635 Works

Rapid recovery by fat- and muscle-depleted Blackpoll Warblers following trans-oceanic migration is driven by time-minimization

Nicholas J. Bayly, Kenneth V. Rosenberg, Ryan Norris, Philip D. Taylor & Keith A. Hobson
Non-stop endurance flights are a defining characteristic of many long-distance migratory birds but subsequent recovery phases are not typically distinguished from fueling phases (collectively ‘stopovers’), despite endurance flights inducing marked physiological changes including flight muscle atrophy and gastrointestinal tract reductions. Here, we hypothesize that recovery requires unique behavioral adaptations, leading to departures from the predictions of optimal migration theory for time-minimizing migrants. We predict that recovering birds will 1) select (moist) food-rich habitats on arrival;...

Large herbivores suppress liana infestation in an African savanna

Tyler C. Coverdale, Ryan D. O'Connell, Matthew C. Hutchinson, Amanda Savagian, Tyler R. Kartzinel, Todd M. Palmer, Jacob R. Goheen, David J. Augustine, Mahesh Sankaran, Corina E. Tarnita & Robert M. Pringle
African savannas are the last stronghold of diverse large-mammal communities, and a major focus of savanna ecology is to understand how these animals affect the relative abundance of trees and grasses. However, savannas support diverse plant life-forms, and human-induced changes in large-herbivore assemblages—declining wildlife populations and their displacement by livestock—may cause unexpected shifts in plant community composition. We investigated how herbivory affects the prevalence of lianas (woody vines) and their impact on trees in an...

Data from: Local prey shortages drive foraging costs and breeding success in a declining seabird, the Atlantic puffin

Annette L Fayet, Gemma V Clucas, Tycho Anker-Nilssen, Martyna Syposz & Erpur S Hansen
As more and more species face anthropogenic threats, understanding causes of population declines in vulnerable taxa is essential. However, long-term datasets, ideal to identify lasting or indirect effects on fitness measures such as those caused by environmental factors, are not always available. Here we use a single year but multi-population approach on populations with contrasting demographic trends to identify possible drivers and mechanisms of seabird population changes in the north-east Atlantic, using the Atlantic puffin,...

Sex differences in the foraging behavior of a generalist hawkmoth

Gordon Smith
Within-species variation in pollinator behavior is widely observed, but itscauses have been minimally investigated. Pollinator sex is associated with large differ-ences in behavior that may lead to predictable differences in flower foraging, but thisexpectation has not been explicitly tested. We investigate sex-associated differences innectar-foraging behavior of the hawkmothHyles lineata, using pollen on the proboscisas a proxy for flower visitation. We tested two predictions emerging from the literature:(1) the sexes differ in the flower species they...

Data from: Haplotype associated RNA expression (HARE) improves prediction of complex traits in maize

Anju Giri, Merritt Burch, Edward Buckler & Guillaume Ramstein
Genomic prediction typically relies on associations between single-site polymorphisms and traits of interest. This representation of genomic variability has been successful for prediction within populations. However, it usually cannot capture the complex effects due to combination of alleles in haplotypes. Therefore, accuracy across populations has usually been low. Here we present a novel and cost-effective method for imputing cis haplotype associated RNA expression (HARE, RNA expression of genes by haplotype), studied their transferability across tissues,...

Sex-specific plasticity and the nutritional geometry of insulin-signaling gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster

Alexander Shingleton, Jeanne McDonald, Pegah Nabili, Lily Thorsen & Sohee Joen
Background Sexual-size dimorphism (SSD) is replete among animals, but while the selective pressures that drive the evolution of SSD have been well studied, the developmental mechanisms upon which these pressures act are poorly understood. Ours and others’ research has shown that SSD in D. melanogaster reflects elevated levels of nutritional plasticity in females versus males, such that SSD increases with dietary intake and body size, a phenomenon called sex-specific plasticity (SSP). Additional data indicate that...

