97 Works

Counts of two sperm types during migration in female Manduca sexta reproductive system after mating

Julian Shepherd & Janis Dickinson
During mating in the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies), sperm are passed to the female via a copulation in which the male transfers a large and often complex spermatophore over the major part of an hour or more. Subsequently, over the course of an hour or often considerably more, the sperm exit the spermatophore and travel over a relatively complex route to the spermatheca, where the sperm are stored and then used as the eggs are...

Evaluating evidence of mitonuclear incompatibilities with the sex chromosomes in an avian hybrid zone

Daniel Hooper, Kelsie A Lopez, Callum S McDiarmid, Simon Griffith & Irby Lovette
The exploration of hybrid zones and the intergenomic conflicts exposed through hybridization provide windows into the processes of divergence and speciation. Sex chromosomes and mitonuclear incompatibilities have strong associations with the genetics of hybrid dysfunction. In ZW sex-determining systems, maternal co-inheritance of the mitochondrial and W chromosomes immediately exposes incompatibilities between these maternal contributions of one species and the Z chromosome of another. We analyze mitochondrial and Z chromosome admixture in the long-tailed finch (Poephila...

Large-scale integration of single-cell transcriptomic data captures transitional progenitor states in mouse skeletal muscle regeneration

David McKellar, Iwijn De Vlaminck & Benjamin Cosgrove
Skeletal muscle repair is driven by the coordinated self-renewal and fusion of myogenic stem and progenitor cells. Single-cell gene expression analyses of myogenesis have been hampered by the poor sampling of rare and transient cell states that are critical for muscle repair, and do not inform the spatial context that is important for myogenic differentiation. Here, we demonstrate how large-scale integration of single-cell and spatial transcriptomic data can overcome these limitations. We created a single-cell...

Fine-scale spatial segregation in a pelagic seabird driven by differential use of tidewater glacier fronts

Philip Bertrand, Joël Bêty, Nigel Gilles Yoccoz, Marie-Josée Fortin, Hallvard Strøm, Harald Steen, Jack Kohler, Stephanie M. Harris, Samantha C. Patrick, Olivier Chastel, Pierre Blévin, Haakon Hop, Geir Moholdt, Joséphine Maton & Sébastien Descamps
In colonially breeding marine predators, individual movements and colonial segregation are influenced by seascape characteristics. Tidewater glacier fronts are important features of the Arctic seascape and are often described as foraging hotspots. Albeit their documented importance for wildlife, little is known about their structuring effect on arctic predator movements and space use. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that tidewater glacier fronts can influence marine bird foraging patterns and drive spatial segregation among adjacent...

Omnivory in predatory ladybird beetles is widespread and driven by an appetite for sterols

Todd Ugine, Stuart Krasnoff & Spencer Behmer
1. Animals maintain physiological and behavioral systems that allow them to detect and consume specific macro- and micronutrients to maximize their fitness. One common physiological system is the nutrient-state-dependent or demand-driven appetite. These systems are well described for macronutrient regulation, but not for micronutrients. 2. Sterols are essential micronutrients that all animals need to survive. They are the backbone of many hormones, important in cell signaling, and an integral component of cell membranes. 3. Lady...

Variation in plant carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus contents across the drylands of China

Junlan Xiong, Longwei Dong, Jingli Lu, Weigang Hu, Haiyang Gong, Shubin Xie, Dongmin Zhao, Yahui Zhang, Xiaoting Wang, Yan Deng, Jinzhi Ran, Karl Niklas, Allan Degen & Jianming Deng
Determining large-scale patterns of plant elemental concentrations and stoichiometry along environmental gradients is critical for understanding plant adaptive strategies and predicting ecosystem biogeochemistry processes. However, it remains unclear as to how plant carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) concentrations and their stoichiometry in different organs (leaves, stems, and roots) respond to large-scale environmental gradients in drylands. We determined C, N, and P concentrations and their ratios in leaves, stems, and roots of plants growing...

