79 Works

Data from: Genetic relationships and ecological divergence in Salix species and populations in Taiwan

Chun-Lin Huang, Chung-Te Chang, Bing-Hong Huang, Jeng-Der Chung, Jui-Hung Chen, Yu-Chung Chiang & Shih-Ying Hwang
Linking ecology with evolutionary biology is important to understand how environments drive population and species divergence. Phenotypically diverse Salix species, such as lowland riparian willow trees and middle- to high-elevation multistemmed shrubs and alpine dwarf shrubs, provide opportunities for studying genetic divergence driven by ecological factors. We used amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) to quantify the genetic variation of 185 individuals from nine populations of four Salix species in Taiwan. Our phylogenetic analyses distinguished two...

Data from: Contribution of lianas to community-level canopy transpiration in a warm-temperate forest

Ryuji Ichihashi, Chen-Way Chiu, Hikaru Komatsu, Tomonori Kume, Yoshinori Shinohara, Makiko Tateishi, Kenji Tsuruta, Kyoichi Otsuki & Chen-Wei Chiu
1. Lianas (woody climbers) have a greater amount of leaves relative to basal area or standing biomass than trees, and very wide vessels that permit efficient water transport. These features suggest that lianas possibly consume proportionally more water through transpiration than trees. Despite their potential importance, researchers have made only limited attempts to evaluate effects of lianas on forest water dynamics. 2. We conducted sap flow measurements for 1 year using a thermal-dissipation method for...

Data from: Prediction of pneumoconiosis by serum and urinary biomarkers in workers exposed to asbestos-contaminated minerals

Hsiao-Yu Yang
Workers processing nephrite, antigorite, or talc may be exposed to paragenetic asbestos minerals. An effective screening method for pneumoconiosis in workers exposed to asbestos-contaminated minerals is still lacking. The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of serum and urinary biomarkers for pneumoconiosis in workers exposed to asbestos-contaminated minerals. We conducted a case-control study in a cohort of stone craft workers in Hualien, where asbestos, nephrite, antigorite, and talc are produced. A...

Data from: Time series dataset of fish assemblages near thermal discharges at nuclear power plants in northern Taiwan

Hungyen Chen, Ching-Yi Chen & Kwang-Tsao Shao
Long-term time series datasets with consistent sampling methods are rather rare, especially the ones of non-target coastal fishes. Here we described a long-term time series dataset of fish collected by trammel net fish sampling and observed by an underwater diving visual census near the thermal discharges at two nuclear power plants on the northern coast of Taiwan. Both experimental and control stations of these two investigations were monitored four times per year in the surrounding...

Data from: Prey size diversity hinders biomass trophic transfer and predator size diversity promotes it in planktonic communities

Carmen García-Comas, Akash R. Sastri, Lin Ye, Chun-Yi Chang, Fan-Sian Lin, Min-Sian Su, Gwo-Ching Gong & Chih-Hao Hsieh
Body size exerts multiple effects on plankton food-web interactions. However, the influence of size structure on trophic transfer remains poorly quantified in the field. Here, we examine how the size diversity of prey (nano-microplankton) and predators (mesozooplankton) influence trophic transfer efficiency (using biomass ratio as a proxy) in natural marine ecosystems. Our results support previous studies on single trophic levels: transfer efficiency decreases with increasing prey size diversity and is enhanced with greater predator size...

Historical dynamics of the demersal fish community in the East and South China Seas

Jin Gao, James Thorson, Cody Szuwalski & Hui-Yu Wang
Taiwan has a long history of fishery operations and contributes significantly to global fishery harvest. The East and South China seas are important fishing grounds with very limited public data. More efforts are needed to digitize and analyze historical catch rate data to illuminate species and community changes in this region. In this study, we digitize historical records of catch and effort from government fishery reports for nine commercial species caught by otter trawl, reported...

Body size, light intensity and nutrient supply determine plankton stoichiometry in mixotrophic plankton food webs

Pei-Chi Ho, Chun-Wei Chang, Fuh-Kwo Shiah, Pei-Ling Wang, Chih-Hao Hsieh & Ken H. Andersen
Trophic strategy determines stoichiometry of plankton. In general, heterotrophic zooplankton have lower and more stable C:N and C:P ratios than photoautotrophic phytoplankton whereas mixotrophic protists, which consume prey and photosynthesize, have stoichiometry between zooplankton and phytoplankton. As trophic strategies change with cell size, body size may be a key trait influencing eukaryotic plankton stoichiometry. However, the relationship between body size and stoichiometry remains unclear. Here, we measured plankton size-fractionated C:N ratios under different intensities of...