A high-throughput skim-sequencing approach for genotyping, dosage estimation and identifying translocations

Laxman Adhikari, Jesse Poland, Sandesh Shrestha, Shuanyge Wu, Jared Crain, Lianglian Gao, Byron Evers, Duane Wilson, Yoonha Ju, Dal-Hoe Koo, Pierre Hulc, Curtis Pozniak, Sean Walkowiak, Xiaoyun Wang, Jing Wu, Jeffrey Glaubitz, Lee DeHaan & Bernd Friebe
An optimized, high-throughput and cost-effective genotyping method applicable to various crop breeding populations is very important in this genomic era. We have developed an optimized Nextera skim-sequencing (skim-seq) approach to genotype different populations that can be used for genetics studies and genomics-assisted breeding. We performed skim-seq on a variety of populations developed through doubled haploid (DH) technology, inter-specific recombinants developed through introgression, amphidiploid developed through wide crosses, and on known monosomic samples. 1. A doubled...

Proboscis curling in a pollinator causes extensive pollen movement and loss

Gordon Smith
1. Precise pollen placement on floral visitors can improve pollen transfer, but in many plant species, pollen is deposited onto the flexible proboscises of long-tongued insects. These proboscises are curled and uncurled between floral visits, potentially causing pollen to be lost or displaced. Rates of pollen movement and loss resulting from proboscis curling, and hence the potential quality of long-tongued insects as pollinators, are unknown. 2. Here we experimentally measure pollen loss and movement on...

Sex, age, and acoustic mating interactions affect the immunity of Aedes aegypti offspring

Courtney Murdock, Christine Reitmayer, Ashutosh Pathak, Laura Harrington, Melinda Brindley & Lauren Cator
Aedes aegypti is an important vector of several pathogenic arboviruses including dengue, chikungunya and Zika. Innovative approaches to control Aedes populations, involving synthetic transgenic modifications as well as Wolbachia bacteria, appear promising. For the various techniques requiring offspring inheritance of a trait, released males must successfully compete for mating partners against wildtype males. However, very little is known about mechanisms of mate selection in mosquitoes in general and in particular about potential correlations between mating...

Population assignment tests uncover rare long-distance larval dispersal events

Cassidy D'Aloia, Steven Bogdanowicz, Jose Andres & Peter Buston
Long-distance dispersal (LDD) is consequential to metapopulation ecology and evolution. In systems where dispersal is undertaken by small propagules, such as larvae in the ocean, documenting LDD is especially challenging. Genetic parentage analysis has gained traction as a method for measuring larval dispersal, but such studies are generally spatially limited, leaving LDD understudied in marine species. We addressed this knowledge gap by uncovering LDD with population assignment tests in the coral reef fish Elacatinus lori—a...

Power and limitations of environmental DNA metabarcoding for surveying leaf litter eukaryotic communities

Carla Martins Lopes, Délio Baêta, Thais Sasso, Agustín Vanzetti, Kelly Zamudio, Pierre Taberlet & Célio Haddad
Leaf litter habitats shelter a great variety of organisms, which play an important role in ecosystem dynamics. However, monitoring species in leaf litter is challenging, especially in highly diverse environments such as tropical forests, because individuals may easily camouflage themselves or hide in the litter layer. Identifying species based on environmental DNA (eDNA) would allow us to assess biodiversity in this microhabitat, without the need for direct observation of individuals. We applied eDNA metabarcoding to...

Data from: Topography, more than land cover, explains genetic diversity in a Neotropical savanna treefrog

Renato C. Nali, C. Guilherme Becker, Kelly R. Zamudio & Cynthia P. A. Prado
Aim: Effective conservation policies rely on information about population genetic structure and the connectivity of remnants of suitable habitat. The interaction between natural and anthropogenic discontinuities across landscapes can uncover the relative contributions of different barriers to gene flow, with direct consequences for decision-making in conservation. Therefore, we aimed to quantify the relative roles of land cover and topographic variables on the population genetic differentiation and diversity of a stream-breeding savanna treefrog (Bokermannohyla ibitiguara) across...

