49 Works

Selling Crops Early to Pay for School: A Large-scale Natural Experiment in Malawi

Brian Dillon
PI-Provided Abstract: In 2010, primary school in Malawi began in September, three months earlier than in 2009. We show that this change forced households to sell crops early, when prices are low. The effect is limited to households with school children, increases in the number of children, and is present only for poor households. Households that financed school by selling crops early missed out on an expected 17.3-26.5% increase in output prices over three months....

Warming and pollutants interact to modulate octocoral immunity and shape disease outcomes

Allison M. Tracy, Ernesto Weil & C. Drew Harvell
Warming environments can alter the outcome of host-parasite relationships with important consequences for biodiversity. Warming often increases disease risk, and interactions with other environmental factors can intensify impacts by modifying the underlying mechanisms, such as host immunity. In coastal ecosystems, metal pollution is a pervasive stressor that influences disease and immunity in many organisms. Despite the crisis facing coral reefs, which stems in part from warming-associated disease outbreaks, the impacts of metal pollutants on scleractinian...

Data from: Survey completeness of a global citizen-science database of bird occurrence

Frank La Sorte & Marius Somveille
Measuring the completeness of survey inventories created by citizen-science initiatives can identify the strengths and shortfalls in our knowledge of where species occur geographically. Here, we use occurrence information from eBird to measure the survey completeness of the world’s birds in this database at three temporal resolutions and four spatial resolutions across the annual cycle during the period 2002 to 2018. Approximately 84% of the earth’s terrestrial surface contained bird occurrence information with the greatest...

Parallel evolution of ancient, pleiotropic enhancers underlies butterfly wing pattern mimicry

James Lewis, Rachel Geltman, Patrick Pollack, Kathleen Rondem, Steven Van Belleghem, Melissa Hubisz, Paul Munn, Linlin Zhang, Caleb Benson, Anyi Mazo-Vargas, Charles Danko, Brian Counterman, Riccardo Papa & Robert Reed
Color pattern mimicry in Heliconius butterflies is a classic case study of complex trait adaptation via selection on a few large effect genes. Association studies have linked color pattern variation to a handful of noncoding regions, yet the presumptive cis-regulatory elements (CREs) that control color patterning remain unknown. Here we combine chromatin assays, DNA sequence associations, and genome editing to functionally characterize 5 cis-regulatory elements of the color pattern gene optix. We were surprised to...

TypeTE: a tool to genotype mobile element insertions from whole genome resequencing data

Clément Goubert, Jainy Thomas, Lindsay Payer, Jeffrey Kidd, Julie Feusier, W. Scott Watkins, Kathleen Burns, Lynn Jorde & Cédric Feschotte
Alu retrotransposons account for more than 10% of the human genome, and insertions of these elements create structural variants segregating in human populations. Such polymorphic Alu are powerful markers to understand population structure, and they represent variants that can greatly impact genome function, including gene expression. Accurate genotyping of Alu and other mobile elements has been challenging. Indeed, we found that Alu genotypes previously called for the 1000 Genomes Project are sometimes erroneous, which poses...

Data from: Contrasting evolutionary histories in Neotropical birds: divergence across an environmental barrier in South America

Pablo D. Lavinia, Ana S. Barreira, Leonardo Campagna, Pablo L. Tubaro & Dario A. Lijtmaer
Avian diversity in the Neotropics has been traditionally attributed to the effect of vicariant forces promoting speciation in allopatry. Recent studies have shown that phylogeographic patterns shared among co-distributed species cannot be explained by a single vicariant event, as species responses to a common barrier depend on the biological attributes of each taxon. The open vegetation corridor (OVC) isolates Amazonia and the Andean forests from the Atlantic Forest, creating a notorious pattern of avian taxa...