Eggs survive through avian guts—A possible mechanism for transoceanic dispersal of flightless weevils

Hui-Yun Tseng, Si‐Min Lin, Tsui‐Wen Li, Chia‐Hsin Liou, Ace Kevin S. Amarga & Analyn Cabras
How flightless animals disperse to remote oceanic islands is a key unresolved question in biogeography. The flightless Pachyrhynchus weevils represent repetitive colonization history in West Pacific islands, which attracted our interests about how some weevils have successfully dispersed in the reverse direction against the sea current. Here, we propose endozoochory as a possible mechanism that the eggs of the weevils might be carried by embedded in the fruits as the food of frugivorous birds. In...

Pictures of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) experiments on testing paper

Shuting Liao, Li-Yu Liu, Ting-An Chen, Kuang-Yu Chen & Fushing Hsieh
Our computational developments and analyses on experimental images are designed to evaluate the effectiveness of chemical spraying via unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Our evaluations are in accord with the two perspectives of color-complexity: color variety within a color system and color distributional geometry on an image. First, by working within RGB and HSV color systems, we develop a new color-identification algorithm relying on highly associative relations among three color-coordinates to lead us to exhaustively identify...

Data from: A locus in Drosophila sechellia affecting tolerance of a host plant toxin

Eric A. Hungate, Eric J. Earley, Ian A. Boussy, David A. Turissini, Chau-Ti Ting, Jennifer R. Moran, Mao-Lien Wu, Chung-I Wu & Corbin D. Jones
Many insects feed on only one or a few types of host. These host specialists often evolve a preference for chemical cues emanting from their host and develop mechanisms for circumventing their host’s defenses. Adaptations like these are central to evolutionary biology, yet our understanding of their genetics remains incomplete. Drosophila sechellia, an emerging model for the genetics of host specialization, is an island endemic that has adapted to chemical toxins present in the fruit...

Stable species boundaries despite ten million years of hybridization in tropical eels

Julia Barth, Chrysoula Gubili, Michael Matschiner, Ole Tørresen, Shun Watanabe, Bernd Egger, Yu-San Han, Eric Feunteun, Ruben Sommaruga, Robert Jehle & Robert Schabetsberger
Genomic evidence is increasingly underpinning that hybridization between taxa is commonplace, challenging our views on the mechanisms that maintain their boundaries. Here, we focus on seven catadromous eel species (genus Anguilla), and use genome-wide sequence data from more than 450 individuals sampled across the tropical Indo-Pacific, morphological information, and three newly assembled draft genomes to compare contemporary patterns of hybridization with signatures of past gene flow across a time-calibrated phylogeny. We show that the seven...

Data from: Are flatfishes (Pleuronectiformes) monophyletic?

Matthew A. Campbell, Wei-Jen Chen & J. Andrés López
All extant species of flatfish (order Pleuronectiformes) are thought to descend from a common ancestor, and therefore to represent a monophyletic group. This hypothesis is based largely on the dramatic bilateral asymmetry and associated ocular migration characteristics of all flatfish. Yet, molecular-based phylogenetic studies have been inconclusive on this premise. Support for flatfish monophyly has varied with differences in taxonomic and gene region sampling schemes. Notably, the genus Psettodes has been found to be more...

Data from: Patterns of nitrogen-fixing tree abundance in forests across Asia and America

Duncan N. L. Menge, Ryan A. Chisholm, Stuart J. Davies, Kamariah Abu Salim, David Allen, Mauricio Alvarez, Norm Bourg, Warren Y. Brockelman, Sarayudh Bunyavejchewin, Nathalie Butt, Min Cao, Wirong Chanthorn, Wei-Chun Chao, Keith Clay, Richard Condit, Susan Cordell, João Batista Da Silva, H. S. Dattaraja, Ana Cristina Segalin De Andrade, Alexandre A. Oliveira, Jan Den Ouden, Michael Drescher, Christine Fletcher, Christian P. Giardina, C. V. Savitri Gunatilleke … & Tak Fung
Symbiotic nitrogen (N)‐fixing trees can provide large quantities of new N to ecosystems, but only if they are sufficiently abundant. The overall abundance and latitudinal abundance distributions of N‐fixing trees are well characterised in the Americas, but less well outside the Americas. Here, we characterised the abundance of N‐fixing trees in a network of forest plots spanning five continents, ~5,000 tree species and ~4 million trees. The majority of the plots (86%) were in America...

