92 Works

Data from: Multifactorial processes underlie parallel opsin loss in neotropical bats

Alexa Sadier, Kalina T. J. Davies, Laurel R. Yohe, Kun Yun, Paul Donat, Brandon P. Hedrick, Elizabeth R. Dumont, Liliana M. Davalos, Stephen J. Rossiter & Karen E. Sears
The loss of previously adaptive traits is typically linked to relaxation in selection, yet the molecular steps leading to such repeated losses are rarely known. Molecular studies of loss have tended to focus on gene sequences alone, but overlooking other aspects of protein expression might underestimate phenotypic diversity. Insights based almost solely on opsin gene evolution, for instance, have made mammalian color vision a textbook example of phenotypic loss. We address this gap by investigating...

Data from: A phylogenetic analysis of the megadiverse Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera)

John M. Heraty, Roger A. Burks, Astrid Cruaud, Gary A. P. Gibson, Johan Liljeblad, James Munro, Jean-Yves Rasplus, Gerard Delvare, Petr Janšta, Alex Gumovsky, John Huber, James B. Woolley, Lars Krogmann, Steve Heydon, Andrew Polaszek, Stefan Schmidt, D. Chris Darling, Michael W. Gates, Jason Mottern, Elizabeth Murray, Ana Dal Molin, Serguei Triapitsyn, Hannes Baur, John D. Pinto, Simon Van Noort … & Matthew Yoder
Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) is extremely diverse with an estimated 500 000 species. We present the first phylogenetic analysis of the superfamily based on both morphological and molecular data. A web-based, systematics workbench mx was used to score 945 character states illustrated by 648 figures for 233 morphological characters for a total of 66 645 observations for 300 taxa. The matrix covers 22 chalcidoid families recognized herein and includes 268 genera within 78 of 83 subfamilies. Morphological...

Data from: No clear effect of admixture between two European invading outbreaks of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera in natura

Gérald Bermond, Fanny Cavigliasso, Sophie Mallez, Joseph Spencer & Thomas Guillemaud
In this study, we challenged the hypothesis that admixture may have had a positive impact in the context of the European invasion of the western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, LeConte. This beetle was introduced in Europe from the USA several times since the 1980’s. The multiple introductions of this major pest of cultivated corn led to the formation of two major outbreaks in North Western (NW) Italy and in Central and South Eastern...

Data from: Stream hierarchy defines riverscape genetics of a North American desert fish

Matthew W. Hopken, Marlis R. Douglas & Michael E. Douglas
Global climate change is apparent within the Arctic and the south-western deserts of North America, with record drought in the latter reflected within 640 000 km2 of the Colorado River Basin. To discern the manner by which natural and anthropogenic drivers have compressed Basin-wide fish biodiversity, and to establish a baseline for future climate effects, the Stream Hierarchy Model (SHM) was employed to juxtapose fluvial topography against molecular diversities of 1092 Bluehead Sucker (Catostomus discobolus)....

Data from: Genetic rescue, the greater prairie chicken and the problem of conservation reliance in the Anthropocene

Steven M. Mussmann, Marlis R. Douglas, Whitney J.B. Anthonysamy, Mark A. Davis, Scott A. Simpson, Wade Louis, Michael E. Douglas & W. J. B. Anthonysamy
A central question in conservation is how best to manage biodiversity, despite human domination of global processes (= Anthropocene). Common responses (i.e. translocations, genetic rescue) forestall potential extirpations, yet have an uncertain duration. A textbook example is the greater prairie chicken (GRPC: Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus), where translocations (1992–1998) seemingly rescued genetically depauperate Illinois populations. We re-evaluated this situation after two decades by genotyping 21 microsatellite loci from 1831 shed feathers across six leks in two...

Data from: Soil-mediated eco-evolutionary feedbacks in the invasive plant Alliaria petiolata

Jeffrey A. Evans, Richard A. Lankau, Adam S. Davis, S. Raghu & Douglas A. Landis
Ecological and evolutionary processes historically have been assumed to operate on significantly different time scales. We know now from theory and work in experimental and model systems that these processes can feed back on each other on mutually relevant time scales. Here, we present evidence of a soil-mediated eco-evolutionary feedback on the population dynamics of an invasive biennial plant, Alliaria petiolata. As populations age, natural selection drives down production of A. petiolata's important anti-mycorrhizal allelochemical,...