Onion (Allium cepa) pseudoreference genome

Joanne Labate, Jeffrey Glaubitz & Michael Havey
Onion (Allium cepa) is not highly tractable for development of molecular markers due to its large (16 gigbases per 1C) nuclear genome. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are useful for genetic characterization and marker-aided selection of onion because of codominance and common occurrence in elite germplasm. We completed genotyping by sequencing (GBS) to identify SNPs in onion using 46 F2 plants, parents of the F2 plants (Ailsa Craig 43 and Brigham Yellow Globe 15-23), two doubled...

Golden-winged Warbler post-fledging movement and stand-scale habitat selection

Cameron Fiss, Darin McNeil, Amanda Rodewald, Joseph Duchamp & Jeffery Larkin
Our understanding of songbird habitat needs during the breeding season stems largely from studies of nest success. However, growing evidence shows that nesting habitat and post-fledging habitat often differ. Management guidelines for declining species need to be revaluated and updated to account for habitat shifts that may occur across the full breeding cycle. The Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) is a declining songbird species for which best management practices (BMPs) are based overwhelmingly on nesting habitat....

Genomic differentiation and local adaptation on a microgeographic scale in a resident songbird

Jennifer Walsh, Stepfanie Aguillon, Yvonne Chan, Peter Arcese, Phred Benham, Irby Lovette & Chloe Mikles
Elucidating forces capable of driving species diversification in the face of gene flow remains a key goal in evolutionary biology. Song sparrows, Melospiza melodia, occur as 25 subspecies in diverse habitats across North America, are among the continent’s most widespread vertebrate species, and are exemplary of many highly variable species for which the conservation of locally adapted populations may be critical to their range-wide persistence. We focus here on six morphologically distinct subspecies resident in...

Experimental evidence that acorn woodpeckers recognize relationships among third parties no longer living together

Michael Pardo, Eric Walters & Walter Koenig
Triadic awareness, or knowledge of the relationships between others, is essential to navigating many complex social interactions. While some animals maintain relationships with former group members post-dispersal, recognizing cross-group relationships between others may be more cognitively challenging than simply recognizing relationships between members of a single group because there is typically much less opportunity to observe interactions between individuals that do not live together. We presented acorn woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus), a highly social species, with...

Data from: Mast seeding patterns are asynchronous at a continental scale

Jalene LaMontagne, Ian Pearse, David Greene & Walter Koenig
Resource pulses are rare events with a short duration and high magnitude that drive the dynamics of both plant and animal populations and communities. Mast seeding is perhaps the most common type of resource pulse that occurs in terrestrial ecosystems, is characterized by the synchronous and highly variable production of seed crops by a population of perennial plants, is widespread both taxonomically and geographically, and is often associated with nutrient scarcity. The rare production of...

Disentangling the assembly mechanisms of ant cuticular bacterial communities of two Amazonian ant species sharing a common arboreal nest

Caroline Birer, Corrie S. Moreau, Niklas Tysklind, Lucie Zinger & Christophe Duplais
Bacteria living on the cuticle of ants are generally studied for their protective role against pathogens, especially in the clade of fungus-growing ants. However, little is known of the diversity of cuticular bacteria in other ant host species, as well as of the mechanisms leading to the composition of these communities. Here, we used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to study the influence of host species, species interactions, and the pool of bacteria from the...

Spatial point pattern analysis of traces (SPPAT): an approach for visualizing and quantifying site-selectivity patterns of drilling predators

Alexis Rojas, Gregory Dietl, Michal Kowalewski, Roger W. Portell, Austin Hendy & Jason Blackburn
Site-selectivity analysis in drilling predation may provide useful behavioral information of a predator interacting with its prey. However, traditional approaches exclude some spatial information (i.e., oversimplified trace position) and are dependent on the scale of analysis (e.g., arbitrary grid system used to divide the prey skeleton into sectors). Here we introduce the spatial point pattern analysis of traces (SPPAT), an approach for visualizing and quantifying the distribution of traces on shelled invertebrate prey, which includes...

