18 Works

Data from: Phenological plasticity is a poor predictor of subalpine plant population performance following experimental climate change

Sebastian Block, Jake Alexander & Jonathan Levine
Phenological shifts, changes in the seasonal timing of life cycle events, are among the best documented responses of species to climate change. However, the consequences of these phenological shifts for population dynamics remain unclear. Population growth could be enhanced if species that advance their phenology benefit from longer growing seasons and gain a pre-emptive advantage in resource competition. However, it might also be reduced if phenological advances increase exposure to stresses, such as herbivores and,...

FoRCy: Rocking Shallow Foundation Performance in Slow Cyclic and Monotonic Experiments

Manouchehr Hakhamaneshi, Bruce L. Kutter, Andreas Gerasimos Gavras, Sivapalan Gajan, Angelos Tsatsis, George Gazetas, Ioannis Anastasopoulos, Tetsuya Kohno, Giovanna Pianese, Keshab Sharma, Lijun Deng, Weian Liu, Roberto Paolucci & Jonathan Monical
Numerous centrifuge experiments (e.g., Rosebrook 2001; Ugalde et al. 2007; Gajan and Kutter 2008; Deng et al. 2012; Hakhamaneshi et al. 2012; Liu et al. 2013; Allmond and Kutter 2014; Loli et al. 2014) and 1g shake-table experiments (e.g., Shirato et al. 2008; Drosos et al. 2012; Antonellis et al. 2015; Tsatsis and Anastasopoulos 2015) have demonstrated that rocking shallow foundations can be designed to provide re-centering and energy dissipation with little damage to the...

Data from: The effect of parasite infection on the recombination rate of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegyti

Giacomo Zilio, Moesch Lea, Bovet Nathalie, Sarr Anouk & Koella Jacob
Sexual reproduction and meiotic recombination generate new genetic combinations and may thereby help an individual infected by a parasite to protect its offspring from being infected. While this idea is often used to understand the evolutionary forces underlying the maintenance of sex and recombination, it also suggests that infected individuals should increase plastically their rate of recombination. We tested the latter idea with the mosquito Aedes aegypti and asked whether females infected by the microsporidian...

Data from: Dynamics of deep soil carbon - insights from 14C time series across a climatic gradient

Tessa Sophia Van Der Voort, Utsav Mannu, Frank Hagedorn, Cameron McIntyre, Lorenz Walthert, Patrick Schleppi, Negar Haghipour & Timothy I. Eglinton
Quantitative constraints on soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics are essential for comprehensive understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Deep soil carbon is of particular interest, as it represents large stocks and its turnover times remain highly uncertain. In this study, SOM dynamics in both the top and deep soil across a climatic (average temperature ~1-9 °C) gradient are determined using time-series (~20 years) 14C data from bulk soil and water-extractable organic carbon (WEOC). Analytical measurements...

Data from: Resistance gene carriage predicts growth of natural and clinical Escherichia coli isolates in the absence of antibiotics

Richard C. Allen, Daniel C. Angst & Alex R. Hall
Bacterial pathogens that carry antibiotic resistance alleles sometimes pay a cost in the form of impaired growth in antibiotic-free conditions. This cost of resistance is expected to be a key parameter for understanding how resistance spreads and persists in pathogen populations. Analysis of individual resistance alleles from laboratory evolution and natural isolates has shown they are typically costly, but these costs are highly variable and influenced by genetic variation at other loci. It therefore remains...

Data from: Sensitivity of global soil carbon stocks to combined nutrient enrichment

Thomas W. Crowther, Charlotte Riggs, Eric M. Lind, Elizabeth T. Borer, Eric W. Seabloom, Sarah E. Hobbie, E. R. Jasper Wubs, Peter B. Adler, Jennifer Firn, Laureano Gherardi, Nicole Hagenah, Kirsten S. Hofmockel, Johannes M. H. Knops, Rebecca L. McCulley, Andrew MacDougall, Pablo L. Peri, Suzanne M. Prober, Carly J. Stevens & Devin Routh
Soil stores approximately twice as much carbon as the atmosphere and fluctuations in the size of the soil carbon pool directly influence climate conditions. We used the Nutrient Network global change experiment to examine how anthropogenic nutrient enrichment might influence grassland soil carbon storage at a global scale. In isolation, enrichment of nitrogen and phosphorous had minimal impacts on soil carbon storage. However, when these nutrients were added in combination with potassium and micronutrients, soil...