Data from: Climatic thresholds shape northern high-latitude fire regimes and imply vulnerability to future climate change

Adam M. Young, Philip E. Higuera, Paul A. Duffy & Feng Sheng Hu
Boreal forests and arctic tundra cover 33% of global land area and store an estimated 50% of total soil carbon. Because wildfire is a key driver of terrestrial carbon cycling, increasing fire activity in these ecosystems would likely have global implications. To anticipate potential spatiotemporal variability in fire-regime shifts, we modeled the spatially explicit 30-yr probability of fire occurrence as a function of climate and landscape features (i.e. vegetation and topography) across Alaska. Boosted regression...

Data from: Macroevolutionary synthesis of flowering plant sexual systems

Emma E. Goldberg, Sarah P. Otto, Jana C. Vamosi, Itay Mayrose, Niv Sabath, Ray Ming & Tia-Lynn Ashman
Sexual system is a key determinant of genetic variation and reproductive success, affecting evolution within populations and within clades. Much research in plants has focused on evolutionary transitions away from the most common state of hermaphroditism and toward the rare state of dioecy (separate sexes). Rather than transitions predominantly toward greater sexual differentiation, however, evolution may proceed in the direction of lesser sexual differentiation. We analyzed the macroevolutionary dynamics of sexual system in angiosperm genera...

Data from: Divergence of the diapause transcriptome in apple maggot flies: winter regulation and post-winter transcriptional repression

Peter J. Meyers, Thomas H. Q. Powell, Kimberly K. O. Walden, Adam Shieferecke, Jeffrey L. Feder, Daniel A. Hahn, Hugh M. Robertson, Stewart H. Berlocher & Gregory J. Ragland
Duration of dormancy regulates seasonal timing in many organisms and may be modulated by day length and temperature. Though photoperiodic modulation has been well studied, temperature modulation of dormancy has received less attention. Here, we leverage genetic variation in diapause in the apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, to test whether gene expression during winter or following spring warming regulates diapause duration. We used RNAseq to compare transcript abundance during and after simulated winter between an...

Data from: Estimating resource preferences of a native bumblebee: the effects of availability and use-availability models on preference estimatess

Alexandra N. Harmon-Threatt, Perry De Valpine & Claire Kremen
Identifying resource preference is considered essential for developing targeted conservation plans but, for many species, questions remain about the best way to estimate preference. Resource preferences for bees are particularly difficult to determine as the resources they collect, nectar and pollen, are challenging to estimate availability and collection. Resources are traditionally measured at the flower or inflorescence level, but these measures of availability do not correspond to the resources actually used by bees. Additionally, it...

Data from: No apparent benefits of allonursing for recipient offspring and mothers in the cooperatively breeding meerkat

Kirsty J. MacLeod, Katie E. McGhee & Tim H. Clutton-Brock
1. Cooperative behaviours by definition are those that provide some benefit to another individual. Allonursing, the nursing of non-descendent young, is often considered a cooperative behaviour and is assumed to provide benefits to recipient offspring in terms of growth and survival, and to their mothers, by enabling them to share the lactation load. However, these proposed benefits are not well understood, in part because maternal and litter traits and other ecological and social variables are...

Data from: Host social behavior decreases exposure to vector-borne disease: a field experiment in a “hotspot” of West Nile virus transmission

Bethany L. Krebs, Tavis K. Anderson, Tony L. Goldberg, Gabriel L. Hamer, Uriel D. Kitron, Christina M. Newman, Marilyn O. Ruiz, Edward D. Walker & J. D. Brawn
Animals can decrease their individual risk of predation by forming groups. The encounter-dilution hypothesis extends the potential benefits of gregariousness to biting insects and vector-borne disease by predicting that the per capita number of insect bites should decrease within larger host groups. Although vector-borne diseases are common and can exert strong selective pressures on hosts, there have been few tests of the encounter-dilution effect in natural systems. We conducted an experimental test of the encounter-dilution...

Data from: Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life

Brian M. Wiegmann, Michelle D. Trautwein, Isaac S. Winkler, Norman B. Barr, Jung-Wook Kim, Christine Lambkin, Matthew A. Bertone, Brian K. Cassel, Keith M. Bayless, Alysha M. Heimberg, Benjamin M. Wheeler, Kevin J. Peterson, Thomas Pape, Bradley J. Sinclair, Jeffrey H. Skevington, Vladimir Blagoderov, Jason Caravas, Sujatha Narayanan Kutty, Urs Schmidt-Ott, Gail E. Kampmeier, F. Christian Thompson, David A. Grimaldi, Andrew T. Beckenbach, Gregory W. Courtney, Markus Friedrich … & J.-W. Kim
Flies are one of four superradiations of insects (along with beetles, wasps, and moths) that account for the majority of animal life on Earth. Diptera includes species known for their ubiquity (Musca domestica house fly), their role as pests (Anopheles gambiae malaria mosquito), and their value as model organisms across the biological sciences (Drosophila melanogaster). A resolved phylogeny for flies provides a framework for genomic, developmental, and evolutionary studies by facilitating comparisons across model organisms,...

