635 Works

Data from: A combination of sexual and ecological divergence contributes to rearrangement spread during initial stages of speciation

Genevieve M. Kozak, Crista B. Wadsworth, Shoshanna C. Kahne, Steven M. Bogdanowicz, Richard G. Harrison, Brad S. Coates & Erik B. Dopman
Chromosomal rearrangements between sympatric species often contain multiple loci contributing to assortative mating, local adaptation, and hybrid sterility. When and how these associations arise during the process of speciation remains a subject of debate. Here, we address the relative roles of local adaptation and assortative mating on the dynamics of rearrangement evolution by studying how a rearrangement co-varies with sexual and ecological trait divergence within a species. Previously, a chromosomal rearrangement that suppresses recombination on...

Data from: Directional reflectance and milli-scale feather morphology of the African Emerald Cuckoo, Chrysococcyx cupreus

Todd Alan Harvey, Kimberly S. Bostwick & Steve Marschner
Diverse plumages have evolved among birds through complex morphological modifications. We investigate how the interplay of light with surface and subsurface feather morphology determines the direction of light propagation, an understudied aspect of avian visual signalling. We hypothesize that milli-scale modifications of feathers produce anisotropic reflectance, the direction of which may be predicted by the orientation of the milli-scale structure. The subject of this study is the African Emerald Cuckoo, Chrysococcyx cupreus, noted for its...

Data from: Genetic structure in village dogs reveals a Central Asian domestication origin

Laura M. Shannon, Ryan H. Boyko, Marta Castelhano, Elizabeth Corey, Jessica J. Hayward, Corin McLean, Michelle E. White, Mounir Abi Said, Baddley A. Anita, Nono Bondjengo Ikombe, Jorge Calero, Ana Galov, Marius Hedimbi, Bulu Imam, Rajashree Khalap, Douglas Lally, Andrew Masta, Kyle C. Oliveira, Lucía Pérez, Julia Randall, Nguyen Minh Tam, Francisco J. Trujillo-Cornejo, Carlos Valeriano, Nathan B. Sutter, Rory J. Todhunter … & Adam R. Boyko
Dogs were the first domesticated species, originating at least 15,000 y ago from Eurasian gray wolves. Dogs today consist primarily of two specialized groups—a diverse set of nearly 400 pure breeds and a far more populous group of free-ranging animals adapted to a human commensal lifestyle (village dogs). Village dogs are more genetically diverse and geographically widespread than purebred dogs making them vital for unraveling dog population history. Using a semicustom 185,805-marker genotyping array, we...

Data from: Genomics of end-Pleistocene population replacement in a small mammal

Petr Kotlik, Silvia Marková, Mateusz Konczal, Wieslaw Babik & Jeremy B. Searle
Current species’ distributions at high latitudes are the product of expansion from glacial refugia into previously uninhabitable areas at the end of the last glaciation. The traditional view of postglacial colonization is that southern populations expanded their ranges into unoccupied northern territories. Recent findings on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of British small mammals have challenged this simple colonization scenario by demonstrating a more complex genetic turnover in Britain during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition where one mtDNA clade...

Data from: Ecological sorting and character displacement contribute to the structure of communities of Clarkia species

Katherine E. Eisen & Monica Ann Geber
Despite long‐standing interest in the evolutionary ecology of plants that share pollinators, few studies have explored how these interactions may affect communities during both community assembly (ecological sorting) and through ongoing, in situ evolution (character displacement), and how the effects of these interactions may change with community context. To determine if communities display patterns consistent with ecological sorting, we assessed the frequency of co‐occurrence of four species of Clarkia in the southern Sierra foothills (Kern...

Data from: Warning signals are seductive: relative contributions of color and pattern to predator avoidance and mate attraction in Heliconius butterflies

Susan D. Finkbeiner, Adriana D. Briscoe & Robert D. Reed
Visual signaling in animals can serve many uses, including predator deterrence and mate attraction. In many cases, signals used to advertise unprofitability to predators are also used for intraspecific communication. Although aposematism and mate choice are significant forces driving the evolution of many animal phenotypes, the interplay between relevant visual signals remains little explored. Here, we address this question in the aposematic passion-vine butterfly Heliconius erato by using color- and pattern-manipulated models to test the...

