635 Works

Data from: Rapid speciation via the evolution of pre-mating isolation

Sheela Turbek, Melanie Browne, Adrián S. Di Giacomo, Cecilia Kopuchian, Wesley Hochachka, M. Cecilia Estalles, Darío Lijtmaer, Pablo Tubaro, Luís Fábio Silveira, Irby J. Lovette, Rebecca Safran, Scott Taylor & Leonardo Campagna
Behavioral isolation can catalyze speciation and permit the slow accumulation of additional reproductive barriers between co-occurring organisms. We illustrate how this process occurs by examining the genomic and behavioral bases of pre-mating isolation between two bird species (Sporophila hypoxantha and the recently discovered S. iberaensis) that belong to the capuchino seedeaters, a recent, rapid radiation characterized by variation in male plumage coloration and song. Though these two species co-occur without ecological barriers to reproduction, we...

The effectiveness of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control, pollination services and crop yield: a quantitative synthesis

Matthias Albrecht, David Kleijn, Neal Williams, Matthias Tschumi, Brett Blaauw, Riccardo Bommarco, Alistair Campbell, Matteo Dainese, Frank Drummond, Martin Entling, Dominik Ganser, Arjen De Groot, David Goulson, Heather Grab, Hannah Hamilton, Felix Herzog, Rufus Isaacs, Katja Jacot, Philippe Jeanneret, Mattias Jonsson, Eva Knop, Claire Kremen, Doug Landis, Greg Loeb, Lorenzo Marini … & Louis Sutter
Floral plantings are promoted to foster ecological intensification of agriculture through provisioning of ecosystem services. However, a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of different floral plantings, their characteristics and consequences for crop yield is lacking. Here we quantified the impacts of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control (18 studies) and pollination services (17 studies) in adjacent crops in North America, Europe and New Zealand. Flower strips, but not hedgerows, enhanced pest control services in...

R code for Snyder, Ellner, and Hooker, \"Time and chance: using age partitioning to understand how luck drives variation in reproductive success\"

Robin Snyder, Stephen Ellner & Giles Hooker
Over the course of individual lifetimes, luck usually explains a large fraction of the between- individual variation in lifespan or lifetime reproductive output (LRO) within a population, while variation in individual traits or “quality” explains much less. To understand how, where in the life cycle, and through which demographic processes luck trumps trait variation, we show how to partition by age the contributions of luck and trait variation to LRO variance, and how to quantify...

Data from: Cascading effects of climate variability on the breeding success of an edge population of an apex predator

Laura Gangoso, Duarte Viana, Adriaan Dokter, Judy Shamoun-Baranes, Jordi Figuerola, Sergio Barbosa & Willem Bouten
1. Large-scale environmental forces can influence biodiversity at different levels of biological organization. Climate, in particular, is often associated to species distributions and diversity gradients. However, its mechanistic link to population dynamics is still poorly understood. 2. Here, we unraveled the full mechanistic path by which a climatic driver, the Atlantic trade winds, determines the viability of a bird population. 3. We monitored the breeding population of Eleonora’s falcons in the Canary Islands for over...

Predators override rainfall effects on tropical food webs

Fabiola Ospina, Diane Srivastava, Angélica González, Jed Sparks & Emilio Realpe
Predators alter ecological communities by inducing changes in prey abundance and phenotypes, including elemental and isotopic composition. Climatic factors are known to often moderate predator effects on prey abundance, but few studies consider the combined effects of climate and predators on prey phenotype. We examined how altered precipitation moderates the effects of predators on the abundance and the chemical composition of prey, as well as the indirect effects on the basal resource: leaf litter coated...

A unifying framework for analyzing temporal changes in functional and taxonomic diversity along disturbance gradients

Erin Larson, N. Leroy Poff, W. Chris Funk, Rachel Harrington, Boris Kondratieff, Scott Morton & Alexander Flecker
Frameworks exclusively considering functional diversity are gaining popularity, as they complement and extend the information provided by taxonomic diversity metrics, particularly in response to disturbance. Taxonomic diversity should be included in functional diversity frameworks to uncover the functional mechanisms causing species loss following disturbance events. We present and test a predictive framework that considers temporal functional and taxonomic diversity responses along disturbance gradients. Our proposed framework allows us to test different multidimensional metrics of taxonomic...