Data from: Insight into genomic changes accompanying divergence: genetic linkage maps and synteny of Lucania goodei and L. parva reveal a Robertsonian fusion

Emma L. Berdan, Genevieve M. Kozak, Ray Ming, A. Lane Rayburn, Ryan Kiehart & Rebecca C. Fuller
Linkage maps are important tools in evolutionary genetics and in studies of speciation. We performed a karyotyping study and constructed high-density linkage maps for two closely related killifish species, Lucania parva and Lucania goodei, that differ in salinity tolerance and still hybridize in their contact zone in Florida. Using SNPs from orthologous EST contigs, we compared synteny between the two species to determine how genomic architecture has shifted with divergence. Karyotyping revealed that L. goodei...

Data from: Rethinking long-term vegetation dynamics: multiple glacial refugia and local expansion of a species complex

Joseph D. Napier, Guillaume De Lafontaine, Katy D. Heath & Feng Sheng Hu
Evidence is accumulating that some arcto-boreal plant taxa persisted through the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in Alaska and adjacent Canada. However, the spatial patterns of glacial persistence and associated postglacial colonization remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the LGM refugia of an alder (Alnus) species complex (n = 3 taxa) and assess the spatiotemporal dynamics of Alnus in this vast region. Specifically, we conducted high-throughput DNA sequencing (ddRADseq) on Alnus foliar samples collected...

Data from: Arctic and boreal paleofire records reveal drivers of fire activity and departures from Holocene variability

Tyler Hoecker, Philip Higuera, Ryan Kelly & Feng Sheng Hu
Boreal forest and tundra biomes are key components of the Earth system because the mobilization of large carbon stocks and changes in energy balance could act as positive feedbacks to ongoing climate change. In Alaska, wildfire is a primary driver of ecosystem structure and function, and a key mechanism coupling high-latitude ecosystems to global climate. Paleoecological records reveal sensitivity of fire regimes to climatic and vegetation change over centennial-millennial time scales, highlighting increased burning concurrent...

Honey bee virus causes context-dependent changes in host social behavior

Adam Dolezal, Tim Gernat, Geffre Amy, Gyan Harwood, Beryl Jones, Adam Hamilton, Bryony Bonning, Amy Toth, Gene Robinson & Deisy Morselli Gysi
Anthropogenic changes create evolutionarily novel environments that present opportunities for emerging diseases, potentially changing the balance between host and pathogen. Honey bees provide essential pollination services, but intensification and globalization of honey bee management has coincided with increased pathogen pressure, primarily due to a parasitic mite/virus complex. Here, we investigated how honey bee individual and social phenotypes are altered by a virus of concern, Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV). Using automated and manual behavioral monitoring...

Local canopy disturbance as an explanation for long-term increases in liana abundance

Stefan Schnitzer, David DeFilippis, Marco Visser, Sergio Estrada-Villegas, Rigoberto Rivera-Camaña, Boris Bernal, Salomé Peréz, Abelino Valdéz, Seberino Aguilar, James Dalling, Eben Broadbent, Angelica Almeyda Zambrano, Stephen Hubbell & Maria Garcia-Leon
Canopy disturbance explains liana abundance and distribution within tropical forests and thus may also explain the widespread pattern of increasing liana abundance; however, this hypothesis remains untested. We used a 10-year study (2007 – 2017) of 117,100 rooted lianas in an old-growth Panamanian forest to test whether local canopy disturbance explains increasing liana abundance. We found that liana density increased 29.2% and basal area 12.5%. The vast majority of these increases were associated with clonal...

Data from: Intraspecific variation in seed dispersal of a Neotropical tree and its relationship to fruit and tree traits

Carol K. Augspurger, Susan E. Franson, Katherine C. Cushman & Helene C. Muller-Landau
The distribution of wind-dispersed seeds around a parent tree depends on diaspore and tree traits, as well as wind conditions and surrounding vegetation. This study of a neotropical canopy tree, Platypodium elegans, explored the extent to which parental variation in diaspore and tree traits explained (1) rate of diaspore descent in still air, (2) distributions of diaspores dispersed from a 40-m tower in the forest, and (3) natural diaspore distributions around the parent tree. The...

