92 Works

Data from: Transcriptomic imprints of adaptation to fresh water: parallel evolution of osmoregulatory gene expression in the Alewife

Jonathan P. Velotta, Jill L. Wegrzyn, Samuel Ginzburg, Lin Kang, Sergiusz Czesny, Rachel J. O'Neill, Stephen D. McCormick, Pawel Michalak & Eric T. Schultz
Comparative approaches in physiological genomics offer an opportunity to understand the functional importance of genes involved in niche exploitation. We used populations of Alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) to explore the transcriptional mechanisms that underlie adaptation to fresh water. Ancestrally anadromous Alewives have recently formed multiple, independently derived, landlocked populations, which exhibit reduced tolerance of saltwater and enhanced tolerance of fresh water. Using RNA-seq, we compared transcriptional responses of an anadromous Alewife population to two landlocked populations...

Data from: Distinguishing migration events of different timing for wild boar in the Balkans

Panoraia Alexandri, Hendrik-Jan Megens, Richard P. M. A. Crooijmans, Martien A. M. Groenen, Daniel J. Goedbloed, Juan M. Herrero-Medrano, Lauretta A. Rund, Lawrence B. Schook, Evangelos Chatzinikos, Costas Triantaphyllidis, Alexandros Triantafyllidis, Laurence B. Schook & Alexander Triantafyllidis
Aim: We compared the power of different nuclear markers to investigate genetic structure of southern Balkan wild boar. We distinguished between historic events, such as isolation in different refugia during glacial periods, from recent demographic processes, such as naturally occurring expansions. Location: Southern Balkans/Greece. Methods: We sampled 555 wild boars from 20 different locations in southern Balkans/Greece. All individuals were analysed with 10 microsatellites and a subgroup of 91 with 49,508 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)....

Data from: The pervasive effects of lighting environments on sensory drive in bluefin killifish: an investigation into male/male competition, female choice, and predation

Lisa D. Mitchem, Shannon Stanis, Nicholas M. Sutton, Zachary Turner & Rebecca C. Fuller
Sensory drive predicts that the conditions under which signaling takes place have large effects on signals, sensory systems, and behavior. The coupling of an ecological genetics approach with sensory drive has been fruitful. An ecological genetics approach compares populations that experience different environments and asks whether population differences are adaptive and are the result of genetic and/or environmental variation. The multi-faceted effects of signaling environments are well-exemplified by the bluefin killifish. In this system, males...

Data from: A comparative analysis reveals little evidence for niche conservatism in aquatic macrophytes among four areas on two continents

Janne Alahuhta, Frauke Ecke, Lucinda B. Johnson, Laura Sass & Jani Heino
One of the most intriguing questions in current ecology is the extent to which the ecological niches of species are conserved in space and time. Niche conservatism has mostly been studied using coarse-scale data of species' distributions, although it is at the local habitat scales where species' responses to ecological variables primarily take place. We investigated the extent to which niches of aquatic macrophytes are conserved among four study regions (i.e. Finland, Sweden and the...

Data from: From the track to the ocean: using flow control to improve marine bio-logging tags for cetaceans

Giovani Fiore, Erik Anderson, C. Spencer Garborg, Mark Murray, Mark Johnson, Michael J. Moore, Laurens Howle & K. Alex Shorter
Bio-logging tags are an important tool for the study of cetaceans, but superficial tags inevitably increase hydrodynamic loading. Substantial forces can be generated by tags on fast-swimming animals, potentially affecting behavior and energetics or promoting early tag removal. Streamlined forms have been used to reduce loading, but these designs can accelerate flow over the top of the tag. This non-axisymmetric flow results in large lift forces (normal to the animal) that become the dominant force...

Data from: Rates of genomic divergence in humans, chimpanzees and their lice

Kevin P. Johnson, Julie M. Allen, Brett P. Olds, Lawrence Mugisha, David L. Reed, Ken N. Paige & Barry R. Pittendrigh
The rate of DNA mutation and divergence is highly variable across the tree of life. However, the reasons underlying this variation are not well understood. Comparing the rates of genetic changes between hosts and parasite lineages that diverged at the same time is one way to begin to understand differences in genetic mutation and substitution rates. Such studies have indicated that the rate of genetic divergence in parasites is often faster than that of their...