Data from: Swapping birth and death: symmetries and transformations in phylodynamic models

Tanja Stadler & Mike Steel
Stochastic birth--death models provide the foundation for studying and simulating evolutionary trees in phylodynamics. A curious feature of such models is that they exhibit fundamental symmetries when the birth and death rates are interchanged. In this paper, we first provide intuitive reasons for these known transformational symmetries. We then show that these transformational symmetries (encoded in algebraic identities) are preserved even when individuals at the present are sampled with some probability. However, these extended symmetries...

Data from: Variation in growth and defence traits among plant populations at different elevations: implications for adaptation to climate change

James Buckley, Alex Widmer, Mark C. Mescher & Consuelo M. De Moraes
Alpine plants occurring at high elevation are vulnerable to ongoing climate change, yet relatively little is known about the potential for high‐elevation species to adapt to changing environmental conditions. In particular, the extent to which high‐elevation plants will be able to resist predicted increases in the intensity of biotic interactions, such as herbivory, remains unclear. Species distributed across broad elevational ranges provide an opportunity to investigate evolutionary mechanisms and traits involved in adaptation to varying...

Data from: Are Bitcoin bubbles predictable? Combining a generalized Metcalfe's law and the LPPLS model

Spencer Wheatley, Didier Sornette, Tobias Huber, Max Reppen & Robert Gantner
We develop a strong diagnostic for bubbles and crashes in Bitcoin, by analyzing the coincidence (and its absence) of fundamental and technical indicators. Using a generalized Metcalfe's law based on network properties, a fundamental value is quantified and shown to be heavily exceeded, on at least four occasions, by bubbles that grow and burst. In these bubbles, we detect a universal super-exponential unsustainable growth. We model this universal pattern with the Log-Periodic Power Law Singularity...

Data from: Sex is determined by XY chromosomes across the radiation of dioecious Nepenthes pitcher plants

Mathias Scharmann, T Ulmar Grafe, Faizah Metali & Alex Widmer
Species with separate sexes (dioecy) are a minority among flowering plants, but dioecy has evolved multiple times independently in their history. The sex determination system and sex-linked genomic regions are currently identified in a limited number of dioecious plants only. Here, we study the sex-determination system in a genus of dioecious plants that lack heteromorphic sex chromosomes and are not amenable to controlled breeding: Nepenthes pitcher plants. We genotyped wild populations of flowering males and...

Insights into the genetic architecture of sexual dimorphism from an interspecific cross between two diverging Silene (Caryophyllaceae) species

Fernanda Baena-Diaz, Alex Widmer & Niklaus Zemp
The evolution of sexual dimorphism in species with separate sexes is influenced by the resolution of sexual conflicts creating sex differences through genetic linkage or sex-biased expression. Plants with different degrees of sexual dimorphism are thus ideal to study the genetic basis of sexual dimorphism. In this study we explore the genetic architecture of sexual dimorphism between Silene latifolia and S. dioica. These species have chromosomal sex determination and differ in the extent of sexual...

Changing environments and genetic variation: natural variation in inbreeding does not compromise short-term physiological responses

James Buckley, Rónán Daly, Christina Cobbold, Karl Burgess & Barbara Mable
Selfing plant lineages are surprisingly widespread and successful in a broad range of environments, despite showing reduced genetic diversity, which is predicted to reduce long-term evolutionary potential. However, appropriate short-term plastic responses to new environmental conditions might not require high levels of standing genetic variation. In this study, we tested whether mating system variation among populations, and associated changes in genetic variability, affected short-term responses to environmental challenges. We compared relative fitness and metabolome profiles...

