Ecological drift causes species abundances to fluctuate randomly, lowering diversity within communities and increasing differences among otherwise equivalent communities. Despite broad interest in ecological drift, ecologists have little experimental evidence of its consequences in nature, where competitive forces modulate species abundances. We manipulated drift by imposing 40-fold variation in the size of experimentally assembled annual plant communities and holding their edge-to-interior ratios comparable. Drift over three generations was greater than predicted by neutral models, causing...
Data from: Aphid specialization on different summer hosts is associated with strong genetic differentiation and unequal symbiont communities despite a common mating habitatChristoph Vorburger, Jenny Herzog & Romain Rouchet
Specialization on different host plants can promote evolutionary diversification of herbivorous insects. Work on pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) has contributed significantly to the understanding of this process, demonstrating that populations associated with different host plants exhibit performance trade-offs across hosts, show adaptive host choice and genetic differentiation, and possess different communities of bacterial endosymbionts. Populations specialized on different secondary host plants during the parthenogenetic summer generations are also described for the black bean aphid (Aphis...
Data from: Rapid evolution of symbiont-mediated resistance compromises biological control of aphids by parasitoidsHeidi Kaech, Hugo Mathé-Hubert, Alice Dennis, Christoph Vorburger & Alice B. Dennis
There is growing interest in biological control as a sustainable and environmentally friendly way to control pest insects. Aphids are among the most detrimental agricultural pests worldwide, and parasitoid wasps are frequently employed for their control. The use of asexual parasitoids may improve the effectiveness of biological control because only females kill hosts and because asexual populations have a higher growth rate than sexuals. However, asexuals may have a reduced capacity to track evolutionary change...
Studies investigating micromechanical properties in mouse cortical bone often solely focus on the mechanical behaviour along the long axis of the bone. Therefore, data on the anisotropy of mouse cortical bone is scarce. The aim of this study is the first-time evaluation of the anisotropy ratio between the longitudinal and transverse directions of reduced modulus and hardness in mouse femurs by using the nanoindentation technique. For this purpose, nine 22-week-old mice (C57BL/6) were sacrificed and...
Data from: Increase in multiple paternity across the reproductive lifespan in a sperm-storing, hermaphroditic freshwater snailAnja Buerkli & Jukka Jokela
Polyandry is a common phenomenon and challenges the traditional view of stronger sexual selection in males than in females. In simultaneous hermaphrodites, the physical proximity of both sex functions was long thought to preclude the operation of sexual selection. Laboratory studies suggest that multiple mating and polyandry in hermaphrodites may actually be common, but data from natural populations are sparse. We therefore estimated the rate of multiple paternity and its seasonal variability in the annual,...
Reciprocal selection between aphids, their protective endosymbionts, and the parasitoid wasps that prey upon them offers an opportunity to study the basis of their coevolution. We investigated adaptation to symbiont-conferred defense by rearing the parasitoid wasp Lysiphlebus fabarum on aphids (Aphis fabae) possessing different defensive symbiont strains (Hamiltonella defensa). After ten generations of experimental evolution, wasps showed increased abilities to parasitize aphids possessing the H. defensa strain they evolved with, but not aphids possessing the...
Data from: Experimental evolution reveals that sperm competition intensity selects for longer, more costly spermJoanne L. Godwin, Ramakrishnan Vasudeva, Lukasz Michalczyk, Oliver Y. Martin, Alyson J. Lumley, Tracey Chapman & Matthew J. G. Gage
It is the differences between sperm and eggs that fundamentally underpin the differences between the sexes within reproduction. For males, it is theorized that widespread sperm competition leads to selection for investment in sperm numbers, achieved by minimizing sperm size within limited resources for spermatogenesis in the testis. Here, we empirically examine how sperm competition shapes sperm size, after more than 77 generations of experimental selection of replicate lines under either high or low sperm...
Data from: Interannual variations in needle and sapwood traits of Pinus edulis branches under an experimental droughtMarceau Guerin, Dario Martin-Benito, Georg Von Arx, Laia Andreu Hayles, Kevin L. Griffin, Rayann Hamdan, Nate G. McDowell, Robert Muscarella, Will Pockman, Pierre Gentine, William Pockman & Laia Andreu-Hayles
1) In the Southwest United States, recent large-scale die-offs of conifers raise the question of their resilience and mortality under droughts. To date, little is known about the interannual structural response to droughts. 2) We hypothesized that piñon pines (Pinus edulis) respond to drought by reducing the drop of leaf water potential in branches from year to year through needle morphological adjustments. We tested our hypothesis using a seven-year experiment in central New Mexico with...
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich33
Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology7
University of Vermont2
Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries2
University of Fribourg2
University of Zurich2
French National Centre for Scientific Research2
University of Bern2
University of Potsdam2
Freie Universität Berlin2