Data from: Axes of multivariate sexual signal divergence among incipient species: concordance with selection, genetic variation, and phenotypic plasticity

Kevin Oh & Kerry Shaw
Sexual signaling traits are often observed to diverge rapidly among populations, thereby playing a potentially key early role in the evolution of reproductive isolation. While often assumed to reflect divergent sexual selection among populations, patterns of sexual trait diversification might sometimes be biased along axes of standing additive genetic variation and covariation among trait components. Additionally, theory predicts that environmentally-induced phenotypic variation might facilitate rapid trait evolution, suggesting that patterns of divergence between populations should...

Plant functional traits

Jinlong Li, Xiaoping Chen, Karl Niklas, Jun Sun, Zhaoying Wang, Quanlin Zhong, Dandan Hu & Dongliang Cheng
The whole-plant economics spectrum (PES) refers to the trade-offs among the many plant functional traits that are commonly used as indicators of major adaptive strategies, thereby providing insights into plant distributions, ecosystem processes, and evolution. However, there are few studies of what may be called the whole-plant economic spectrum (PES) that integrates bark, wood, and leaf functional traits for different leaf-types and growth habits (evergreen versus deciduous species). To address this gap in our knowledge,...

Nuclear and plastid phylogenomic analyses provide insights into the reticulate evolution, species delimitation and biogeography of the Sino-Japanese disjunctive Diabelia (Caprifoliaceae)

Xiu-Rong Ke, Diego F. Morales-Briones, Hong-Xin Wang, Qing-Hui Sun, Jacob B. Landis, Jun Wen & Hua-Feng Wang
Understanding biological diversity and the mechanisms of the Sino-Japanese disjunctions are major challenges in eastern Asia biogeography. The Sino-Japanese flora has been broadly studied as an ideal model for plant phylogeography. Diabelia (Caprifoliaceae) is an East Asian genus, with a disjunctive distribution across the Sino-Japanese region. However, relationships within Diabelia remain elusive. In this study, we reconstructed the phylogeny of Diabelia and inferred historical biogeography and evolutionary patterns based on nuclear and plastid sequences from...

Variation in the location and timing of experimental severing demonstrates that the persistent rhizome serves multiple functions in a clonal forest understory herb

Katherine Eisen, Gregor-Fausto Siegmund, Maxine Watson & Monica Geber
1. In clonal plants, persistent rhizomes can serve multiple purposes, including resource storage, modulation of heterogenous resource distributions, maintenance of bud banks and promotion of recovery from disturbance. Clonal plants are commonly long-lived and, in temperate zones, often exhibit organ preformation. Thus, investigations of how the timing of disturbance to the rhizome affects plant performance must occur over multiple growing seasons, but these types of studies are rare. 2. We conducted a field experiment to...

Data from Two-year Randomized Controlled Study on Daily Self-weighing Among Workplace Employees in Ithaca, NY, 2017-2019

David A. Levitsky & Laura K. Barré

Dataset: Experimental evaluation of herbicide use on biodiversity, ecosystem services and timber production tradeoffs in forest plantations.

Thomas D Stokely
This dataset consists of species richness of native plants, pollinators, and birds, ecosystem service response variables, and timber and revenue projections from forest plantations of the Oregon Coast Range, collected during the first 6 years of stand establishment (2011-2016). The objectives of the Intensive Forest Management experiment were to quantify the effects of herbicide use on biodiversity and ecosystem services and the relative tradeoffs between timber production and ecosystem services.

Dataset: Charge order textures induced by non-linear couplings in a half-doped manganite

Ismail El Baggari, David Baek, Michael Zachman, Di Lu, Yasuyuki Hikita, Harold Hwang, Elizabeth Nowadnick & Lena Kourkoutis
Raw data associated with publication. The self-organization of strongly interacting electrons into superlattice structures underlies the properties of many quantum materials. How these electrons arrange within the superlattice dictates what symmetries are broken and what ground states are stabilized. Here we show that cryogenic scanning transmission electron microscopy (cryo-STEM) enables direct mapping of local symmetries and order at the intra-unit-cell level in the model charge-ordered system Nd1/2Sr1/2MnO3. In addition to imaging the prototypical site-centered charge...

