92 Works

Dataset: Direct Visualization of Trimerized States in 1T′−TaTe2

Ismail El Baggari, Nikhil Sivadas, Gregory Stiehl, Jacob Waelder, Daniel Ralph, Craig J. fennie & Lena Kourkoutis

Reproduction Materials for: Despite Appearances: Comparing Emotion Recognition in Abstract and Humanoid Avatars Using Nonverbal Behavior in Social Virtual Reality

Yilu Sun & Andrea Stevenson Won
PI-Provided Abstract: Poverty is prevalent in the small-farm sector of many developing countries. A large literature suggests that contract farming—a pre-harvest agreement between farmers and buyers—can facilitate smallholder market participation, improve household welfare, and promote rural development. These findings have influenced the development policy debate, but the external validity of the extant evidence is limited. Available studies typically focus on a single contract scheme or on a small geographical area in one country. We generate...

Reproduction Materials for the Chapter \"Climate, Agriculture and Food\" (Handbook of Agricultural Economics)

Ariel Ortiz-Bobea
Agriculture is arguably the most climate-sensitive sector of the economy. Growing concerns about anthropogenic climate change have increased research interest in assessing its potential impact on the sector and in identifying policies and adaptation strategies to help farmers cope with a changing climate, but also how to contribute to climate change mitigation. This chapter reviews recent advancements in the analysis of climate change impacts and adaptation in agriculture with an emphasis on econometric and statistical...

Genomic architecture of a genetically assimilated seasonal color pattern

Karin Van Der Burg
Developmental plasticity allows genomes to encode multiple distinct phenotypes that can be differentially manifested in response to environmental cues. Alternative plastic phenotypes can be selected through a process called genetic assimilation; although the mechanisms are still poorly understood. We assimilated a seasonal wing color phenotype in a naturally plastic population of butterflies, and characterized three responsible genes. Combined with endocrine assays, and chromatin accessibility and conformation analyses, we found that the transition of wing coloration...

Data used to estimate the influence of habitat protection, habitat heterogeneity, and periodic flooding on species richness and abundance of waterbirds of the lower Paraná River, Argentina

Virginia Quiroga, Ana Laura Ronchi-Virgolini, Rodrigo Lorenzon & Martjan Lammertink
Interest has grown in how birds respond to environmental characteristics of river systems, motivated by the high biodiversity and biomass of waterbirds in these systems and the importance of waterbirds in hunting for sport or sustenance. We studied the influence of natural (water level fluctuations and environmental heterogeneity) and human-related (cattle grazing and hunting) factors on waterbirds in the Pre-Delta region of the Paraná River system during three years. Our objectives were to evaluate which...

Data from: Wintering bird communities are tracking climate change faster than breeding communities

Aleksi Lehikoinen, Åke Lindström, Andrea Santangeli, Päivi Sirkiä, Lluis Brotons, Vincent Devictor, Jaanus Elts, Ruud P. B. Fobben, Henning Heldbjerg, Sergi Herrando, Marc Herremans, Marie-Anne R. Hudson, Frederic Jiguet, Alison Johnston, Romain Lorrilliere, Emma-Liina Marjakangas, Nicole L. Michel, Charlotte M. Moshøj, Renno Nellis, Jean-Yves Paquet, Adam C. Smith, Tibor Szep & Chris Van Turnhout
1. Global climate change is driving species’ distributions towards the poles and mountain tops during both non-breeding and breeding seasons, leading to changes in the composition of natural communities. However, the degree of season differences in climate-driven community shifts has not been thoroughly investigated at large spatial scales. 2. We compared the rates of change in the community composition during both winter (non-breeding season) and summer (breeding) and their relation to temperature changes. 3. Based...

Data from: Rapid speciation via the evolution of pre-mating isolation

Sheela Turbek, Melanie Browne, Adrián S. Di Giacomo, Cecilia Kopuchian, Wesley Hochachka, M. Cecilia Estalles, Darío Lijtmaer, Pablo Tubaro, Luís Fábio Silveira, Irby J. Lovette, Rebecca Safran, Scott Taylor & Leonardo Campagna
Behavioral isolation can catalyze speciation and permit the slow accumulation of additional reproductive barriers between co-occurring organisms. We illustrate how this process occurs by examining the genomic and behavioral bases of pre-mating isolation between two bird species (Sporophila hypoxantha and the recently discovered S. iberaensis) that belong to the capuchino seedeaters, a recent, rapid radiation characterized by variation in male plumage coloration and song. Though these two species co-occur without ecological barriers to reproduction, we...