Data from: Paternal care in a fish: epigenetics and fitness enhancing effects on offspring anxiety

Katie E. McGhee & Alison M. Bell
In many animals, including humans, interactions with caring parents can have long-lasting effects on offspring sensitivity to stressors. However, whether these parental effects impact offspring fitness in nature is often unclear. In addition, despite evidence that maternal care can influence offspring behaviour via epigenetic alterations to the genome, it remains unclear whether paternal care has similar effects. Here, we show in three-spined sticklebacks, a fish in which fathers are the sole provider of offspring care,...

Data from: Parenting behaviour is highly heritable in male stickleback

Alison M. Bell, Rebecca Trapp & Jason Keagy
Parental care is critical for fitness, yet little is known about its genetic basis. Here, we estimate the heritability of parenting behaviour in a species famous for its diversity and its behavioural repertoire: three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Male threespined stickleback are the sole providers of paternal care that is necessary for offspring survival, therefore this system offers the opportunity to study the inheritance of parental behavior when selection is primarily acting on males. Fanning behaviour...

Data from: Phylogenomic analyses reveal convergent patterns of adaptive evolution in elephant and human ancestries

Morris Goodman, Kirstin N. Sterner, M. Munirul Islam, Monica Uddin, Chet C. Sherwood, Patrick R. Hof, Zhuo-Cheng Hou, Leonard Lipovich, Hui Jia, Lawrence I. Grossman, Derek E. Wildman, M. Islam & Z. C. Hou
Specific sets of brain-expressed genes, such as aerobic energy metabolism genes, evolved adaptively in the ancestry of humans and may have evolved adaptively in the ancestry of other large-brained mammals. The recent addition of genomes from two afrotherians (elephant and tenrec) to the expanding set of publically available sequenced mammalian genomes provided an opportunity to test this hypothesis. Elephants resemble humans by having large brains and long life spans; tenrecs, in contrast, have small brains...

Data from: Phylogeographic inference using Bayesian model comparison across a fragmented chorus frog species complex

Lisa N. Barrow, Alyssa T. Bigelow, Christopher A. Phillips & Emily Moriarty Lemmon
Fragmented species complexes provide an interesting system for investigating biogeographic history and the present distribution of genetic variation. Recent advances in sequencing technology and statistical phylogeography enable the collection and rigorous analysis of large multilocus data sets, but designing studies that produce meaningful phylogeographic inferences remains challenging. We implemented a Bayesian model comparison approach to investigate previous biogeographic hypotheses while simultaneously inferring the presence of genetic structure in a chorus frog species complex. The Illinois...

Data from: Carbon dynamics of mature and regrowth tropical forests derived from a pantropical database (TropForC-db)

Kristina J. Anderson-Teixeira, Maria M. H. Wang, Jennifer C. McGarvey & David S. LeBauer
Tropical forests play a critical role in the global carbon (C) cycle, storing ~45% of terrestrial C and constituting the largest component of the terrestrial C sink. Despite their central importance to the global C cycle, their ecosystem-level C cycles are not as well characterized as those of extra-tropical forests, and knowledge gaps hamper efforts to quantify C budgets across the tropics and to model tropical forest- climate interactions. To advance understanding of C dynamics...

Data from: A test of the invasive pathogen hypothesis of bumble bee decline in North America

Sydney A. Cameron, Haw C. Lim, Jeffrey D. Lozier, Michelle Audrey Duennes & Robbin Thorp
Emergent fungal diseases are critical factors in global biodiversity declines. The fungal pathogen Nosema bombi was recently found to be widespread in declining species of North American bumble bees (Bombus), with circumstantial evidence suggesting an exotic introduction from Europe. This interpretation has been hampered by a lack of knowledge of global genetic variation, geographic origin, and changing prevalence patterns of N. bombi in declining North American populations. Thus, the temporal and spatial emergence of N....

