38 Works

Data from: A de novo chromosome-level genome assembly of Coregonus sp. “Balchen”: one representative of the Swiss Alpine whitefish radiation

Philine Feulner, Rishi De-Kayne & Stefan Zoller
Salmonids are of particular interest to evolutionary biologists due to their incredible diversity of life-history strategies and the speed at which many salmonid species have diversified. In Switzerland alone, over 30 species of Alpine whitefish from the subfamily Coregoninae have evolved since the last glacial maximum, with species exhibiting a diverse range of morphological and behavioural phenotypes. This, combined with the whole genome duplication which occurred in the ancestor of all salmonids, makes the Alpine...

Leaf-out in northern ecotypes of wide-ranging trees requires less spring warming, enhancing the risk of spring frost damage at cold range limits

Constantin Zohner, Lidong Mo, Veronica Sebald & Susanne S Renner
Aim. Trees need to avoid frost damage to their young leaves by leafing out after the occurrence of the last frost, yet they also need to start photosynthesis early in the season to achieve sufficient growth. This trade-off leads to the hypothesis that ‘safety margins’ against spring frost should become shorter, the longer the winter duration, perhaps reaching an asymptotic limit where frost damage would occur in most years. Physiologically, shorter safety margins in high-latitude...

Data from: Bumble bees damage plant leaves and accelerate flower production when pollen is scarce

Foteini Pashalidou, Harriet Lambert, Thomas Peybernes, Mark Mescher & Consuelo De Moraes
Maintaining phenological synchrony with flowers is a key ecological challenge for pollinators that may be exacerbated by ongoing environmental change. Here, we show that bumble bee workers facing pollen scarcity damage leaves of flowerless plants and thereby accelerate flower production. Laboratory studies revealed that leaf-damaging behavior is strongly influenced by pollen availability and that bee-damaged plants flower significantly earlier than undamaged or mechanically damaged controls. Subsequent outdoor experiments showed that the intensity of damage inflicted...

A major combustion aerosol event had a negligible impact on the atmospheric ice-nucleating particle population

Michael Adams, Mark Tarn, Alberto Sanchez-Marroquin, Grace Porter, Daniel O'Sullivan, Alexander Harrison, Zhiqiang Cui, Jesús Vergara Temprado, Federico Carotenuto, Mark Holden, Martin Daily, Thomas Whale, Sebastien Sikora, Ian Burke, Jung-uk Shim, Jim McQuaid & Benjamin Murray
Clouds containing supercooled water are important for both climate and weather, but our knowledge of which aerosol particle types nucleate ice in these clouds is far from complete. Combustion aerosols have strong anthropogenic sources and if these aerosol types were to nucleate ice in clouds they might exert a climate forcing. Here, we quantified the atmospheric ice-nucleating particle (INP) concentrations during the UK’s annual Bonfire Night celebrations, which are characterised by strong anthropogenic emissions of...

The response of the ozone layer to quadrupled CO2 concentrations: implications for climate

Gabriel Chiodo & Lorenzo M. Polvani
The quantification of the climate impacts exerted by stratospheric ozone changes in abrupt 4 × CO2 forcing experiments is an important step in assessing the role of the ozone layer in the climate system. Here, we build on our previous work on the change of the ozone layer under 4 × CO2 and examine the effects of ozone changes on the climate response to 4 × CO2, using the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model. We...

Data from: Resident microbial communities inhibit growth and antibiotic resistance evolution of Escherichia coli in human gut microbiome samples

Michael Baumgartner
Countering the rise of antibiotic resistant pathogens requires improved understanding of how resistance emerges and spreads in individual species, which are often embedded in complex microbial communities such as the human gut microbiome. Interactions with other microorganisms in such communities might suppress growth and resistance evolution of individual species (e.g. via resource competition), but could also potentially accelerate resistance evolution via horizontal transfer of resistance genes. It remains unclear how these different effects balance out,...

Ecological patterns of root nodule diversity in cultivated and wild rooibos populations: a community prediction approach

Josep Ramoneda, Jaco Le Roux, Emmanuel Frossard, Beat Frey & Hannes Andres Gamper
There is interest in understanding the factors behind the biogeography of root-associated bacteria due to the joint effects that plant host, climate, and soil conditions can have on bacterial diversity. For legume crops with remaining wild populations, this is of even more importance, because the effects of cropping on undisturbed root-associated bacterial communities can be addressed. Here, we used a community prediction approach to describe the diversity of the root nodule bacterial communities of rooibos...