Predators override rainfall effects on tropical food webs

Fabiola Ospina, Diane Srivastava, Angélica González, Jed Sparks & Emilio Realpe
Predators alter ecological communities by inducing changes in prey abundance and phenotypes, including elemental and isotopic composition. Climatic factors are known to often moderate predator effects on prey abundance, but few studies consider the combined effects of climate and predators on prey phenotype. We examined how altered precipitation moderates the effects of predators on the abundance and the chemical composition of prey, as well as the indirect effects on the basal resource: leaf litter coated...

A unifying framework for analyzing temporal changes in functional and taxonomic diversity along disturbance gradients

Erin Larson, N. Leroy Poff, W. Chris Funk, Rachel Harrington, Boris Kondratieff, Scott Morton & Alexander Flecker
Frameworks exclusively considering functional diversity are gaining popularity, as they complement and extend the information provided by taxonomic diversity metrics, particularly in response to disturbance. Taxonomic diversity should be included in functional diversity frameworks to uncover the functional mechanisms causing species loss following disturbance events. We present and test a predictive framework that considers temporal functional and taxonomic diversity responses along disturbance gradients. Our proposed framework allows us to test different multidimensional metrics of taxonomic...

Convergent craniofacial evolution and biogeography of weakly electric Mormyridae and Bonytongue Fishes (Osteoglossomorpha)

Rose Peterson, John Sullivan, Carl Hopkins, Aintzane Santaquiteria, Casey Dillman, Stacy Pirro, Ricardo Betancur, Dahiana Arcila, Lily C. Hughes & Guillermo Ortí
Bonytongues (Osteoglossomorpha) constitute an ancient clade of teleost fishes distributed in freshwater habitats throughout the world. The group includes well-known species such as arowanas, featherbacks, pirarucus, and the weakly electric fishes in the family Mormyridae. Their disjunct distribution, extreme morphologies, and electrosensory capabilities (Notopteridae and Mormyroidea) have attracted interest by many, yet a comprehensive phylogenetic framework for comparative analysis is missing. We provide a phylogenomic analysis of 179 species (out of 260), 28 out of...

Transcript expression data. Environmental responsiveness of flowering time in cassava genotypes and associated transcriptome changes

Tim Setter & Deborah Oluwasanya
To advance understanding of the mechanistic factors regulating cassava flowering, the leaf transcriptomes at 1) two stages of plant development were compared in two genotypes at Ubiaja and Ibadan, Nigeria; and 2) three controlled-environment growth chambers.

Attention and distraction in the modular visual system of a jumping spider

Elizabeth Jakob, Margaret Bruce, Daniel Daye, Skye Long, Alex Winsor, Ronald Hoy & Gil Menda
Animals must selectively attend to relevant stimuli and avoid being distracted by unimportant stimuli. Jumping spiders (Salticidae) do this by coordinating eyes with different capabilities. Objects are examined by a pair of high-acuity principal eyes, whose narrow field of view is compensated for by retinal movements. The principal eyes overlap in field of view with motion-sensitive anterior-lateral eyes (ALEs), which direct their gaze to new stimuli. Using a salticid-specific eyetracker, we monitored the gaze direction...

Rare plant species are at a disadvantage when both herbivory and pollination interactions are considered in an alpine meadow

Xinqiang Xi, Wenlong Zhou, Zhao Li, Lei Hu, Yuran Dong, Karl Niklas & Shucun Sun
1. Rare plant species often suffer less damage than common species because of positive density-dependent herbivory, and it has been suggested that this “rare species advantage” fosters plant species coexistence. However, it is unknown whether rare species have an advantage when pollination interactions are also considered. 2. We hypothesized that a “positive density-dependent pollination success” across plant species would result in common plants experiencing higher seed set rates compared to rare species, and that positive...