Data from: Male body size predicts reproductive success but not within-clutch paternity patterns in gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus)

K. Nicole White, Betsie B. Rothermel, Kelly R. Zamudio & Tracey D. Tuberville
In many vertebrates, body size is an important driver of variation in male reproductive success. Larger, more fit individuals are more likely to dominate mating opportunities, skewing siring success and resulting in lower effective population sizes and genetic diversity. The mating system of the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) has been characterized as both female-defense and scramble-competition polygyny. Mating systems are typically not fixed and can be influenced by factors such as population density, demographic structure,...

Data from: The distribution of fitness effects in an uncertain world

Tim Connallon & Andrew G. Clark
The distribution of fitness effects (DFE) among new mutations plays a critical role in adaptive evolution and the maintenance of genetic variation. While fitness landscape models predict several key features of the DFE, most theory to date focuses on predictable environmental conditions, while ignoring stochastic environmental fluctuations that feature prominently in the ecology of many organisms. Here, we derive an extension of Fisher's geometric model that incorporates two common effects of environmental variation: (1) non-adaptive...

Data from: Wild acorn woodpeckers recognize associations between individuals in other groups

Michael A. Pardo, Emilee A. Sparks, Tejal S. Kuray, Natasha D. Hagemeyer, Eric L. Walters & Walter D. Koenig
According to the social intelligence hypothesis, understanding the cognitive demands of the social environment is key to understanding the evolution of intelligence. Many important socio-cognitive abilities, however, have primarily been studied in a narrow subset of the social environment—within-group social interactions—despite the fact that between-group social interactions often have a substantial effect on fitness. In particular, triadic awareness (knowledge about the relationships and associations between others) is critical for navigating many types of complex social...

Data from: Disentangling visual and olfactory signals in mushroom-mimicking Dracula orchids using realistic three-dimensional printed flowers

Tobias Policha, Aleah Davis, Melinda Barnadas, Bryn T. M. Dentinger, Robert A. Raguso & Bitty A. Roy
Flowers use olfactory and visual signals to communicate with pollinators. Disentangling the relative contributions and potential synergies between signals remains a challenge. Understanding the perceptual biases exploited by floral mimicry illuminates the evolution of these signals. Here, we disentangle the olfactory and visual components of Dracula lafleurii, which mimics mushrooms in size, shape, color and scent, and is pollinated by mushroom-associated flies. To decouple signals, we used three-dimensional printing to produce realistic artificial flower molds...

Data from: Heritable variation in colour patterns mediating individual recognition

Michael J. Sheehan, Juanita Choo & Elizabeth A. Tibbetts
Understanding the developmental and evolutionary processes that generate and maintain variation in natural populations remains a major challenge for modern biology. Populations of Polistes fuscatus paper wasps have highly variable colour patterns that mediate individual recognition. Previous experimental and comparative studies have provided evidence that colour pattern diversity is the result of selection for individuals to advertise their identity. Distinctive identity-signalling phenotypes facilitate recognition, which reduces aggression between familiar individuals in P. fuscatus wasps. Selection...

Data from: Evolution of interspecies unilateral incompatibility in the relatives of Arabidopsis thaliana

Ling Li, Bo Liu, Xiaomei Deng, Hainan Zhao, Hongyan Li, Shilai Xing, Della D. Fetzer, Mengya Li, Mikhail E. Nasrallah, June B. Nasrallah & Pei Liu
The evolutionary concurrence of intraspecies self-incompatibility (SI) and explosive angiosperm radiation in the Cretaceous has led to the hypothesis that SI was one of the predominant drivers of rapid speciation in angiosperms. Interspecies unilateral incompatibility (UI) usually occurs when pollen from a self-compatible (SC) species is rejected by the pistils of a SI species, while the reciprocal pollination is compatible (UC). Although this SI x SC type UI is most prevalent and viewed as a...