Exploring the role of genetic diversity and relatedness in tree seedling growth and mortality: a multi‐species study in a Bornean rain forest

Chris Kettle, Claire Tito De Morais, C.D. Philipson, C.R. Maycock, D.F.R.P Burslem, E. Khoo & J. Ghazoul
Where conspecific seedlings occur at high densities, density dependent processes tend to depress their performance and survival relative to co‐occurring heterospecifics. We extend this observation to within‐species genetic diversity and relatedness. We posit that seedling growth and survival increase where there is higher genetic diversity, and lower relatedness, among seedling populations, under the expectation that increased genetic dissimilarity among conspecific seedlings affords greater resistance to pathogens. We used estimates of individual seedling genetic diversity (multilocus...

Adaptation to drought is coupled with slow growth, but independent from phenology in marginal silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) populations

Katalin Csillery, Nina Buchmann & Bruno Fady
Drought is one of the most important selection pressures for forest trees in the context of climate change. Yet, the different evolutionary mechanisms, and their environmental drivers, by which certain populations become more drought tolerant than others is still little understood. We studied adaptation to drought in 16 silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) populations from the French Mediterranean Alps by combining observations on seedlings from a large scale greenhouse experiment (N=8199) and on adult tress...

Assessing the impact of incomplete species sampling on estimates of speciation and extinction rates

Rachel C. M. Warnock, Tracy A. Heath & Tanja Stadler
Estimating speciation and extinction rates is essential for understanding past and present biodiversity, but is challenging given the incompleteness of the rock and fossil records. Interest in this topic has led to a divergent suite of independent methods—paleontological estimates based on sampled stratigraphic ranges and phylogenetic estimates based on the observed branching times in a given phylogeny of living species. The fossilized birth–death (FBD) process is a model that explicitly recognizes that the branching events...

Data from: Nutrient availability controls the impact of mammalian herbivores on soil carbon and nitrogen pools in grasslands

Judith Sitters, E.R. Jasper Wubs, Elisabeth S. Bakker, Thomas W. Crowther, Peter B. Adler, Sumanta Bagchi, Jonathan D. Bakker, Lori Biederman, Elizabeth T. Borer, Elsa E. Cleland, Nico Eisenhauer, Jennifer Firn, Laureano Gherardi, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Sarah E. Hobbie, Johannes M.H. Knops, Andrew S. MacDougall, Rebecca L. McCulley, Joslin L. Moore, Brent Mortensen, Pablo L. Peri, Suzanne M. Prober, Charlotte Riggs, Anita C. Risch … &
Grasslands have been subject to considerable alteration due to human activities globally, including widespread changes in populations and composition of large mammalian herbivores and elevated supply of nutrients. Grassland soils remain important reservoirs of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). Herbivores may affect both C and N pools and these changes likely interact with increases in soil nutrient availability. Given the scale of grassland soil fluxes, such changes can have striking consequences for atmospheric C concentrations...

Plant volatiles induced by herbivore eggs prime defenses and mediate shifts in the reproductive strategy of receiving plants

Foteini Paschalidou, Lisa Eyman, James Sims, James Buckley, Nina Fatouros, Consuelo De Moraes & Mark Mescher
Plants can detect cues associated with the risk of future herbivory and modify defense phenotypes accordingly; however, our current understanding is limited both with respect to the range of early warning cues to which plants respond and the nature of the responses. Here we report that exposure to volatile emissions from plant tissues infested with herbivore eggs promotes stronger defense responses to subsequent herbivory in two Brassica species. Furthermore, exposure to these volatile cues elicited...

A Multi-Type Birth-Death model for Bayesian inference of lineage-specific birth and death rates

Joëlle Barido-Sottani, Timothy Vaughan & Tanja Stadler
Heterogeneous populations can lead to important differences in birth and death rates across a phylogeny. Taking this heterogeneity into account is necessary to obtain accurate estimates of the underlying population dynamics. We present a new multi-type birth-death model (MTBD) that can estimate lineage-specific birth and death rates. This corresponds to estimating lineage-dependent speciation and extinction rates for species phylogenies, and lineage-dependent transmission and recovery rates for pathogen transmission trees. In contrast with previous models, we...