Data from: Rapid genetic restoration of a keystone species exhibiting delayed demographic response

Bradley J. Cosentino, Robert L. Schooley, Brandon T. Bestelmeyer, Alison J. McCarthy & Kevin Sierzega
Genetic founder effects are often expected when animals colonize restored habitat in fragmented landscapes, but empirical data on genetic responses to restoration are limited. We examined the genetic response of banner-tailed kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spectabilis) to landscape-scale grassland restoration in the Chihuahuan Desert of New Mexico, USA. D. spectabilis is a grassland specialist and keystone species. At sites treated with herbicide to remove shrubs, colonization by D. spectabilis is slow and populations persist at low...

Data from: The effects of age, sex, and habitat on body size and shape of the blackstripe topminnow, Fundulus notatus

Daniel P. Welsh, Muchu Zhou, Steven M. Mussmann, Lauren G. Fields, Claire L. Thomas, Simon P. Pearish, Stephanie L. Kilburn, Jerrod L. Parker, Laura R. Stein, Jennifer A. Bartlett, Christopher R. Bertram, Thomas J. Bland, Kate L. Laskowski, Brett C. Mommer, Xuan Zhuang & Rebecca C. Fuller
Lake and stream habitats pose a variety of challenges to fishes due to differences in variables such as water velocity, habitat structure, prey community, and predator community. These differences can cause divergent selection on body size and/or shape. Here, we measured sex, age, length, and eight different morphological traits of the blackstripe topminnow, Fundulus notatus, from 19 lake and stream populations across four river drainages in central Illinois. Our goal was to determine whether size...

Data from: Elevated CO2 and temperature increase soil C losses from a soybean-maize ecosystem

Christopher K. Black, Sarah C. Davis, Tara W. Hudiburg, Carl J. Bernacchi & Evan H. DeLucia
Warming temperatures and increasing CO2 are likely to have large effects on the amount of carbon stored in soil, but predictions of these effects are poorly constrained. We elevated temperature (canopy: +2.8 °C; soil growing season: +1.8 °C; soil fallow: +2.3 °C) for 3 years within the 9th–11th years of an elevated CO2 (+200 ppm) experiment on a maize–soybean agroecosystem, measured respiration by roots and soil microbes, and then used a process-based ecosystem model (DayCent)...

Data from: Intraspecific variation in seed dispersal of a Neotropical tree and its relationship to fruit and tree traits

Carol K. Augspurger, Susan E. Franson, Katherine C. Cushman & Helene C. Muller-Landau
The distribution of wind-dispersed seeds around a parent tree depends on diaspore and tree traits, as well as wind conditions and surrounding vegetation. This study of a neotropical canopy tree, Platypodium elegans, explored the extent to which parental variation in diaspore and tree traits explained (1) rate of diaspore descent in still air, (2) distributions of diaspores dispersed from a 40-m tower in the forest, and (3) natural diaspore distributions around the parent tree. The...

Data from: Phylogenomic analyses reveal convergent patterns of adaptive evolution in elephant and human ancestries

Morris Goodman, Kirstin N. Sterner, M. Munirul Islam, Monica Uddin, Chet C. Sherwood, Patrick R. Hof, Zhuo-Cheng Hou, Leonard Lipovich, Hui Jia, Lawrence I. Grossman, Derek E. Wildman, D. E. Wildman, L. I. Grossman, C. C. Sherwood, M. Islam, L. Lipovich, H. Jia, P. R. Hof, Z. C. Hou & K. N. Sterner
Specific sets of brain-expressed genes, such as aerobic energy metabolism genes, evolved adaptively in the ancestry of humans and may have evolved adaptively in the ancestry of other large-brained mammals. The recent addition of genomes from two afrotherians (elephant and tenrec) to the expanding set of publically available sequenced mammalian genomes provided an opportunity to test this hypothesis. Elephants resemble humans by having large brains and long life spans; tenrecs, in contrast, have small brains...

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