Data from: The tomato pan-genome uncovers new genes and a rare allele regulating fruit flavor

Lei Gao, Itay Gonda, Honghe Sun, Qiyue Ma, Kan Bao, Denise M. Tieman, Elizabeth A. Burzynski-Chang, Tara L. Fish, Kaitlin A. Stromberg, Gavin L. Sacks, Theodore W. Thannhauser, Majid R. Foolad, Maria Jose Diez, Joaquin Canizares, Yimin Xu, Esther Van Der Knaap, Sanwen Huang, Harry J. Klee, James J. Giovannoni & Zhangjun Fei
Modern tomatoes have narrow genetic diversity limiting their improvement potential. We present a tomato pan-genome constructed using genome sequences of 725 phylogenetically and geographically representative accessions, revealing 4,873 genes absent from the reference genome. Presence/absence variation analyses reveal substantial gene loss and intense negative selection of genes and promoters during tomato domestication and improvement. Lost or negatively selected genes are enriched for important traits, especially disease resistance. We identify a rare allele in TomLoxC promoter...

Data from: Genetics and evidence for balancing selection of a sex-linked colour polymorphism in a songbird

Kang-Wook Kim, Benjamin C. Jackson, Hanyuan Zhang, David P. L. Toews, Scott A. Taylor, Emma I. Greig, Irby J. Lovette, Mengning M. Liu, Angus Davison, Simon C. Griffith, Kai Zeng & Terry Burke
Colour polymorphisms play a key role in sexual selection and speciation, yet the mechanisms that generate and maintain them are not fully understood. Here, we use genomic and transcriptomic tools to identify the precise genetic architecture and evolutionary history of a sex-linked colour polymorphism in the Gouldian finch Erythrura gouldiae that is also accompanied by remarkable differences in behaviour and physiology. We find that differences in colour are associated with an ~72-kbp region of the...

Data from: Achromatic plumage brightness predicts stress resilience and social interactions in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor)

Conor C. Taff, Cedric Zimmer & Maren N. Vitousek
Theory suggests that signal honesty may be maintained by differential costs for high and low quality individuals. For signals that mediate social interactions, costs can arise from the way that a signal changes the subsequent social environment via receiver responses. These receiver-dependent costs may be linked with individual quality through variation in resilience to environmental and social stress. Here, we imposed stressful conditions on female tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) by attaching groups of feathers during...

Data from: Context-dependent induction of allelopathy in plants under competition

Akane Uesugi, Robert Johnson & Andre Kessler
Some plants use allelopathy to compete against neighbouring plants, and the ability to induce allelopathic compound production in response to competition is hypothesized to be adaptive, as plants can save costs of metabolite production in the absence of competitors. However, whether plants induce allelopathy has rarely been explored so far. We studied the inducibility of polyacetylenes—putative allelopathic compounds in Solidago altissima—in response to competition. Polyacetylenes were found in natural soil surrounding S. altissima patches within...

Data from: A split sex ratio in solitary and social nests of a facultatively social bee

Adam R. Smith, Karen M. Kapheim, Callum J. Kingwell & William T. Wcislo
A classic prediction of kin selection theory is that a mixed population of social and solitary nests of haplodiploid insects should exhibit a split sex ratio among offspring: female biased in social nests, male biased in solitary nests. Here we provide the first evidence of a solitary-social split sex ratio, using the sweat bee Megalopta genalis (Halictidae). Data from 2502 offspring collected from naturally occurring nests across six years spanning the range of the M....

Data from: The devil you know: self-esteem and switching responses to poor service

Irene Consiglio & Stijn M. J. Van Osselaer
We investigate a psychological factor regulating consumers’ switching in response to poor service quality: chronic global self-esteem. Whereas high self-esteem consumers tend to switch to other providers in response to poor service quality, low self-esteem consumers often do not. This happens because low self-esteem consumers who experience poor service become risk-averse, and therefore reluctant to engage in new committed service relationships. Indeed, low self-esteem consumers’ likelihood to switch to an alternative provider in response to...

Data from: White shark genome reveals ancient elasmobranch adaptations associated with wound healing and the maintenance of genome stability

Nicholas J. Marra, Michael J. Stanhope, Nathaniel K. Jue, Minghui Wang, Qi Sun, Paulina P. Bitar, Vincent P. Richards, Aleksey Komissarov, Mike Rayko, Sergey Kliver, Bryce J. Stanhope, Chuck Winkler, Stephen J. O'Brien, Agostinho Antunes, Salvador J. Jorgensen & Mahmood S. Shivji
The white shark (Carcharodon carcharias; Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) is one of the most publicly recognized marine animals. Here we report the genome sequence of the white shark and comparative evolutionary genomic analyses to the chondrichthyans, whale shark (Elasmobranchii) and elephant shark (Holocephali), as well as various vertebrates. The 4.63-Gbp white shark genome contains 24,520 predicted genes, and has a repeat content of 58.5%. We provide evidence for a history of positive selection and gene-content enrichments regarding...