Convergent craniofacial evolution and biogeography of weakly electric Mormyridae and Bonytongue Fishes (Osteoglossomorpha)

Rose Peterson, John Sullivan, Carl Hopkins, Aintzane Santaquiteria, Casey Dillman, Stacy Pirro, Ricardo Betancur, Dahiana Arcila, Lily C. Hughes & Guillermo Ortí
Bonytongues (Osteoglossomorpha) constitute an ancient clade of teleost fishes distributed in freshwater habitats throughout the world. The group includes well-known species such as arowanas, featherbacks, pirarucus, and the weakly electric fishes in the family Mormyridae. Their disjunct distribution, extreme morphologies, and electrosensory capabilities (Notopteridae and Mormyroidea) have attracted interest by many, yet a comprehensive phylogenetic framework for comparative analysis is missing. We provide a phylogenomic analysis of 179 species (out of 260), 28 out of...

Transcript expression data. Environmental responsiveness of flowering time in cassava genotypes and associated transcriptome changes

Tim Setter & Deborah Oluwasanya
To advance understanding of the mechanistic factors regulating cassava flowering, the leaf transcriptomes at 1) two stages of plant development were compared in two genotypes at Ubiaja and Ibadan, Nigeria; and 2) three controlled-environment growth chambers.

Attention and distraction in the modular visual system of a jumping spider

Elizabeth Jakob, Margaret Bruce, Daniel Daye, Skye Long, Alex Winsor, Ronald Hoy & Gil Menda
Animals must selectively attend to relevant stimuli and avoid being distracted by unimportant stimuli. Jumping spiders (Salticidae) do this by coordinating eyes with different capabilities. Objects are examined by a pair of high-acuity principal eyes, whose narrow field of view is compensated for by retinal movements. The principal eyes overlap in field of view with motion-sensitive anterior-lateral eyes (ALEs), which direct their gaze to new stimuli. Using a salticid-specific eyetracker, we monitored the gaze direction...

Rare plant species are at a disadvantage when both herbivory and pollination interactions are considered in an alpine meadow

Xinqiang Xi, Wenlong Zhou, Zhao Li, Lei Hu, Yuran Dong, Karl Niklas & Shucun Sun
1. Rare plant species often suffer less damage than common species because of positive density-dependent herbivory, and it has been suggested that this “rare species advantage” fosters plant species coexistence. However, it is unknown whether rare species have an advantage when pollination interactions are also considered. 2. We hypothesized that a “positive density-dependent pollination success” across plant species would result in common plants experiencing higher seed set rates compared to rare species, and that positive...

Data from: Early origin of sweet perception in the songbird radiation

Yasuka Toda, Meng-Ching Ko, Qiaoyi Liang, Eliot Miller, Alejandro Rico-Guevara, Tomoya Nakagita, Ayano Sakakibara, Kana Uemura, Timothy Sackton, Takashi Hayakawa, Simon Yung Wa Sin, Yoshiro Ishimaru, Takumi Misaka, Pablo Oteiza, James Crall, Scott Edwards, Shuichi Matsumura & Maude Baldwin
Early events in the evolutionary history of a clade can shape the sensory systems of descendant lineages. Although the avian ancestor may not have had a sweet receptor, the widespread incidence of nectar-feeding birds suggests multiple acquisitions of sugar detection. In this study, we identify a single early sensory shift of the umami receptor (the T1R1-T1R3 heterodimer) that conferred sweet-sensing abilities in songbirds, a large radiation containing nearly half of all living birds. We demonstrate...

Nitrification and denitrification in the Community Land Model compared to observations at Hubbard Brook Forest

Cynthia Nevison, Christine Goodale, Peter Hess, William Wieder, Julius Vira & Peter Groffman
Models of terrestrial system dynamics often include nitrogen (N) cycles to better represent N limitation of terrestrial carbon (C) uptake but simulating the fate of N in ecosystems has proven challenging. Here, key soil N fluxes and flux ratios from the Community Land Model version 5.0 (CLM5.0) are compared to an extensive set of observations from the Hubbard Brook Forest Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site in New Hampshire. Simulated fluxes include microbial immobilization and plant...