Data from: Genomic signatures of convergent adaptation to Alpine environments in three Brassicaceae species

Christian Rellstab, Stefan Zoller, Christian Sailer, Andrew Tedder, Felix Gugerli, Kentaro K. Shimizu, Rolf Holderegger, Alex Widmer & Martin C. Fischer
It has long been discussed to what extent related species develop similar genetic mechanisms to adapt to similar environments. Most studies documenting such convergence have either used different lineages within species or surveyed only a limited portion of the genome. Here, we investigated whether similar or different sets of orthologous genes were involved in genetic adaptation of natural populations of three related plant species to similar environmental gradients in the Alps. We used whole-genome pooled...

Mating patterns influence vulnerability to the extinction vortex

Joanne Godwin, Alyson J. Lumley, Łukasz Michalczyk, Oliver Y. Martin & Matthew J. G. Gage
Earth’s biodiversity is undergoing mass extinction due to anthropogenic compounding of environmental, demographic and genetic stresses. These different stresses can trap populations within a reinforcing feedback loop known as the extinction vortex, in which synergistic pressures build upon one another through time, driving down population viability. Sexual selection, the widespread evolutionary force arising from competition, choice and reproductive variance within animal mating patterns, could have vital consequences for population viability and the extinction vortex: 1)...

Genomic vulnerability to rapid climate warming in a tree species with a long generation time

Benjamin Dauphin, Christian Rellstab, Max Schmid, Stefan Zoller, Dirk Karger, Sabine Brodbeck, Frédéric Guillaume & Felix Gugerli
The ongoing increase in global temperature affects biodiversity, especially in mountain regions where climate change is exacerbated. As sessile, long-lived organisms, trees are especially challenged in terms of adapting to rapid climate change. Here, we show that low rates of allele frequency shifts in Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra) occurring near the treeline result in high genomic vulnerability to future climate warming, presumably due to the species’ long generation time. Using exome sequencing data from...

Data from: Fitness benefits to bacteria of carrying prophages and prophage-encoded antibiotic-resistance genes peak in different environments

Carolin Wendling, Alex Hall & Dominik Refardt
Understanding the role of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in adaptation is a key challenge in evolutionary biology. In microbes, an important mechanism of HGT is prophage acquisition (phage genomes integrated into bacterial chromosomes). Prophages can influence bacterial fitness via transfer of beneficial genes (including antibiotic-resistance genes, ARGs), protection from superinfecting phages, or switching to a lytic lifecycle which releases free phages infectious to competitors. We expect these effects to depend on environmental conditions because of,...

Associations between sensitivity to antibiotics, disinfectants, and heavy metals in natural, clinical and laboratory isolates of Escherichia coli

Anna Bischofberger, Michael Baumgartner, Katia Pfrunder Cardozo, Richard C. Allen & Alex R. Hall
Bacteria in nature often encounter non‐antibiotic antibacterials (NAAs), such as disinfectants and heavy metals, and they can evolve resistance via mechanisms that are also involved in antibiotic resistance. Understanding whether susceptibility to different types of antibacterials is non‐randomly associated across natural and clinical bacteria is therefore important for predicting the spread of resistance, yet there is no consensus about the extent of such associations or underlying mechanisms. We tested for associations between susceptibility phenotypes of...

Hybridization and transgressive exploration of colour pattern and wing morphology in Heliconius butterflies

Claire Mérot, Vincent Debat, Yann Le Poul, Richard M Merrill, Russell E Naisbit, Adélie Tholance, Chris Jiggins & Mathieu Joron
Hybridization can generate novel phenotypes distinct from those of parental lineages, a phenomenon known as transgressive trait variation. Transgressive phenotypes might negatively or positively affect hybrid fitness, and increase available variation. Closely related species of Heliconius butterflies regularly produce hybrids in nature and hybridization is thought to play a role in the diversification of novel wing colour patterns despite strong stabilizing selection due to interspecific mimicry. Here, we studied wing phenotypes in first and second...

