700 Works

Dataset: Direct Visualization of Trimerized States in 1T′−TaTe2

Ismail El Baggari, Nikhil Sivadas, Gregory Stiehl, Jacob Waelder, Daniel Ralph, Craig J. fennie & Lena Kourkoutis

Reproduction Materials for: Despite Appearances: Comparing Emotion Recognition in Abstract and Humanoid Avatars Using Nonverbal Behavior in Social Virtual Reality

Yilu Sun & Andrea Stevenson Won
PI-Provided Abstract: Poverty is prevalent in the small-farm sector of many developing countries. A large literature suggests that contract farming—a pre-harvest agreement between farmers and buyers—can facilitate smallholder market participation, improve household welfare, and promote rural development. These findings have influenced the development policy debate, but the external validity of the extant evidence is limited. Available studies typically focus on a single contract scheme or on a small geographical area in one country. We generate...

Staging to join non-kin groups in a classical cooperative breeder, the Florida scrub-jay

Young Ha Suh, Reed Bowman & John Fitzpatrick
1. Why unrelated members form groups in animal societies remains a pertinent topic in evolutionary biology because benefits for group members often are not obvious. We studied subordinates that disperse to join unrelated social groups in the Florida scrub-jay Aphelocoma coerulescens, a cooperative breeding species mainly composed of kin-based groups. 2. We evaluated potential adaptive benefits of dispersing to become an unrelated helper (staging) versus remaining home and dispersing only to pair and breed (direct...

Dataset: Growth of Ta2SnO6 Films, a Candidate Wide-Band-Gap p‐Type Oxide

Matthew Barone, Michael mfoody, Yaoqiao HU, Jiaxin Sun, Bailey Frye, S. Sameera Perera, Biwas Subedi, Hanjong Paik, Jonathan Hollin, Myoungho Jeong, Kiyoung Lee, Charles Winter, Nikolas Podraza, Kyeongjae Cho, Adam Hock & Darrell Schlom
Raw data cited by "Growth of Ta2SnO6 Films, a Candidate Wide-Band-Gap p-Type Oxide" https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcc.1c10382

Tax and Expenditure Limits (TEL) Restrictiveness Index

Christine Wen & Mildred E. Warner

Data from: Seeing the Forest for the trees: Assessing genetic offset predictions from Gradient Forest

Áki Jarl Láruson, Matthew Fitzpatrick, Stephen Keller, Benjamin Haller & Katie Lotterhos
Gradient Forest (GF) is a machine learning algorithm designed to analyze spatial patterns of biodiversity as a function of environmental gradients. An offset measure between the GF predicted environmental association of adapted alleles and a new environment (GF Offset), is increasingly being used to predict the loss of environmentally adapted alleles under rapid environmental change, but remains mostly untested for this purpose. Here we explore the robustness of GF Offset to assumption violations, and its...

Data for: Nest cavity reuse by the cooperatively breeding Acorn Woodpecker

Walter Koenig
Although primary cavity-nesting species are capable of excavating new cavities, they often reuse old ones. To determine potential factors driving such reuse, we studied nest-cavity reuse in the Acorn Woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus), a cooperative breeding species that reuses old cavities for 57.2% of nests at Hastings Reservation in central coastal California, USA. We found no evidence for significant fitness costs or benefits of cavity reuse compared to using newly constructed cavities. In contrast, several lines...

Ecological consequences of large herbivore exclusion in an African savanna: 12 years of data from the UHURU experiment

Jesse Alston, Courtney Reed, Leo Khasoha, Bianca Brown, Gilbert Busienei, Nathaniel Carlson, Tyler Coverdale, Megan Dudenhoeffer, Marissa Dyck, John Ekeno, Abdikadir Hassan, Rhianna Hohbein, Rhiannon Jakopak, Buas Kimiti, Samson Kurukura, Peter Lokeny, Allison Louthan, Simon Musila, Paul Musili, Tosca Tindall, Sarah Weiner, Tyler Kartzinel, Todd Palmer, Robert Pringle & Jacob Goheen
Diverse communities of large mammalian herbivores (LMH), once widespread, are now rare. LMH exert strong direct and indirect effects on community structure and ecosystem functions, and measuring these effects is important for testing ecological theory and for understanding past, current, and future environmental change. This in turn requires long-term experimental manipulations, owing to the slow and often nonlinear responses of populations and assemblages to LMH removal. Moreover, the effects of particular species or body-size classes...

Reproduction Materials for the Chapter: \"The Empirical Analysis of Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation in Agriculture\" (Handbook of Agricultural Economics)

Ariel Ortiz-Bobea
Agriculture is arguably the most climate-sensitive sector of the economy. Growing concerns about anthropogenic climate change have increased research interest in assessing its potential impact on the sector and in identifying policies and adaptation strategies to help farmers cope with a changing climate, but also how to contribute to climate change mitigation. This chapter reviews recent advancements in the analysis of climate change impacts and adaptation in agriculture with an emphasis on econometric and statistical...