When text simplification is not enough: Could a graph-based visualization facilitate consumers’ comprehension of dietary supplement information?

Xing He, Rui Zhang, Jordan Alpert, Sicheng Zhou, Terrence Adam, Aantaki Raisa, Yifan Peng, Hansi Zhang, Yi Guo & Jiang Bian
Background: Dietary supplements are widely used. However, dietary supplements are not always safe. For example, an estimated 23,000 emergency room visits every year in the United States were attributed to adverse events related to dietary supplement use. With the rapid development of the Internet, consumers usually seek health information including dietary supplement information online. To help consumers access quality online dietary supplement information, we have identified trustworthy dietary supplement information sources and built an evidence-based...

Large-scale supplemental feeding alters lay date and nest survival in Eastern Bluebirds but not in two species of chickadees

Robyn L. Bailey & David N. Bonter
Wild bird feeding is a popular and growing activity, with approximately half of households participating in nations including the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, and Australia. Supplemental feeding can increase survival and reproductive success of birds (which is often a goal of supplemental feeding efforts), but it raises concerns about phenological mismatch, reduced clutch size, or increased risk of nest predation. Our objectives were to test whether access to supplemental food during...

Data from: Defense mutualisms enhance plant diversification

Marjorie G. Weber & Anurag A. Agrawal
The ability of plants to form mutualistic relationships with animal defenders has long been suspected to influence their evolutionary success, both by decreasing extinction risk and by increasing opportunity for speciation through an expanded realized niche. Nonetheless, the hypothesis that defense mutualisms consistently enhance plant diversification across lineages has not been well tested due to a lack of phenotypic and phylogenetic information. Using a global analysis, we show that the >100 vascular plant families in...

Data from: Herbivore release drives parallel patterns of evolutionary divergence in invasive plant phenotypes

Akane Uesugi & André Kessler
1. Herbivory can drive rapid evolution of plant chemical traits mediating defensive and competitive ability. At a geographic scale, plant populations that escape selection from their ancestral herbivores may evolve decreased defense and increased competitiveness. While contrasts between native and invasive populations of plants lend support to this hypothesis, such experiments cannot establish causal links between herbivory and evolved invasive phenotypes. 2. Here, we conducted geographic contrasts, and coupled these with long-term selection experiments that...

Data from: Characterizing male-female interactions using natural genetic variation in Drosophila melanogaster

Michael Reinhart, Tara Carney, Andrew G. Clark & Anthony C. Fiumera
Drosophila melanogaster females commonly mate with multiple males establishing the opportunity for pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection. Traits impacting sexual selection can be affected by a complex interplay of the genotypes of the competing males, the genotype of the female, and compatibilities between the males and females. We scored males from 96 2nd and 94 3rd chromosome substitution lines for traits affecting reproductive success when mated with females from 3 different genetic backgrounds. The traits...

Data from: Air pollution and visitation at national parks

David Keiser, Gabriel Lade & Ivan Rudik
Hundreds of millions of visitors travel to U.S. national parks every year to visit America’s iconic landscapes. Concerns about air quality in these areas have led to strict, yet controversial pollution control policies. We document pollution trends in U.S. national parks and estimate the relationship between pollution and park visitation. From 1990-2014, average ozone concentrations in national parks were statistically indistinguishable from the 20 largest U.S. metropolitan areas. Further, relative to U.S. cities, national parks...

Data from: Bidirectional adaptive introgression between two ecologically divergent sparrow species

Jennifer Walsh, Adrienne I. Kovach, Brian Justin Olsen, W. Gregory Shriver & Irby J. Lovette
Natural hybrid zones can be used to dissect the mechanisms driving key evolutionary processes by allowing us to identify genomic regions important for establishing reproductive isolation and that allow for transfer of adaptive variation. We leverage whole-genome data in a system where two bird species, the saltmarsh (Ammospiza caudacutus) and Nelson’s (A. nelsoni) sparrow, hybridize despite their relatively high background genetic differentiation and past ecological divergence. Adaptive introgression is plausible in this system because Nelson’s...