Data from: Constitutive and herbivore-induced plant defenses regulate herbivore population growth

Monica F. Kersch-Becker & Jennifer S. Thaler
1. Induced plant defenses regulated by the phytohormones jasmonic acid and salicylic acid are predicted to influence herbivore population dynamics, in part because they can operate in a density-dependent manner. While there is ample evidence that induced plant responses affect individual performance and growth of herbivores, whether they scale-up to regulate herbivore population dynamics is still unclear. 2. We evaluated the consequences of variation in plant defenses and herbivore density on herbivore development, reproduction and...

Data from: Genetic basis of amphibian larval development along a latitudinal gradient: gene diversity, selection and links with phenotypic variation in transcription factor C/EBP-1

Yvonne Meyer-Lucht, Emilien Luquet, Frida Johannesdottir, Patrik Rödin-Mörch, Maria Quintela, Alex Richter-Boix, Jacob Höglund & Anssi Laurila
Ectotherm development rates often show adaptive divergence along climatic gradients, but the genetic basis for this variation is rarely studied. Here, we investigated the genetic basis for phenotypic variation in larval development in the moor frog Rana arvalis from five regions along a latitudinal gradient from Germany to northern Sweden. We focused on the C/EBP-1 gene, a transcription factor associated with larval development time. Allele frequencies at C/EBP-1 varied strongly among geographic regions. Overall, the...

Evolution of a multifunctional trait: shared effects of foraging ecology and thermoregulation on beak morphology, with consequences for song evolution

Nicholas R. Friedman, Eliot T. Miller, Jason R. Ball, Haruka Kasuga, Vladimír Remeš & Evan P. Economo
While morphological traits are often associated with multiple functions, it remains unclear how evolution balances the selective effects of different functions. Birds' beaks function in foraging, but also in thermoregulating and singing, among other behaviours. Studies of beak evolution abound, however most focus on a single function. Thus, we quantified relative contributions of different functions over an evolutionary time scale. We measured beak shape using geometric morphometrics and compared this trait to foraging behaviour, climatic...

Leaf data of 101 species, varieties, forms, and cultivars of bamboo

Shuyan Lin, Karl Niklas, Yawen Wan, Dirk Hölscher, Cang Hui, Yulong Ding & Peijian Shi
The data include four comma-delimited (CSV) files and one word document. data1.csv file saves the raw data (including blade fresh mass, dry mass, area, length, width, perimeter and other measures) of 10045 leaves from 101 species, varieties, forms, and cultivars of bamboo; data2.csv file saves the results of the leaf dry mass per unit area (g/m2) comparison among 101 data sets; data3.csv file saves the results of the quotient of blade width to length comparison...

An atypical mating system in a neotropical manakin

Milene G. Gaiotti, Michael Webster & Regina Macedo
Most of the diversity of in the mating systems of birds and other animals come at higher taxonomic levels, such as across orders. Although divergent selective pressures should lead to animal mating systems that diverge sharply from those of close relatives, opportunities to examine the importance of such processes are scarce. We addressed this issue using the Araripe manakin (Antilophia bokermanni), a species endemic to a forest enclave surrounded by xeric shrublands in Brazil. Most...

Data from: Social context alters spatial memory performance in free-living male prairie voles

Alexander Ophir
Spatial memory is crucial for mating success because it enables males to locate potential mates and potential competitors in space. Intraspecific competition and its varying intensity under certain conditions are potentially important for shaping spatial memory. For example, spatial memory could enable males to know where competitors are (contest competition), it could help males find mating partners (scramble competition), or both. We manipulated the intensity of intraspecific competition in two distinct contexts by altering the...

