134 Works

Data from: Co-feeding intra- and interspecific transmission of an emerging insect-borne rickettsial pathogen

Lisa D. Brown, Rebecca C. Christofferson, Kaikhushroo H. Banajee, Fabio Del Piero, Lane D. Foil & Kevin R. Macaluso
Cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) are known as the primary vector and reservoir of Rickettsia felis, the causative agent of flea-borne spotted fever; however, field surveys regularly report molecular detection of this infectious agent from other blood-feeding arthropods. The presence of R. felis in additional arthropods may be the result of chance consumption of an infectious bloodmeal, but isolation of viable rickettsiae circulating in the blood of suspected vertebrate reservoirs has not been demonstrated. Successful transmission...

Data from: Coordinated dispersal and pre-Isthmian assembly of the Central American ichthyofauna

Victor A. Tagliacollo, Scott M. Duke-Sylvester, Wilfredo A. Matamoros, Prosanta Chakrabarty & James S. Albert
We document patterns of coordinated dispersal over evolutionary time frames in heroine cichlids and poeciliine live-bearers, the two most species-rich clades of freshwater fishes in the Caribbean basin. Observed dispersal rate (DO) values were estimated from time-calibrated molecular phylogenies in Lagrange+, a modified version of the ML-based parametric biogeographic program Lagrange. DO is measured in units of ‘wallaces’ (wa) as the number of biogeographic range-expansion events per million years. DO estimates were generated on a...

Data from: Phylogeography and species delimitation in convict cichlids (Cichlidae: Amatitlania): implications for taxonomy and Plio–Pleistocene evolutionary history in Central America

Justin C. Bagley, Wilfredo A. Matamoros, Caleb D. McMahan, Michael Tobler, Prosanta Chakrabarty & Jerald B. Johnson
We investigate phylogeographic patterns and delimit species boundaries within Amatitlania, a genus of Central American cichlid fishes. Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences from 318 individuals spanning the geographical ranges of all three currently recognized Amatitlania species strongly supported one major clade, with a relatively diverged subclade corresponding to A. kanna samples from eastern Costa Rica and Panama. Gene trees and networks revealed marked incongruences between phylogeographic structure and morpho-species taxonomy as a result of...

Data from: The evolutionary relationships and age of Homo naledi: an assessment using dated Bayesian phylogenetic methods

Mana Dembo, Davorka Radovčić, Heather M. Garvin, Myra F. Laird, Lauren Schroeder, Jill E. Scott, Juliet Brophy, Rebecca R. Ackermann, Charles M. Musiba, Darryl J. De Ruiter, Arne Ø. Mooers, Mark Collard & Chares M. Musiba
Homo naledi is a recently discovered species of fossil hominin from South Africa. A considerable amount is already known about H. naledi but some important questions remain unanswered. Here we report a study that addressed two of them: “Where does H. naledi fit in the hominin evolutionary tree?” and “How old is it?” We used a large supermatrix of craniodental characters for both early and late hominin species and Bayesian phylogenetic techniques to carry out...

Data from: Ectomycorrhizas and tree seedling establishment are strongly influenced by forest edge proximity but not soil inoculum

Sara Grove, Norah P. Saarman, Gregory S. Gilbert, Brant Faircloth, Karen A. Haubensak & Ingrid M. Parker
Reforestation is challenging when timber harvested areas have been degraded, invaded by non-native species, or are of marginal suitability to begin with. Conifers form mutualistic partnerships with ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) to obtain greater access to soil resources, and these partnerships may be especially important in degraded areas. However, timber harvest can impact mycorrhizal fungi by removing or compacting topsoil, removing host plants, and warming and drying the soil. We used a field experiment to evaluate...

Summarized voucher information on vertebrate genomes

Prosanta Chakrabarty, Janet Buckner & Brant Faircloth
A voucher is a permanently preserved specimen that is maintained in an accessible collection. In genomics, vouchers serve as the physical evidence for the taxonomic identification of genome assemblies. Unfortunately, the vast majority of vertebrate genomes stored in NCBI do not refer to voucher specimens. Here, we urge researchers generating new genome assemblies to deposit voucher specimens in accessible, permanent research collections, and to link these vouchers to publications, public databases, and repositories. We also...

Toxin or medication? Immunotherapeutic effects of nicotine on a specialist caterpillar

Michael Garvey, Justin Bredlau, Karen Kester, Curtis Creighton & Ian Kaplan
1. A core tenant in the field of ecological immunology is that immune responses trade off with other physiological functions due to resource-allocation costs. Caterpillars, for example, tend to exhibit reduced immune responses when reared on more toxic food plants due to a cost from detoxifying or sequestering secondary metabolites, also known as the “vulnerable host hypothesis”. However, support for this hypothesis is mixed, and studies have not yet mechanistically isolated the relative contributions of...

Extended data for: Screening for antifolate and artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum clinical isolates from three hospitals of Eritrea

Harriet Mukhongo Natabona, Johnson Kinyua Kang'ethe, Yishak Gebrekidan Weldemichael & Remmy Kasili Wekesa
Background: Antimalarial drug resistance is a major challenge hampering malaria control and elimination. Plasmodium falciparum, the leading causative parasite species, has developed resistance to basically all antimalarials. Continued surveillance of drug resistance using genetic markers provides important molecular data for treatment policies. This study sought to verify the genetic mechanism of resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and assess the occurrence of point mutations associated with artemisinin resistance in P. falciparum clinical isolates from Eritrea. Methods: Nineteen dried...