Data from: Broad geographic sampling reveals predictable, pervasive, and strong seasonal adaptation in Drosophila

Heather E. Machado, Alan O. Bergland, Ryan Taylor, Susanne Tilk, Emily Behrman, Kelly Dyer, Daniel K. Fabian, Thomas Flatt, Josefa González, Talia L. Karasov, Iryna Kozeretska, Brian P. Lazzaro, Thomas JS Merritt, John E. Pool, Katherine O’Brien, Subhash Rajpurohit, Paula R. Roy, Stephen W. Schaeffer, Svitlana Serga, Paul Schmidt, Dmitri Petrov & Bernard Kim
To advance our understanding of adaptation to temporally varying selection pressures, we identified signatures of seasonal adaptation occurring in parallel among Drosophila melanogaster populations. Specifically, we estimated allele frequencies genome-wide from flies sampled early and late in the growing season from 20 widely dispersed populations. We identified parallel seasonal allele frequency shifts across North America and Europe, demonstrating that seasonal adaptation is a general phenomenon of temperate fly populations. Seasonally fluctuating polymorphisms are enriched at...

Genomic data reveal the biogeographic and demographic history of Ammospiza sparrows in northeast tidal marshes

Jennifer Walsh, Adrienne Kovach, Phred Benham, Gemma Clucas, Virginia Winder & Irby Lovette
Aim: Shaped by both climate change and sea-level rise, tidal salt marshes represent ephemeral systems that are home to only a few, highly specialized species. The dynamic ecological histories and spatial complexities of these habitats, however, render it challenging to reconstruct the complete biogeographic histories of their endemic taxa. Here, we leverage three species of North American Ammospiza sparrows that inhabit tidal marshes ( Ammospiza caudacuta, A. maritima, and A. n. subvirgatus) and closely related...

A physicochemical model of odor sampling

Mitchell Gronowitz, Adam Liu, Qiang Qiu, Ron Yu & Thomas Cleland
We present a general physicochemical sampling model for olfaction, based on established pharmacological laws, in which arbitrary combinations of odorant ligands and receptors can be generated and their individual and collective effects on odor representations and olfactory performance measured. Individual odor ligands exhibit receptor-specific affinities and efficacies; that is, they may bind strongly or weakly to a given receptor, and can act as strong agonists, weak agonists, partial agonists, or antagonists. Ligands interacting with common...

Data from: Predator performance and fitness Is dictated by herbivore prey type plus indirect effects of their host plant

Todd Ugine, Harsimran Gill, Nicolo Hernandez, Robert Grebenok, Spencer Behmer & John Losey
Animals, including herbivores and predators, use diet-mixing to balance their macro- and micronutrient intake. Recent work demonstrated that lady beetles fed only pea aphids from fava beans had reduced fitness caused by a deficiency of dietary sterols. However, beetles redressed this deficit by eating fava bean leaves. In the current study we used Coccinella septempunctata as a model to test the hypotheses that pea aphids are a poor sterol resource independent of their host plant,...

Landscape composition mediates the relationship between predator body size and pest control

Ricardo Perez-Alvarez, Heather Grab, Anthony Polyakov & Katja Poveda
Understanding the mechanisms contributing to positive relationships between predator diversity and natural pest control is fundamental to inform more effective management practices to support sustainable crop production. Predator body size can provide important insights to better understand and predict such predator-pest interactions. Yet, most studies exploring the link between predator body size and pest control have been conducted in species-poor communities under controlled environmental conditions, limiting our ability to generalize this relationship across heterogeneous landscapes....

Patterns of genetic divergence and demographic history shed light on island-mainland population dynamics and melanic plumage evolution in the white-winged fairywren

Jennifer Walsh
The existence of distinct traits in island versus mainland populations offers opportunities to gain insights into how eco-evolutionary processes operate under natural conditions. We used two island colonization events in the white-winged fairywren (Malurus leucopterus) to investigate the genomic and demographic origin of melanic plumage. This avian species is distributed across most of Australia, and males of the mainland subspecies (M. l. leuconotus) exhibit a blue nuptial plumage in contrast to males of two island...