Data from: Comparing two classes of alpha diversities and their corresponding beta and (dis)similarity measures, with an application to the Formosan sika deer (Cervus nippon taiouanus) reintroduction program

Anne Chao, Chun-Huo Chiu, Shu-Hui Wu, Chun-Lin Huang & Yiching Lin
1. Diversity partitioning, which decomposes gamma diversity into alpha and beta components, is commonly used to obtain measures that quantify spatial/temporal diversity and compositional similarity or dissimilarity among assemblages. We focus on the decomposition of diversity as measured by Hill numbers (parameterized by a diversity order q≧0). 2. At least three diversity-partitioning schemes based on Hill numbers have been proposed. These schemes differ in the way they formulate alpha diversity. We focus on comparing two...

Age-specific habitat preference, carrying capacity, and landscape structure determine the response of population spatial variability to fishing-driven age truncation

Hsiao-Hang Tao, Gaël Dur, Po-Ju Ke, Sami Souissi & Chih-Hao Hsieh
1. Understanding the mechanisms underlying spatial variability of exploited fish is critical for the sustainable management of fish stocks. Empirical studies suggest that size-selective fishing can elevate fish population spatial variability (i.e., more heterogeneous distribution) through age truncation, making the population less resilient to changing environment. However, species differ in how their spatial variability respond to age truncation and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. 2. We hypothesize that age-specific habitat preference, together with environmental carrying...

Data from: Sensitivity to habitat fragmentation across European landscapes in three temperate forest herbs

Tobias Naaf, Jannis Till Feigs, Siyu Huang, Jörg Brunet, Sara A. O. Cousins, Guillaume Decocq, Pieter De Frenne, Martin Diekmann, Sanne Govaert, Per-Ola Hedwall, Kenny Helsen, Jonathan Lenoir, Jaan Liira, Camille Meeussen, Jan Plue, Pedro Poli, Fabien Spicher, Pieter Vangansbeke, Thomas Vanneste, Kris Verheyen, Stephanie I. J. Holzhauer & Katja Kramp
Context. Evidence for effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on the viability of temperate forest herb populations in agricultural landscapes is so far based on population genetic studies of single species in single landscapes. However, forest herbs differ in their life histories, and landscapes have different environments, structures and histories, making generalizations difficult. Objectives. We compare the response of three slow-colonizing forest herbs to habitat loss and fragmentation and set this in relation to differences...

Data from: Metabolic proxy for cephalopods: Stable carbon isotope values recorded in different biogenic carbonates

Ming-Tsung Chung, Ching-Yi Chen, Jen-Chieh Shiao, Kotaro Shirai & Chia-Hui Wang
1. Measuring the metabolic rate of marine animals in their natural environment is challenging, impeding our understanding of their physiological ecology. Recently, a novel metabolic proxy, namely the δ13C values of biogenic carbonates (otoliths), was experimentally validated in teleost fishes. Cephalopods possess several types of biogenic carbonates, such as statolith, cuttlebone, and other internal and external shells, which are all potential metabolic recorders, but few have been evaluated. 2. To test the feasibility of the...

Seasonal rainfall in subtropical montane cloud forests drives demographic fluctuations in a Green-backed Tit population

Ming-Tang Shiao, Mei-Chen Chuang, Hsiao-Wei Yuan & Ying Wang
Montane birds are vulnerable to climate change. However, the mechanisms by which weather drives demographic processes in montane birds have seldom been investigated. We conducted a long-term study (2009–2019) on the Green-backed Tit (Parus monticolus), an insectivorous passerine, in the montane cloud forest of subtropical Taiwan. We explored the effects of weather variability on the productivity and survival of adult Green-backed Tits. Nest survival was negatively associated with seasonal rainfall during the breeding season (April–July)...

Data from Stranger Things: Organismal traits of two octocorals associated with singular Symbiodiniaceae in a high-latitude coral community from northern Taiwan

Tsai-Hsuan Tony Hsu, Lilian Carlu, Yunli Eric Hsieh, Tzu-Yu Angel Lai, Ching-Wei Wang, Ching-Yun Huang, Shan-Hua Yang, Pei-Ling Wang, Nicolas Sturaro & Vianney Denis
Scrutinizing the traits of octocorals that could affect their physiological performance becomes increasingly important as several of these species are observed to become dominant on reefs pressured by the Anthropocene. In the present study, we compare the organismal traits of two branching octocorals Litophyton sp. and Stereonephthya sp. commonly populating in sympatry the high-latitude coral communities of northern Taiwan. Using 13 traits, we describe and compare performance traits in these two symbiotic species that we...