Data from: Early origin of sweet perception in the songbird radiation

Yasuka Toda, Meng-Ching Ko, Qiaoyi Liang, Eliot Miller, Alejandro Rico-Guevara, Tomoya Nakagita, Ayano Sakakibara, Kana Uemura, Timothy Sackton, Takashi Hayakawa, Simon Yung Wa Sin, Yoshiro Ishimaru, Takumi Misaka, Pablo Oteiza, James Crall, Scott Edwards, Shuichi Matsumura & Maude Baldwin
Early events in the evolutionary history of a clade can shape the sensory systems of descendant lineages. Although the avian ancestor may not have had a sweet receptor, the widespread incidence of nectar-feeding birds suggests multiple acquisitions of sugar detection. In this study, we identify a single early sensory shift of the umami receptor (the T1R1-T1R3 heterodimer) that conferred sweet-sensing abilities in songbirds, a large radiation containing nearly half of all living birds. We demonstrate...

Nitrification and denitrification in the Community Land Model compared to observations at Hubbard Brook Forest

Cynthia Nevison, Christine Goodale, Peter Hess, William Wieder, Julius Vira & Peter Groffman
Models of terrestrial system dynamics often include nitrogen (N) cycles to better represent N limitation of terrestrial carbon (C) uptake but simulating the fate of N in ecosystems has proven challenging. Here, key soil N fluxes and flux ratios from the Community Land Model version 5.0 (CLM5.0) are compared to an extensive set of observations from the Hubbard Brook Forest Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site in New Hampshire. Simulated fluxes include microbial immobilization and plant...

When text simplification is not enough: Could a graph-based visualization facilitate consumers’ comprehension of dietary supplement information?

Xing He, Rui Zhang, Jordan Alpert, Sicheng Zhou, Terrence Adam, Aantaki Raisa, Yifan Peng, Hansi Zhang, Yi Guo & Jiang Bian
Background: Dietary supplements are widely used. However, dietary supplements are not always safe. For example, an estimated 23,000 emergency room visits every year in the United States were attributed to adverse events related to dietary supplement use. With the rapid development of the Internet, consumers usually seek health information including dietary supplement information online. To help consumers access quality online dietary supplement information, we have identified trustworthy dietary supplement information sources and built an evidence-based...

Large-scale supplemental feeding alters lay date and nest survival in Eastern Bluebirds but not in two species of chickadees

Robyn L. Bailey & David N. Bonter
Wild bird feeding is a popular and growing activity, with approximately half of households participating in nations including the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, and Australia. Supplemental feeding can increase survival and reproductive success of birds (which is often a goal of supplemental feeding efforts), but it raises concerns about phenological mismatch, reduced clutch size, or increased risk of nest predation. Our objectives were to test whether access to supplemental food during...

Ecological consequences of large herbivore exclusion in an African savanna: 12 years of data from the UHURU experiment

Jesse Alston, Courtney Reed, Leo Khasoha, Bianca Brown, Gilbert Busienei, Nathaniel Carlson, Tyler Coverdale, Megan Dudenhoeffer, Marissa Dyck, John Ekeno, Abdikadir Hassan, Rhianna Hohbein, Rhiannon Jakopak, Buas Kimiti, Samson Kurukura, Peter Lokeny, Allison Louthan, Simon Musila, Paul Musili, Tosca Tindall, Sarah Weiner, Tyler Kartzinel, Todd Palmer, Robert Pringle & Jacob Goheen
Diverse communities of large mammalian herbivores (LMH), once widespread, are now rare. LMH exert strong direct and indirect effects on community structure and ecosystem functions, and measuring these effects is important for testing ecological theory and for understanding past, current, and future environmental change. This in turn requires long-term experimental manipulations, owing to the slow and often nonlinear responses of populations and assemblages to LMH removal. Moreover, the effects of particular species or body-size classes...

Fertilizer quantity and type alter mycorrhizae-conferred growth and resistance to herbivores

Zoe Getman-Pickering, George Stack & Jennifer Thaler
1. Plants face a constant struggle to acquire nutrients and defend themselves against herbivores. Mycorrhizae are fungal mutualists that provide nutrients that can increase plant growth and alter resistance to herbivores. The beneficial effects of mycorrhizae for nutrient acquisition can depend on the quantity and type of soil nutrients available, with plants usually benefiting more in terms of growth from mycorrhizae when nutrients are limited. However, it is unclear how the addition of different nutrients...