Data from: The role of cis regulatory evolution in maize domestication

Zachary H. Lemmon, Robert Bukowski, Qi Sun & John F. Doebley
Gene expression differences between divergent lineages caused by modification of cis regulatory elements are thought to be important in evolution. We assayed genome-wide cis and trans regulatory differences between maize and its wild progenitor, teosinte, using deep RNA sequencing in F1 hybrid and parent inbred lines for three tissue types (ear, leaf and stem). Pervasive regulatory variation was observed with approximately 70% of ~17,000 genes showing evidence of regulatory divergence between maize and teosinte. However,...

Data from: The loci of repeated evolution: a catalogue of genetic hotspots of phenotypic variation

Arnaud Martin & Virginie Orgogozo
What is the nature of the genetic changes underlying phenotypic evolution? We have catalogued 1008 alleles described in the literature that cause phenotypic differences among animals, plants and yeasts. Surprisingly, evolution of similar traits in distinct lineages often involves mutations in the same gene (“gene reuse”). This compilation yields three important qualitative implications about repeated evolution. First, the apparent evolution of similar traits by gene reuse can be traced back to two alternatives, either several...

Data from: Identification and distribution of the NBS-LRR gene family in the Cassava genome

Roberto Lozano, Martha T. Hamblin, Simon Prochnik & Jean-Luc Jannink
Background: Plant resistance genes (R genes) exist in large families and usually contain both a nucleotide-binding site domain and a leucine-rich repeat domain, denoted NBS-LRR. The genome sequence of cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a valuable resource for analysing the genomic organization of resistance genes in this crop. Results: With searches for Pfam domains and manual curation of the cassava gene annotations, we identified 228 NBS-LRR type genes and 99 partial NBS genes. These represent almost...

Data from: Assessing potential impact of Bt eggplants on non-target arthropods in the Philippines

Mario V. Navasero, Randolph N. Candano, Desiree M. Hautea, Randy A. Hautea, Frank A. Shotkoski & Anthony M. Shelton
Studies on potential adverse effects of genetically engineered crops are part of an environmental risk assessment that is required prior to the commercial release of these crops. Of particular concern are non-target organisms (NTOs) that provide important ecosystem services. Here, we report on studies conducted in the Philippines over three cropping seasons with Bt eggplants expressing Cry1Ac for control of the eggplant fruit and shoot borer (EFSB), Leucinodes orbonalis, to examine potential effects on field...

Data from: Kinship, inbreeding, and fine-scale spatial structure influence gut microbiota in a hindgut-fermenting tortoise

Michael L. Yuan, Samantha H. Dean, Ana V. Longo Berrios, Betsie B. Rothermel, Tracey D. Tuberville, Kelly R. Zamudio & Ana V. Longo
Herbivorous vertebrates rely on complex communities of mutualistic gut bacteria to facilitate the digestion of celluloses and hemicelluloses. Gut microbes are often convergent based on diet and gut morphology across a phylogenetically diverse group of mammals. However, little is known about microbial communities of herbivorous hindgut-fermenting reptiles. Here, we investigate how factors at the individual level might constrain the composition of gut microbes in an obligate herbivorous reptile. Using multiplexed 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we...

Data from: A combination of sexual and ecological divergence contributes to rearrangement spread during initial stages of speciation

Genevieve M. Kozak, Crista B. Wadsworth, Shoshanna C. Kahne, Steven M. Bogdanowicz, Richard G. Harrison, Brad S. Coates & Erik B. Dopman
Chromosomal rearrangements between sympatric species often contain multiple loci contributing to assortative mating, local adaptation, and hybrid sterility. When and how these associations arise during the process of speciation remains a subject of debate. Here, we address the relative roles of local adaptation and assortative mating on the dynamics of rearrangement evolution by studying how a rearrangement co-varies with sexual and ecological trait divergence within a species. Previously, a chromosomal rearrangement that suppresses recombination on...

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