Data from: Tracking climate change in a dispersal-limited species: reduced spatial and genetic connectivity in a montane salamander

Guillermo Velo-Antón, Juan L. Parra, Gabriela Parra-Olea & Kelly R. Zamudio
Tropical montane taxa are often locally adapted to very specific climatic conditions, contributing to their lower dispersal potential across complex landscapes. Climate and landscape features in montane regions affect population genetic structure in predictable ways, yet few empirical studies quantify the effects of both factors in shaping genetic structure of montane-adapted taxa. Here, we considered temporal and spatial variability in climate to explain contemporary genetic differentiation between populations of the montane salamander, Pseudoeurycea leprosa. Specifically,...

Divergent neurogenomic responses shape social learning of both personality and mate preference

Pablo Delclos, Santiago Forero & Gil Rosenthal
Behavior plays a fundamental role in shaping the origin and fate of species. Mating decisions can act to promote or restrict gene flow, as can personality traits that influence dispersal and niche use. Mate choice and personality are often both learned and therefore influenced by an individual’s social environment throughout development. Likewise, the molecular pathways that shape these behaviors may also be co-expressed. In this study on swordtail fish (Xiphophorus birchmanni), we show that female...

Emergent social cohesion for coping with community disruptions in disasters

Chao Fan, Yucheng Jiang & Ali Mostafavi
Social cohesion is an important determinant of community well-being, especially in times of distress such as disasters. This study investigates the phenomena of emergent social cohesion, which is characterized by abrupt, temporary, and extensive social ties with the goal of sharing and receiving information regarding a particular event influencing a community. In the context of disasters, emergent social cohesion, enabled by social media usage, could play a significant role in improving the ability of communities...

Genetic drift does not sufficiently explain patterns of electric signal variation among populations of the mormyrid electric fish Paramormyrops kingsleyae

Jason Gallant, Sophie Picq, Joshua H Sperling, Catherine Cheng & Bruce Carlson
Communication signals serve crucial survival and reproductive functions. In Gabon, the widely distributed mormyrid fish Paramormyrops kingsleyae emits an electric organ discharge (EOD) signal with a dual role in communication and electrolocation that exhibits remarkable variation: populations of P. kingsleyae have either biphasic or triphasic EODs, a feature which characterizes interspecific signal diversity among the Paramormyrops genus. We quantified variation in EODs of 327 P. kingsleyae from 9 populations and compared it to genetic variation...

A new method to reconstruct quantitative food webs and nutrient flows from isotope tracer addition experiments

Andres Lopez-Sepulcre, Matthieu Bruneaux, Sarah Michelle Collins, Rana El-Sabaawi, Alexander S Flecker & Steven A Thomas
Understanding how nutrients flow through food webs is central in ecosystem ecology. Tracer addition experiments are powerful tools to reconstruct nutrient flows by adding an isotopically enriched element into an ecosystem, and tracking its fate through time. Historically, the design and analysis of tracer studies have varied widely, ranging from descriptive studies to modeling approaches of varying complexity. Increasingly, isotope tracer data is being used being used to compare ecosystems and analyze experimental manipulations. Currently,...

Data from: Mean annual temperature influences local fine root proliferation in tropical montane wet forest

Suzanne Pierre, Timothy J. Fahey, Creighton Litton, Christian Giardina & Jed Sparks
Mean annual temperature (MAT) is an influential climate factor affecting the bioavailability of growth-limiting nutrients nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). In tropical montane wet forests, warmer MAT drives higher N bioavailability, while patterns of P availability are inconsistent across MAT. Two important nutrient acquisition strategies, fine root proliferation into bulk soil and root association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, are dependent on C availability to the plant via primary production. The case study presented here tests...

The effectiveness of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control, pollination services and crop yield: a quantitative synthesis

Matthias Albrecht, David Kleijn, Neal Williams, Matthias Tschumi, Brett Blaauw, Riccardo Bommarco, Alistair Campbell, Matteo Dainese, Frank Drummond, Martin Entling, Dominik Ganser, Arjen De Groot, David Goulson, Heather Grab, Hannah Hamilton, Felix Herzog, Rufus Isaacs, Katja Jacot, Philippe Jeanneret, Mattias Jonsson, Eva Knop, Claire Kremen, Doug Landis, Greg Loeb, Lorenzo Marini … & Louis Sutter
Floral plantings are promoted to foster ecological intensification of agriculture through provisioning of ecosystem services. However, a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of different floral plantings, their characteristics and consequences for crop yield is lacking. Here we quantified the impacts of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control (18 studies) and pollination services (17 studies) in adjacent crops in North America, Europe and New Zealand. Flower strips, but not hedgerows, enhanced pest control services in...

Data from: Cascading effects of climate variability on the breeding success of an edge population of an apex predator

Laura Gangoso, Duarte Viana, Adriaan Dokter, Judy Shamoun-Baranes, Jordi Figuerola, Sergio Barbosa & Willem Bouten
1. Large-scale environmental forces can influence biodiversity at different levels of biological organization. Climate, in particular, is often associated to species distributions and diversity gradients. However, its mechanistic link to population dynamics is still poorly understood. 2. Here, we unraveled the full mechanistic path by which a climatic driver, the Atlantic trade winds, determines the viability of a bird population. 3. We monitored the breeding population of Eleonora’s falcons in the Canary Islands for over...

