing the drop of leaf water potential in branches from year to year through needle morphological adjustments. We tested our hypothesis using a seven-year experiment in central New Mexico with...

Data from: Nanoindentation analysis of the micromechanical anisotropy in mouse cortical bone

Michele Casanova, Anna Balmelli, Davide Carnelli, Diana Courty, Philipp Schneider & Ralph Müller
Studies investigating micromechanical properties in mouse cortical bone often solely focus on the mechanical behaviour along the long axis of the bone. Therefore, data on the anisotropy of mouse cortical bone is scarce. The aim of this study is the first-time evaluation of the anisotropy ratio between the longitudinal and transverse directions of reduced modulus and hardness in mouse femurs by using the nanoindentation technique. For this purpose, nine 22-week-old mice (C57BL/6) were sacrificed and...

Data from: Experimental evolution reveals that sperm competition intensity selects for longer, more costly sperm

Joanne L. Godwin, Ramakrishnan Vasudeva, Lukasz Michalczyk, Oliver Y. Martin, Alyson J. Lumley, Tracey Chapman & Matthew J. G. Gage
It is the differences between sperm and eggs that fundamentally underpin the differences between the sexes within reproduction. For males, it is theorized that widespread sperm competition leads to selection for investment in sperm numbers, achieved by minimizing sperm size within limited resources for spermatogenesis in the testis. Here, we empirically examine how sperm competition shapes sperm size, after more than 77 generations of experimental selection of replicate lines under either high or low sperm...

Data from: Increase in multiple paternity across the reproductive lifespan in a sperm-storing, hermaphroditic freshwater snail

Anja Buerkli & Jukka Jokela
Polyandry is a common phenomenon and challenges the traditional view of stronger sexual selection in males than in females. In simultaneous hermaphrodites, the physical proximity of both sex functions was long thought to preclude the operation of sexual selection. Laboratory studies suggest that multiple mating and polyandry in hermaphrodites may actually be common, but data from natural populations are sparse. We therefore estimated the rate of multiple paternity and its seasonal variability in the annual,...

Data from: Parasitoid gene expression changes after adaptation to symbiont-protected hosts

Alice B. Dennis, Vilas Patel, Kerry M. Oliver & Christoph Vorburger
Reciprocal selection between aphids, their protective endosymbionts, and the parasitoid wasps that prey upon them offers an opportunity to study the basis of their coevolution. We investigated adaptation to symbiont-conferred defense by rearing the parasitoid wasp Lysiphlebus fabarum on aphids (Aphis fabae) possessing different defensive symbiont strains (Hamiltonella defensa). After ten generations of experimental evolution, wasps showed increased abilities to parasitize aphids possessing the H. defensa strain they evolved with, but not aphids possessing the...

Data from: Environmental DNA reveals that rivers are conveyer belts of biodiversity information

Kristy Deiner, Emanuel A. Fronhofer, Elvira Mächler, Jean-Claude Walser & Florian Altermatt
DNA sampled from the environment (eDNA) is a useful way to uncover biodiversity patterns. By combining a conceptual model and empirical data, we test whether eDNA transported in river networks can be used as an integrative way to assess eukaryotic biodiversity for broad spatial scales and across the land–water interface. Using an eDNA metabarcode approach, we detect 296 families of eukaryotes, spanning 19 phyla across the catchment of a river. We show for a subset...

Registration Year

  • 2017
    33

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    33

Affiliations

  • Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich
    33
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology
    7
  • University of Vermont
    2
  • Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries
    2
  • University of Fribourg
    2
  • University of Zurich
    2
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
    2
  • University of Bern
    2
  • University of Potsdam
    2
  • Freie Universität Berlin
    2