Data from: Historically browsed jewelweed populations exhibit greater tolerance to deer herbivory than historically protected populations

Laura J. Martin, Anurag A. Agrawal & Clifford E. Kraft
Browsing by overabundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) has altered ecological relationships in forest communities across eastern North America. Recent but limited work suggests that deer browsing also selects for particular plant defensive traits. We hypothesized that browsing by deer has imposed selection on defensive traits in an annual native wildflower, orange jewelweed (Impatiens capensis). To test this hypothesis, we collected individuals from 26 natural populations across a 5000 km2 area in New York State, USA....

Data from: Disease where you dine: plant species and floral traits associated with pathogen transmission in bumble bees

Lynn S. Adler, Kristen M. Michaud, Stephen P. Ellner, Scott H. McArt, Phillip C. Stevenson, Rebecca E. Irwin & Philip C. Stevenson
Hotspots of disease transmission can strongly influence pathogen spread. Bee pathogens may be transmitted via shared floral use, but the role of plant species and floral trait variation in shaping transmission dynamics is almost entirely unexplored. Given the importance of pathogens for the decline of several bee species, understanding whether and how plant species and floral traits affect transmission could give us important tools for predicting which plant species may be hotspots for disease spread....

Data from: Evaluating anthropogenic threats to endangered killer whales to inform effective recovery plans

Robert C. Lacy, Rob Williams, Erin Ashe, , Lauren J. N. Brent, Christopher W. Clark, Darren P. Croft, Deborah A. Giles, Misty MacDuffee & Paul C. Paquet
Understanding cumulative effects of multiple threats is key to guiding effective management to conserve endangered species. The critically endangered, Southern Resident killer whale population of the northeastern Pacific Ocean provides a data-rich case to explore anthropogenic threats on population viability. Primary threats include: limitation of preferred prey, Chinook salmon; anthropogenic noise and disturbance, which reduce foraging efficiency; and high levels of stored contaminants, including PCBs. We constructed a population viability analysis to explore possible demographic...

Data from: Phenotypic traits and resource quality as factors affecting male reproductive success in a toadfish

Aneesh P H Bose, Karen M Cogliati, Nick Luymes, Andrew H Bass, Margaret A Marchaterre, Joseph A Sisneros, Benjamin Bolker, Sigal Balshine & Benjamin M Bolker
A male’s reproductive success often depends on both his phenotypic quality and the quality of the resources he controls. An important and longstanding challenge for evolutionary biologists has been to disentangle these two often-correlated factors. Here, we present a large multi-year, multi-population field study along with complementary laboratory experiments aimed at disentangling the effects of male quality and nest quality in driving male reproductive success in the plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus. We investigate how...

Data from: Impact of confinement housing on study end-points in the calf model of cryptosporidiosis

Geneva Graef, Natalie J. Hurst, Lance Kidder, Tracy L. Sy, Laura B. Goodman, Whitney D. Preston, Samuel L. M. Arnold & Jennifer A. Zambriski
Background: Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death in children < 5 years globally and the parasite genus Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of that diarrhea. The global disease burden attributable to cryptosporidiosis is substantial and the only approved chemotherapeutic, nitazoxanide, has poor efficacy in HIV positive children. Chemotherapeutic development is dependent on the calf model of cryptosporidiosis, which is the best approximation of human disease. However, the model is not consistently applied across...

Data from: Behavioral evidence for fruit odor discrimination and sympatric host races of Rhagoletis pomonella flies in the western United States

Charles E. Linn, Wee L. Yee, Sheina B. Sim, Dong H. Cha, Thomas Powell, Robert B. Goughnour & Jeffrey L. Feder
The recent shift of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) from its native host downy hawthorn, Crataegus mollis, to introduced domesticated apple, Malus domestica, in the eastern U.S. is a model for sympatric host race formation. However, the fly is also present in the western U.S., where it may have been introduced via infested apples within the last 60 years. In addition to apple, R. pomonella also infests two hawthorns in the West, one the native black...

Data from: Insect herbivores drive real-time ecological and evolutionary change in plant populations

Anurag A. Agrawal, Amy P. Hastings, M. T. J. Johnson, J. L. Maron & Juha-Pekka Salminen
Insect herbivores are hypothesized to be major factors affecting the ecology and evolution of plants. We tested this prediction by suppressing insects in replicated field populations of a native plant, Oenothera biennis, which reduced seed predation, altered interspecific competitive dynamics, and resulted in rapid evolutionary divergence. Comparative genotyping and phenotyping of nearly 12,000 O. biennis individuals revealed that in plots protected from insects, resistance to herbivores declined through time due to changes in flowering time...