Simulations of planetary-scale collisions between rotating, differentiated bodies

Miles Timpe, Maria Han Veiga, Mischa Knabenhans, Joachim Stadel & Stefano Marelli
In the late stages of terrestrial planet formation, pairwise collisions between planetary-sized bodies act as the fundamental agent of planet growth. These collisions can lead to either growth or disruption of the bodies involved and are largely responsible for shaping the final characteristics of planets. Despite their critical role in planet formation, an accurate treatment of collisions has yet to be realized. Therefore, we simulated a new set of 10,700 smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of...

Data and R code for: An experimental approach to assessing the impact of ecosystem engineers on biodiversity and ecosystem functions

Gianalberto Losapio, Bernhard Schmid, Jordi Bascompte, Richard Michalet, Pierfilippo Cerretti, Christoph Germann, Jean-Paul Haenni, Rainer Neumeyer, Francisco Javier Ortiz-Sánchez, Adrian C Pont, Pascal Rousse, Jürg Schmid, Daniele Sommaggio & Christian Schöb
Plants acting as ecosystem engineers create habitats and facilitate biodiversity maintenance within plant communities. Furthermore, biodiversity research has demonstrated that plant diversity enhances the productivity and functioning of ecosystems. However, these two fields of research developed in parallel and independent from one another, with the consequence that little is known about the role of ecosystem engineers in the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning across trophic levels. Here, we present an experimental framework to study...

Midsea - Mantle Investigation of the Deep Suture between Eurasia and Africa

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Four institutions decided to populate the Mediterranean region with more BB instruments in the same time period and call our collective experiments MIDSEA. ETH put out 12 stations in 5 countries, UNSA/CNRS put 6 stations in France and italy, CIW put 5 stations in the Azores, and INGV put 2 stations in Italy. Two of the ETH stations are available at Geofon (MELI) and Inst. of Catalan Studies (POBL, autodrm) data centers, respectively. The other...

Decomposition disentangled: a test of the multiple mechanisms by which nitrogen enrichment alters litter decomposition

Eric Allan, Noémie Pichon, Seraina Cappelli, Santiago Soliveres, Norbert Hölzel, Valentin Klaus & Till Kleinebecker
Nitrogen (N) enrichment has direct effects on ecosystem functioning by altering soil abiotic conditions and indirect effects by reducing plant diversity and shifting plant functional composition from dominance by slow to fast growing species. Litter decomposition is a key ecosystem function and is affected by N enrichment either by a change in litter quality (the recalcitrance of the plant material) or through a change in soil quality (the abiotic and biotic components of the soil...

Data from: Adaptive reduction of male gamete number in the selfing plant Arabidopsis thaliana

Takashi Tsuchimatsu, Hiroyuki Kakui, Misako Yamazaki, Cindy Marona, Hiroki Tsutsui, Afif Hedhly, Dazhe Meng, Yutaka Sato, Thomas Städler, Ueli Grossniklaus, Masahiro Kanaoka, Michael Lenhard, Magnus Nordborg & Kentaro Shimizu
The number of male gametes is critical for reproductive success and varies between and within species. The evolutionary reduction of the number of pollen grains encompassing the male gametes is widespread in selfing plants. Here, we employ genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify underlying loci and to assess the molecular signatures of selection on pollen number-associated loci in the predominantly selfing plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Regions of strong association with pollen number are enriched for signatures...

Data from: Mate availability determines use of alternative reproductive phenotypes in hermaphrodites

Anja Felmy, Nora Weissert & Jukka Jokela
In many species individuals can employ alternative reproductive phenotypes, with profound consequences for individual fitness and population dynamics. This is particularly relevant for self-compatible hermaphrodites, which have exceptionally many reproductive options. Here we investigated the occurrence of reproductive phenotypes in the simultaneously hermaphroditic freshwater snail Radix balthica under experimentally simulated conditions of low vs. moderate population density. We captured all mating behavior on camera and measured individual female lifetime reproductive success. We found every possible...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    38

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    38

Affiliations

  • Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich
    33
  • University of Zurich
    5
  • Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research
    4
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology
    3
  • ETH Zurich
    3
  • Stanford University
    2
  • Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
    2
  • Iowa State University
    2
  • Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich
    2
  • ETHZ (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich Switzerland)
    2