Selection on a small genomic region underpins differentiation in multiple color traits between two warbler species

Silu Wang, Sievert Rohwer, Devin De Zwaan, David Toews, Irby Lovette, Jacqueline Mackenzie & Darren Irwin
Speciation is one of the most important processes in biology, yet the study of the genomic changes underlying this process is in its infancy. North American warbler species Setophaga townsendi and S. occidentalis hybridize in a stable hybrid zone, following a period of geographic separation. Genomic differentiation accumulated during geographic isolation can be homogenized by introgression at secondary contact, while genetic regions that cause low hybrid fitness can be shielded from such introgression. Here we...

Common field data limitations can substantially bias sexual selection metrics

Emily Cramer, Sara Ann Kaiser, Mike S Webster & T Brandt Ryder
Sexual selection studies widely estimate several metrics, but values may be inaccurate because standard field methods for studying wild populations produce limited data (e.g., incomplete sampling, inability to observe copulations directly). We compared four selection metrics (Bateman gradient, opportunity for sexual selection, opportunity for selection, and s’max) estimated with simulated complete and simulated limited data for 15 socially monogamous songbird species with extra-pair paternity (4-54% extra-pair offspring). Inferring copulation success from offspring parentage creates non-independence...

Data from: Acoustically advertising male harbour seals in southeast Alaska do not make biologically relevant acoustic adjustments in the presence of vessel noise

Leanna P. Matthews, Michelle E. H. Fournet, Christine Gabriele, Susan E. Parks & Holger Klinck
Aquatically breeding harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) males use underwater vocalizations during the breeding season to establish underwater territories, defend territories against intruder males, and possibly to attract females. Vessel noise overlaps in frequency with these vocalizations and could negatively impact breeding success by limiting communication space. In this study we investigated whether harbour seals employed anti-masking strategies to maintain communication in the presence of vessel noise in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska. Harbour...

TypeTE: a tool to genotype mobile element insertions from whole genome resequencing data

Clément Goubert, Jainy Thomas, Lindsay Payer, Jeffrey Kidd, Julie Feusier, W. Scott Watkins, Kathleen Burns, Lynn Jorde & Cédric Feschotte
Alu retrotransposons account for more than 10% of the human genome, and insertions of these elements create structural variants segregating in human populations. Such polymorphic Alu are powerful markers to understand population structure, and they represent variants that can greatly impact genome function, including gene expression. Accurate genotyping of Alu and other mobile elements has been challenging. Indeed, we found that Alu genotypes previously called for the 1000 Genomes Project are sometimes erroneous, which poses...

Data from: Modifications during early plant development promote the evolution of nature’s most complex woods

Joyce G. Chery, Marcelo R. Pace, Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez, Chelsea D. Specht & Carl J. Rothfels
Secondary growth is the developmental process by which woody plants grow radially. The most complex presentations of secondary growth are found in lianas (woody vines) as a result of their unique demand to maintain stems that can twist without breaking. The complex woody forms in lianas arise as non-circular stem outlines, aberrant tissue configurations, and/or shifts in the relative abundance of secondary tissues. Previous studies demonstrate that abnormal activity of the vascular cambium leads to...

Strong sexual selection despite spatial constraints on extra-pair paternity

Emily Cramer, Emma Greig & Sara Kaiser
Extra-pair paternity should contribute to sexual selection by increasing the number of potential mates available to each individual. Potential copulation partners are, however, limited by their proximity. Spatial constraints may therefore reduce the impact of extra-pair paternity on sexual selection. We tested the effect of spatial constraints on sexual selection by simulating extra-pair copulations for 15 species of socially monogamous songbirds with varying rates of extra-pair paternity. We compared four metrics of sexual selection between...

Data from: Climate and rapid local adaptation as drivers of germination and seed bank dynamics of Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) in North America

Bernd Blossey, Victoria Nuzzo & Andrea Dávalos
Local differences in climate conditions may facilitate rapid evolutionary changes in introduced plants to optimize timing of germination or ability to survive in seed banks, which may constitute beneficial demographic adaptations during range expansions. Understanding differences in germination requirements and emergence patterns across a species’ range is critical for demographic modelling and potential invasive species control efforts. We assessed germination responses of Alliaria petiolata using seeds collected from 10 populations spanning much of the North...

Data from: Characterizing male-female interactions using natural genetic variation in Drosophila melanogaster

Michael Reinhart, Tara Carney, Andrew G. Clark & Anthony C. Fiumera
Drosophila melanogaster females commonly mate with multiple males establishing the opportunity for pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection. Traits impacting sexual selection can be affected by a complex interplay of the genotypes of the competing males, the genotype of the female, and compatibilities between the males and females. We scored males from 96 2nd and 94 3rd chromosome substitution lines for traits affecting reproductive success when mated with females from 3 different genetic backgrounds. The traits...

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