Data from: Sensory-based niche partitioning in a multiple predator-multiple prey community

Jay J. Falk, Hannah M. Ter Hofstede, Patricia L. Jones, Marjorie M. Dixon, Paul A. Faure, Elisabeth K. V. Kalko & Rachel A. Page
Many predators and parasites eavesdrop on the communication signals of their prey. Eavesdropping is typically studied as dyadic predator–prey species interactions; yet in nature, most predators target multiple prey species and most prey must evade multiple predator species. The impact of predator communities on prey signal evolution is not well understood. Predators could converge in their preferences for conspicuous signal properties, generating competition among predators and natural selection on particular prey signal features. Alternatively, predator...

Data from: Land cover and forest connectivity alter the interactions among host, pathogen and skin microbiome

C. Guilherme Becker, Ana V. Longo, Célio F.B. Haddad, Kelly R. Zamudio & C. F. B. Haddad
Deforestation has detrimental consequences on biodiversity, affecting species interactions at multiple scales. The associations among vertebrates, pathogens and their commensal/symbiotic microbial communities (i.e. microbiomes) have important downstream effects for biodiversity conservation, yet we know little about how deforestation contributes to changes in host microbial diversity and pathogen abundance. Here, we tested the effects of landcover, forest connectivity and infection by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) on amphibian skin bacterial diversity along deforestation gradients in...

Data from: Climate and rapid local adaptation as drivers of germination and seed bank dynamics of Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) in North America

Bernd Blossey, Victoria Nuzzo & Andrea Dávalos
Local differences in climate conditions may facilitate rapid evolutionary changes in introduced plants to optimize timing of germination or ability to survive in seed banks, which may constitute beneficial demographic adaptations during range expansions. Understanding differences in germination requirements and emergence patterns across a species’ range is critical for demographic modelling and potential invasive species control efforts. We assessed germination responses of Alliaria petiolata using seeds collected from 10 populations spanning much of the North...

Data from: Nest suitability, fine-scale population structure and male-mediated dispersal of a solitary ground nesting bee in an urban landscape

Margarita M. López-Uribe, Stephen J. Morreale, Christine K. Santiago & Bryan N. Danforth
Bees are the primary pollinators of flowering plants in almost all ecosystems. Worldwide declines in bee populations have raised awareness about the importance of their ecological role in maintaining ecosystem functioning. The naturally strong philopatric behavior that some bee species show can be detrimental to population viability through increased probability of inbreeding. Furthermore, bee populations found in human-altered landscapes, such as urban areas, can experience lower levels of gene flow and effective population sizes, increasing...

Data from: The relationship between variable host grouping and functional responses among parasitoids of Antispila nysaefoliella (Lepidoptera: Heliozelidae)

Candace Low, Sonja J. Scheffer, Matthew L. Lewis & Michael W. Gates
Our study investigated the importance of variability in the parasitoid community as a source of selection on host group size using a field population of the tupelo leafminer, Antispila nysaefoliella Clemens, which specializes on tupelo, Nyssa sylvatica Marsh. Larvae were collected from leaves with variable numbers of larvae and screened for parasitism using polymerase chain reaction of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I using markers designed specifically for amplifying parasitoid DNA while excluding host DNA. This method...

Data from: Vicariance and marine migration in continental island populations of a frog endemic to the Atlantic Coastal forest

M. Catherine Duryea, Kelly R. Zamudio & Cinthia A. Brasileiro
The theory of island biogeography is most often studied in the context of oceanic islands where all island inhabitants are descendants from founding events involving migration from mainland source populations. Far fewer studies have considered predictions of island biogeography in the case of continental islands, where island formation typically splits continuous populations and thus vicariance also contributes to the diversity of island populations. We examined one such case on continental islands in southeastern Brazil, to...

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  • Cornell University
  • United States Department of Agriculture
  • Michigan State University
  • University of Georgia
  • University of Oxford
  • University of California, Berkeley
  • University of Florida
  • Pennsylvania State University
  • Sao Paulo State University
  • Stanford University