Data from: Accounting for interspecific competition and age structure in demographic analyses of density dependence improves predictions of fluctuations in population size

Marlène Gamelon, Stefan J.G. Vriend, Steinar Engen, Frank Adriaensen, Andre A. Dhondt, Simon R. Evans, Erik Matthysen, Ben C. Sheldon & Bernt-Erik Sæther
Understanding species coexistence has long been a major goal of ecology. Coexistence theory for two competing species posits that intraspecific density dependence should be stronger than interspecific density dependence. Great tits and blue tits are two bird species that compete for food resources and nesting cavities. Based on long-term monitoring of these two competing species at sites across Europe, combining observational and manipulative approaches, we show that the strength of density regulation is similar for...

Data from: Time of emergence of novel climates for North American migratory bird populations

Frank A. La Sorte, Daniel Fink & Alison Johnston
To better understand the ecological implications of global climate change for species that display geographically and seasonally dynamic life-history strategies, we need to determine where and when novel climates are projected to first emerge. Here, we use a multivariate approach to estimate time of emergence (ToE) of novel climates based on three climate variables (precipitation, minimum and maximum temperature) at a weekly temporal resolution within the Western Hemisphere over a 280-year period (2021-2300) under a...

Data from: Agriculturally dominated landscapes reduce bee phylogenetic diversity and pollination services

Heather Grab, Michael G. Branstetter, Nolan Amon, Katherine R. Urban-Mead, Mia G. Park, Jason Gibbs, Eleanor J. Blitzer, Katja Poveda, Greg Loeb & Bryan N. Danforth
Land-use change threatens global biodiversity and may reshape the tree of life by favoring some lineages over others. Whether phylogenetic diversity loss compromises ecosystem service delivery remains unknown. We address this knowledge gap using extensive genomic, community, and crop datasets to examine relationships among land use, pollinator phylogenetic structure, and crop production. Pollinator communities in highly agricultural landscapes contain 230 million fewer years of evolutionary history; this loss was strongly associated with reduced crop yield...

Data from: Interactions among morphotype, nutrition, and temperature impact fitness of an invasive fly.

Dalila Rendon, Vaughn Walton, Gabriella Tait, Jessica Buser, Ivana Lemos Souza, Anna Wallingford, Greg Loeb & Jana Lee
Invasive animals depend on finding a balanced nutritional intake to colonize, survive, and reproduce in new environments. This can be especially challenging during situations of fluctuating cold temperatures and food scarcity, but phenotypic plasticity may offer an adaptive advantage during these periods. We examined how lifespan, fecundity, pre-oviposition periods, and body nutrient contents were affected by dietary protein and carbohydrate (P:C) ratios at variable low temperatures in two morphs (winter morphs WM and summer morphs...

Data from: Nocturnal flight-calling behaviour predicts vulnerability to artificial light in migratory birds

Benjamin M. Winger, Brian C. Weeks, Andrew Farnsworth, Andrew W. Jones, Mary Hennen & David E. Willard
Understanding interactions between biota and the built environment is increasingly important as human modification of the landscape expands in extent and intensity. For migratory birds, collisions with lighted structures are a major cause of mortality, but the mechanisms behind these collisions are poorly understood. Using 40 years of collision records of passerine birds, we investigated the importance of species’ behavioral ecologies in predicting rates of building collisions during nocturnal migration through Chicago, IL and Cleveland,...

Data from: Bee pathogen transmission dynamics: deposition, persistence and acquisition on flowers

Laura L. Figueroa, Malcolm Blinder, Cali Grincavitch, Angus Jelinek, Emilia K. Mann, Liam A. Merva, Lucy E. Metz, Amy Y. Zhao, Rebecca E. Irwin, Scott H. McArt & Lynn S. Adler
Infectious diseases are a primary driver of bee decline worldwide, but limited understanding of how pathogens are transmitted hampers effective management. Flowers have been implicated as hubs of bee disease transmission, but we know little about how interspecific floral variation affects transmission dynamics. Using bumble bees (Bombus impatiens), a trypanosomatid pathogen (Crithidia bombi), and three plant species varying in floral morphology, we assessed how host infection and plant species affect pathogen deposition on flowers, and...

Registration Year

  • 2019

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Cornell University
  • Virginia Tech
  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
  • University of Minnesota
  • United States Department of Agriculture
  • University of Oxford
  • Bernardino Rivadavia Natural Sciences Museum
  • Grand Valley State University
  • Agricultural Genomics Institute at Shenzhen
  • Bangor University