Bill size, bill shape, and body size constrain bird song evolution on a macroevolutionary scale

Amelia-Juliette Demery, Kevin Burns & Nicholas Mason
Studying macroevolutionary patterns of phenotypic variation and their driving forces in large radiations can shed light on how biodiversity is generated across broad spatiotemporal scales. In this study, we integrated song and morphological variation across more than 300 species representing the largest family of songbirds, the tanagers (Thraupidae), to uncover how morphological variables of the vocal tract combine to shape vocal evolution on a macroevolutionary scale. We found that body size correlated with multiple frequency...

Genetic relatedness in social groups of the emerald coral goby Paragobiodon xanthosoma creates potential for weak kin selection

Theresa Rueger, Peter Buston, Steven Bogdanowicz & Marian Wong
The explanation for why animals form social groups that include breeders and non-breeders is an evolutionary puzzle with some parts yet unsolved. Ecological constraints explain why non-breeders do not disperse to breed on their own, while social constraints explain why they do not contest to breed at home. Often kin selection explains why non-breeders behave cooperatively. Originally kin selection was assumed to play no role in social evolution in organisms with dispersive larval phases, such...

Cortex cis-regulatory switches establish scale colour identity and pattern diversity in Heliconius

Luca Livraghi, Joseph J. Hanly, Ling Sheng Loh, Anna Ren, Ian A. Warren, Carolina Concha, Charlotte Wright, Jonah M. Walker, Jessica Foley, Henry Arenas-Castro, Arnaud Martin, William O. McMillan, Chris D. Jiggins, Steven M. Van Bellghem, Gabriela Montejo-Kovacevich, James J. Lewis, Micheal W. Perry, Zachary H. Goldberg, Laura H. Lopez, Riccardo Papa & Eva S.M. Van Der Heijden
In Heliconius butterflies, wing pattern diversity is controlled by a few genes of large effect that regulate colour pattern switches between morphs and species across a large mimetic radiation. One of these genes, cortex, has been repeatedly associated with colour pattern evolution in butterflies. Here we carried out CRISPR knock-outs in multiple Heliconius species and show that cortex is a major determinant of scale cell identity. Chromatin accessibility profiling and introgression scans identified cis-regulatory regions...

Age and social experience induced plasticity across brain regions of the paper wasp Polistes fuscatus

Christopher Jernigan, Natalie Zaba & Michael Sheehan
Developmental studies of brain volumes can reveal which portions of neural circuits are sensitive to environmental inputs. In social insects, differences in relative investment across brain regions emerge as behavioral repertoires change during ontogeny or as a result of experience. Here, we test the effects of maturation and social experience on morphological brain development in Polistes fuscatus paper wasps, focusing on brain regions involved in visual and olfactory processing. We find that mature wasps regardless...

Context dependent benefits of aphids for bacteria in the phyllosphere.

Melanie Smee & Tory Hendry
Insect herbivores, like aphids, are common on plants yet how they interact with plant microbiomes remains largely unknown. For instance, for the widespread bacterial epiphyte and potential aphid pathogen Pseudomonas syringae, aphids could impact bacterial populations by serving as secondary hosts or by altering the epiphytic habitat through feeding and/or waste secretion. Here we examined if the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, could influence epiphytic populations of P. syringae. First, we quantified epiphytic growth ability without...

Data from: Selection of floral traits by pollinators and seed predators during sequential life history stages

Diane Campbell, Mascha Bischoff, Robert Raguso, Heather Briggs & Paula Sosenski
Organismal traits often influence fitness via interactions with multiple species. That selection is not necessarily predictable from pairwise interactions, such as when interactions occur during different lifecycle stages. Theoretically, directional selection during two sequential episodes, e.g., pollination and seed survival, can generate quadratic or correlational selection for a set of traits that passes both selective filters. We compared strength of selection during pollination versus seed predation in the field and tested whether interactions with multiple...

Registration Year

  • 2021

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Cornell University
  • University of Florida
  • University of Georgia
  • Princeton University
  • Duke University
  • George Washington University
  • Oregon State University
  • University of Minnesota
  • University of Chicago
  • Max Planck Institute for Ornithology