Data from: Rapid genetic restoration of a keystone species exhibiting delayed demographic response

Bradley J. Cosentino, Robert L. Schooley, Brandon T. Bestelmeyer, Alison J. McCarthy & Kevin Sierzega
Genetic founder effects are often expected when animals colonize restored habitat in fragmented landscapes, but empirical data on genetic responses to restoration are limited. We examined the genetic response of banner-tailed kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spectabilis) to landscape-scale grassland restoration in the Chihuahuan Desert of New Mexico, USA. D. spectabilis is a grassland specialist and keystone species. At sites treated with herbicide to remove shrubs, colonization by D. spectabilis is slow and populations persist at low...

Data from: The pervasive effects of lighting environments on sensory drive in bluefin killifish: an investigation into male/male competition, female choice, and predation

Lisa D. Mitchem, Shannon Stanis, Nicholas M. Sutton, Zachary Turner & Rebecca C. Fuller
Sensory drive predicts that the conditions under which signaling takes place have large effects on signals, sensory systems, and behavior. The coupling of an ecological genetics approach with sensory drive has been fruitful. An ecological genetics approach compares populations that experience different environments and asks whether population differences are adaptive and are the result of genetic and/or environmental variation. The multi-faceted effects of signaling environments are well-exemplified by the bluefin killifish. In this system, males...

Data from: A comparative analysis reveals little evidence for niche conservatism in aquatic macrophytes among four areas on two continents

Janne Alahuhta, Frauke Ecke, Lucinda B. Johnson, Laura Sass & Jani Heino
One of the most intriguing questions in current ecology is the extent to which the ecological niches of species are conserved in space and time. Niche conservatism has mostly been studied using coarse-scale data of species' distributions, although it is at the local habitat scales where species' responses to ecological variables primarily take place. We investigated the extent to which niches of aquatic macrophytes are conserved among four study regions (i.e. Finland, Sweden and the...

Data from: Functional innovation promotes diversification of form in the evolution of an ultrafast trap-jaw mechanism

Douglas Booher, Joshua Gibson, Cong Liu, John Longino, Brian Fisher, Milan Janda, Nitish Narula, Evropi Toulkeridou, Alexander Mikheyev, Andrew Suarez & Evan Economo
Evolutionary innovations underlie the rise of diversity and complexity—the two long-term trends in the history of life. How does natural selection redesign multiple interacting parts to achieve a new emergent function? We investigated the evolution of a biomechanical innovation, the latch-spring mechanism of trap-jaw ants, to address two outstanding evolutionary problems: how form and function change in a system during the evolution of new complex traits, and whether such innovations and the diversity they beget...

Genomic evidence for correlated trait combinations and antagonistic selection contributing to counterintuitive genetic patterns of adaptive diapause divergence in Rhagoletis flies

McCall Calvert, Meredith Doellman, Jeffrey Feder, Glenn Hood, Peter Meyers, Scott Egan, Thomas Powell, Mary Glover, Cheyenne Tait, Hannes Schuler, Stewart Berlocher, James Smith, Patrik Nosil, Dan Hahn & Gregory Ragland
Adaptation to novel environments often results in unanticipated genomic responses to selection. Here, we illustrate how multifarious, correlational selection helps explain a counterintuitive pattern of genetic divergence between the recently derived apple- and ancestral hawthorn-infesting host races of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae). The Apple host race terminate diapause and emerge as adults earlier in the season than the hawthorn host race to coincide with the earlier fruiting phenology of their apple hosts. However, alleles at...

Data from: Carbon dynamics of mature and regrowth tropical forests derived from a pantropical database (TropForC-db)

Kristina J. Anderson-Teixeira, Maria M. H. Wang, Jennifer C. McGarvey & David S. LeBauer
Tropical forests play a critical role in the global carbon (C) cycle, storing ~45% of terrestrial C and constituting the largest component of the terrestrial C sink. Despite their central importance to the global C cycle, their ecosystem-level C cycles are not as well characterized as those of extra-tropical forests, and knowledge gaps hamper efforts to quantify C budgets across the tropics and to model tropical forest- climate interactions. To advance understanding of C dynamics...

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