Polyethylene upcycling to long-chain alkylaromatics by tandem hydrogenolysis/aromatization

Fan Zhang, Manhao Zeng, Ryan Yappert, Jiakai Sun, Yu-Hsuan Lee, Anne LaPointe, Baron Peters, Mahdi Abu-Omar & Susannah Scott
The current scale of plastics production and the accompanying waste disposal problems represent a largely untapped opportunity for chemical upcycling. Tandem catalytic conversion by Pt/g-Al2O3 converts various polyethylene grades in high yields (up to 80 wt%) to low molecular-weight liquid/wax products, in the absence of added solvent or H2, with little production of light gases. The major components are valuable long-chain alkylaromatics and alkylnaphthenes (average ca. C30, Ð = 1.1). Coupling exothermic hydrogenolysis with endothermic...

Within-colony transmission of Microsporidian and Trypanosomatid parasites in honey bee and bumble bee colonies

Mario Pinilla-Gallego, Emma Williams, Abby Davis, Jacquelyn Fitzgerald, Scott McArt & Rebecca Irwin
Parasites are commonly cited as one of the causes of population declines for both managed and wild bees. Epidemiological models sometimes assume that increasing the proportion of infected individuals in a group should increase transmission. However, social insects exhibit behaviors and traits which can dampen the link between pathogen pressure and disease spread. Understanding patterns of parasite transmission within colonies of social bees has important implications for how to control diseases within those colonies, and...

Data from: A meta-analysis of global avian survival across species and latitude

Micah Scholer, Matt Strimas-Mackey & Jill Jankowski
Tropical birds are thought to be longer lived than many temperate species. We explored the idea of higher survival at tropical latitudes and whether extrinsic climate factors and intrinsic traits helped explain this pattern using a meta-analytical approach. The dataset consists of 949 estimates from 204 studies of avian survival from both New World and Old World biogeographical realms.

Data from: How gut microbiome interactions affect nutritional traits of Drosophila melanogaster

, Grace Peters-Schulze, Jingwei Cai, Andrew D. Patterson & Angela E. Douglas
Most research on the impact of the gut microbiome on animal nutrition is designed to identify the effects of single microbial taxa and single metabolites of microbial origin, without considering the potentially complex network of interactions among co-occurring microorganisms. Here, we investigate how different microbial associations and their fermentation products affect host nutrition, using Drosophila melanogaster colonized with three gut microorganisms (the bacteria Acetobacter fabarum and Lactobacillus brevis and the yeast Hanseniaspora uvarum) in all...

Molecular assays of pollen use consistently reflect pollinator visitation patterns in a system of flowering plants

Aubrie James, Monica Geber & David Toews
Determining how pollinators visit plants versus how they carry and transfer pollen is an ongoing project in pollination ecology. The current tools for identifying the pollens that bees carry have different strengths and weaknesses when used for ecological inference. In this study we use three methods to better understand a system of congeneric, co-flowering plants in the genus Clarkia and their bee pollinators: observations of plant-pollinator contact in the field, and two different molecular methods...

Data from: Landscape simplification shapes pathogen prevalence in plant-pollinator networks

Laura Figueroa, Heather Grab, Wee Hao Ng, Christopher Myers, Peter Graystock, Quinn McFrederick & Scott McArt
Species interaction networks, which play an important role in determining pathogen transmission and spread in ecological communities, can shift in response to agricultural landscape simplification. However, we know surprisingly little about how landscape simplification-driven changes in network structure impact epidemiological patterns. Here, we combine mathematical modeling and data from eleven bipartite plant-pollinator networks observed along a landscape simplification gradient to elucidate how changes in network structure shape disease dynamics. Our empirical data show that landscape...

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