Data from: Predicting species occurrences with habitat network models

Damian Omar Ortiz-Rodríguez, Antoine Guisan, Rolf Holderegger & Maarten Van Strien
1. Biodiversity conservation requires modelling tools capable of predicting the presence or absence (i.e. occurrence-state) of species in habitat patches. Local habitat characteristics of a patch (lh), the cost of traversing the landscape matrix between patches (weighted connectivity; (wc), and the position of the patch in the habitat network topology (nt) all influence occurrence-state. Existing models are data demanding or consider only local habitat characteristics. We address these shortcomings and present a network-based modelling approach,...

Data from: Unstable infiltration experiments in dry porous media

C. J. M. Cremer, C. Schuetz, I. Neuweiler, P. Lehmann & E. H. Lehmann
Prediction of infiltration in porous media is challenged by finger formation and unstable displacement of the wetting front. We present a systematic experimental study on the effect of packings and infiltration rates on unstable flow into initially dry porous media. We conducted small two- and three-dimensional experiments where water contents were measured with neutron radiography and larger two-dimensional experiments, which we evaluated by obtaining commonly used finger properties such as width and velocity from image...

Data from: Adaptation to local climate in a multi-trait space: evidence from silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) populations across a heterogeneous environment

Katalin Csilléry, Otso Ovaskainen, Christoph Sperisen, Nina Buchmann, Alex Widmer & Felix Gugerli
Heterogeneous environments, such as mountainous landscapes, create spatially varying selection pressure that potentially affects several traits simultaneously across different life stages, yet little is known about the general patterns and drivers of adaptation in such complex settings. We studied silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) populations across Switzerland and characterized their mountainous landscape using downscaled historical climate data. We sampled 387 trees from 19 populations and genotyped them at 374 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to estimate their...

Data from: Combined effects of mutualistic rhizobacteria counteract virus-induced suppression of indirect plant defenses in soybean

Hannier Pullido, Kerry E. Mauck, Consuelo M. De Moraes & Mark C. Mescher
It is increasingly clear that microbial plant symbionts can influence interactions between their plant hosts and other organisms. Yet, such effects remain poorly understood, particularly under ecologically realistic conditions where plants simultaneously interact with diverse mutualists and antagonists. Here we examine how the effects of a plant virus on indirect plant defenses against its insect vector are influenced by co-occurrence of other microbial plant symbionts. Using a multi-factorial design, we manipulated colonization of soybean using...

Data from: Social genes are selection hotspots in kin groups of a soil microbe

Sébastien Wielgoss, Rebekka Wolfensberger, Lei Sun, Francesca Fiegna & Gregory J. Velicer
The composition of cooperative systems, including animal societies, organismal bodies, and microbial groups, reflects their past and shapes their future evolution. However, genomic diversity within many multiunit systems remains uncharacterized, limiting our ability to understand and compare their evolutionary character. We have analyzed genomic and social-phenotype variation among 120 natural isolates of the cooperative bacterium Myxococcus xanthus derived from six multicellular fruiting bodies. Each fruiting body was composed of multiple lineages radiating from a unique...

Data from: Dissimilarity of individual microsatellite profiles under different mutation models: empirical approach

Evsey Kosman & Jukka Jokela
Microsatellites (simple sequence repeats, SSRs) still remain popular molecular markers for studying neutral genetic variation. Two alternative models outline how new microsatellite alleles evolve. Infinite alleles model (IAM) assumes that all possible alleles are equally likely to result from a mutation, while stepwise mutation model (SMM) describes microsatellite evolution as stepwise adding or subtracting single repeat units. Genetic relationships between individuals can be analyzed in higher precision when assuming the SMM scenario with allele size...

Registration Year

  • 2019

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich
  • Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research
  • University of Pretoria
  • Utah State University
  • Princeton University
  • University of Neuchâtel
  • University of Glasgow
  • University of Groningen
  • University of Alberta
  • University of Minnesota