Data from: Evolution of shade tolerance is associated with attenuation of shade avoidance and reduced phenotypic plasticity in North American milkweeds

Tyler Coverdale & Anurag A. Agrawal
Premise: Mismatches between light conditions and light-capture strategy can reduce plant performance and prevent colonization of novel habitats. Although light-capture strategies tend to be highly conserved among closely related species, evolutionary transitions from shaded to unshaded habitats (and vice versa) occur in numerous plant lineages. Methods: We combined phylogenetic approaches with field and greenhouse experiments to investigate evolutionary constraints on light-capture strategy in North American milkweeds (genus Asclepias) and to determine whether colonization of shaded...

Potential local adaptation in populations of invasive reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) across an urbanization gradient

Stephen Hovick, Leah Weston, Kali Mattingly & Charles Day
Urban stressors represent strong selective gradients that can elicit evolutionary change, especially in non-native species that may harbor substantial within-population variability. To test whether urban stressors drive phenotypic differentiation and influence local adaptation, we compared stress responses of populations of a ubiquitous invader, reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea). Specifically, we quantified responses to salt, copper, and zinc additions by reed canary grass collected from four populations spanning an urbanization gradient (natural, rural, moderate urban and...

Regional wetland plant responses to sulfur and other porewater chemistry in calcareous rich fens

Samuel M. Simkin, Barbara L. Bedford & Kathleen C. Weathers
Many wetland environmental gradients structure plant community composition, yet controls of plant community composition within rich fens, botanically diverse groundwater-fed wetlands, are still incompletely understood. Porewater chemistry and plant community composition were recorded for eight calcareous rich fens encompassing both calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate geological inputs in the Central New York State region. As expected, porewater sulfate and sulfide concentrations were on average higher for wetlands overlying calcium sulfate than for wetlands overlying calcium...

Arresting the spread of invasive species in continental systems

Daniel Hofstadter, Nicholas Kryshak, Connor Wood, Brian Dotters, Kevin Roberts, Kevin Kelly, John Keane, Sarah Sawyer, Paula Shaklee, Anu Kramer, Rocky Gutiérrez & Zach Peery
Invasive species are a primary threat to biodiversity and are challenging to manage once populations become established. But removing them is further complicated when invasions occur in continental, mixed-ownership systems. We demonstrate a rare conservation success: the regional-scale removal of an invasive predator – the barred owl (Strix varia) – to benefit the spotted owl (S. occidentalis) in California, USA. Barred owl site occupancy declined six-fold from 0.19 to 0.03 following one year of removals,...

Life history and environment predict variation in testosterone across vertebrates

Jerry Husak, Matthew Fuxjager, Michele A. Johnson, Maren Vitousek, Jeremy Donald, Clinton David Francis, Wolfgang Goymann, Michaela Hau, Bonnie Kircher, Rosemary Knapp, Lynn B. Martin, Eliot Miller, Laura Schoenle & Tony Williams
Endocrine systems act as key intermediaries between organisms and their environments. This interaction leads to high variability in hormone levels, but we know little about the ecological factors that influence this variation within and across major vertebrate groups. We study this topic by assessing how various social and environmental dynamics influence testosterone levels across the entire vertebrate tree of life. Our analyses show that breeding season length and mating system are the strongest predictors of...

Emission rates of species-specific volatiles vary across communities of Clarkia species: evidence for multi-modal character displacement

Katherine Eisen, Monica Geber & Robert Raguso
A current frontier of character displacement research is to determine if displacement occurs via multiple phenotypic pathways and varies across communities with different species compositions. Here, we conducted the first test for context-dependent character displacement in multi-modal floral signals by analyzing variation in floral scent in a system that exhibits character displacement in flower size, and that has multiple types of sympatric communities. In a greenhouse common garden experiment, we measured quantitative variation in volatile...

Registration Year

  • 2021

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Cornell University
  • University of Florida
  • University of Georgia
  • Princeton University
  • Duke University
  • George Washington University
  • Oregon State University
  • University of Minnesota
  • Smithsonian Institution
  • University of Chicago