Reoxygenation in the East China Sea

Chung-Chi Chen, Dong Ko, Gwo-Ching Gong, Chun-Chi Lien, Wen-Chen Chou, Hung-Jen Lee, Fuh-Kwo Shiah & Yu-Sin Huang
Hypoxia and upwelling co-occurred in the summer, and the well-mixed water often reaches the subsurface in the East China Sea (ECS), especially off the Changjiang River estuary. The impact of upwelling on the hypoxia and, therefore, on the ECS ecosystem is not well evaluated. This study demonstrates several positive and negative effects of upwelling on hypoxia and its impact on the ecosystem. This dataset contains data collected from four cruises in the summer of 2003...

Past and future decline of tropical pelagic biodiversity

Moriaki Yasuhara, Chih-Lin Wei, Michal Kucera, Mark Costello, Derek Tittensor, Wolfgang Kiessling, Timothy Bonebrake, Clay Tabor, Ran Feng, Andrés Baselga, Kerstin Kretschmer, Buntarou Kusumoto & Yasuhiro Kubota
A major research question concerning global pelagic biodiversity remains unanswered: when did the apparent tropical biodiversity depression (i.e., bimodality of latitudinal diversity gradient [LDG]) begin? The bimodal LDG may be a consequence of recent ocean warming or of deep-time evolutionary speciation and extinction processes. Using rich time-slice datasets of planktonic foraminifers, we show here that a unimodal (or only weakly bimodal) diversity gradient, with a plateau in the tropics, occurred during the last ice age...

Examining the needle in the haystack: Evolutionary relationships in the mistletoe genus Loranthus Jacq. (Loranthaceae)

Daniel Nickrent, Huei-Jiun Su, Ruo-Zhu Lin, Mohan Prasad Devkota, Jer-Ming Hu & Gerhard Glatzel
The genus Loranthus Jacq. (Loranthaceae) consists of ca. nine Old World species distributed from eastern Asia to Europe. Loranthus, the type of the family, has had a complex taxonomic history that continues today, partly because most mistletoes in the family have resided in this genus. For this reason, there are over 1800 Loranthus species names, the vast majority of which are synonyms for mistletoes in other genera. The present work sampled representatives of nine species...

Ecosystem services enhanced through soundscape management link people and wildlife

Mitch Levenhagen, Zachary Miller, Alissa Petrelli, Lauren Ferguson, Yau-Huo Shr, Dylan Gomes, Derrick Taff, Crow White, Kurt Fristrup, Christopher Monz, Christopher McClure, Peter Newman, Clinton Francis & Jesse Barber
Burgeoning urbanization, development and human activities have led to reduced opportunities for nature experience in quiet acoustic environments. Increasing noise affects both humans and wildlife alike. We experimentally altered human-caused sound levels in a paired study using informational signs that encouraged quiet behaviours in week-on, week-off blocks on the trail system of Muir Woods National Monument, California, USA to test if the soundscape influences both wildlife and human experiences. Using continuous measurements from acoustic recording...

A trait-based approach across the native and invaded range to understand plant invasiveness and community impact

Kenny Helsen, Hajime Matsushima, Ben Somers & Olivier Honnay
Alien plant species invasiveness and impact on diversity (i.e. species richness and composition) can be driven by the altered competitive interactions experienced by the invader in its invaded range compared to its native range. Trait-based competition effects on invasiveness can be mediated through size-asymmetric competition, i.e. a trait suit of the invader that drives competitive dominance, and through ‘niche differences’, i.e. trait differentiation and thus minimized competition between invader and the invaded community. In terms...

Data from: A new subfamily classification of the Leguminosae based on a taxonomically comprehensive phylogeny

, Anne Bruneau, Nasim Azani, Marielle Babineau, Edeline Gagnon, Carole Sinou, Royce Steeves, Erin Zimmerman, C. Donovan Bailey, Lynsey Kovar, Madhugiri Nageswara-Rao, Hannah Banks, RuthP. Clark, Manuel De La Estrella, Peter Gasson, GeoffreyC. Kite, BenteB. Klitgaard, GwilymP. Lewis, Danilo Neves, Gerhard Prenner, María De Lourdes Rico-Arce, ArianeR. Barbosa, Maria Cristina López-Roberts, Luciano Paganucci De Queiroz, PétalaG. Ribeiro … & Tingshuang Yi
The classification of the legume family proposed here addresses the long-known non-monophyly of the traditionally recognised subfamily Caesalpinioideae, by recognising six robustly supported monophyletic subfamilies. This new classification uses as its framework the most comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of legumes to date, based on plastid matK gene sequences, and including near-complete sampling of genera (698 of the currently recognised 765 genera) and ca. 20% (3696) of known species. The matK gene region has been the most...

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