Metapopulation dynamics and foraging plasticity in a highly vagile seabird, the southern rockhopper penguin

Nicolas Lois, Leonardo Campagna, Ulises Balza, Michael Polito, Klemens Pütz, Juliana Vianna, Annick Morgenthaler, Esteban Frere, Ricardo Saenz-Samaniego, Andrea Raya Rey & Bettina Mahler
Population connectivity is driven by individual dispersal potential and modulated by natal philopatry. In seabirds, high vagility facilitates dispersal yet philopatry is also common, with foraging area overlap often correlated with population connectivity. We assess the interplay between these processes by studying past and current connectivity and foraging niche overlap among southern rockhopper penguin colonies of the coast of southern South America using genomic and stable isotope analyses. We found two distinct genetic clusters and...

Architecture of the bronchial tree in Cuvier’s dwarf caiman (Paleosuchus palpebrosus)

Emma Schachner, , Rob Coke, M Scott Echols, Michelle Osborn & Brandon Hedrick
We imaged the lungs of five Cuvier's dwarf caiman (Paleosuchus palpebrosus) via computed tomography (CT) and micro-computed tomography (μCT) and compared these data to the lungs of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). These data demonstrate anatomical commonalities between the lungs of P. palpebrosus and A. mississippiensis, and a few notable differences. The structural similarities are (a) a proximally narrow, distally widened, hook-shaped primary bronchus; (b) a cervical ventral bronchus that branches of the primary bronchus...

Data from: Is sexual selection driving diversification of the bioluminescent ponyfishes (Teleostei: Leiognathidae)?

Prosanta Chakrabarty, Matthew P Davis, W. Leo Smith, Zachary H Baldwin & John S Sparks
Sexual selection is a mechanism of speciation that theoretically could provide genetic isolation among populations and lead to an increase in diversification rates. In this study, we investigate the impact of potential sexual selection on the tempo and mode of ponyfish evolution. Ponyfishes (Leiognathidae) are bioluminescent marine fishes that exhibit sexually-dimorphic features of their unique light-organ system (LOS). Given that some leiognathid species have a sexually dimorphic LOS, whereas others do not, this family provides...

Data from: A test of the chromosomal rearrangement model of speciation in Drosophila pseudoobscura

Kirsten M. Brown, Lisa M. Burk, Loren M. Henagan & Mohamed A. F. Noor
Recent studies suggest that chromosomal rearrangements play a significant role in speciation by preventing recombination and maintaining species persistence despite interspecies gene flow. Factors conferring adaptation or reproductive isolation are maintained in rearranged regions in the face of hybridization, while such factors are eliminated from collinear regions. As a direct test of this rearrangement model, we evaluated the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility in a sympatric species pair, Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura and D. persimilis,...

Data from: Genetic evidence for high propagule pressure and long-distance dispersal in monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) invasive populations

Anders Gonçalves Da Silva, Jessica Eberhard, Timothy Wright, Michael Avery & Michael Russello
The monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) is a successful invasive species that does not exhibit life history traits typically associated with colonizing species (e.g., high reproductive rate or long-distance dispersal capacity). To investigate this apparent paradox, we examined individual and population genetic patterns of microsatellite loci at one native and two invasive sites. More specifically, we aimed to evaluate the role of propagule pressure, sexual monogamy, and long-distance dispersal in monk parakeet invasion success. Our results...

Data from: Whole genome sequencing of elite rice cultivars as a comprehensive information resource for marker assisted selection

Jorge Duitama, Alexander Silva, Yamid Sanabria, Daniel Felipe Cruz, Constanza Quintero, Carolina Ballen, Mathias Lorieux, Brian Scheffler, Andrew Farmer, Edgar Torres, James Oard & Joe Tohme
Current advances in sequencing technologies and bioinformatics revealed the genomic background of rice, a staple food for the poor people, and provided the basis to develop large genomic variation databases for thousands of cultivars. Proper analysis of this massive resource is expected to give novel insights into the structure, function, and evolution of the rice genome, and to aid the development of rice varieties through marker assisted selection or genomic selection. In this work we...

Data from: Adaptive processes drive ecomorphological convergent evolution in antwrens (Thamnophilidae)

Gustavo A. Bravo, , Robb Thomas Brumfield & J. V. Remsen
Phylogenetic niche conservatism and convergence are contrasting evolutionary patterns that describe phenotypic similarity across independent lineages. Assessing whether and how adaptive processes give origin to these patterns represent a fundamental step toward understanding phenotypic evolution. Phylogenetic model-based approaches offer the opportunity not only to distinguish between phylogenetic niche conservatism and convergence, but also to determine the extent that adaptive processes explain phenotypic similarity. The Myrmotherula complex in the Neotropical family Thamnophilidae is a polyphyletic group...

Data from: Maternal pre-pregnancy weight status modifies the influence of PUFAs and inflammatory biomarkers in breastmilk on infant growth

Henry J. Nuss, Abby Altazan, Jovanny Zabaleta, Melinda Sothern & Leanne Redman
Background: Human breastmilk contains pro- and anti-inflammatory compounds and hormones that can influence infant growth. However, little is known about the specific interrelationships between these compounds and whether their effects on infant growth may be influenced by pre-pregnancy weight status. Objective: The purpose of this novel, prospective cohort study was to assess the interrelationships between pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6), hormones (insulin, leptin) and PUFAs (n-6, n-3) in blood and breastmilk in early postpartum between women...

Data from: The molecular biogeography of the Indo-Pacific: testing hypotheses with multispecies genetic patterns

Eric D. Crandall, Cynthia Riginos, Chris E. Bird, Libby Liggins, Eric Treml, Maria Beger, Paul H. Barber, Sean R. Connolly, Peter F. Cowman, Joseph D. Dibattista, Jeff A. Eble, Sharon F. Magnuson, John B. Horne, Marc Kochzius, Harilaos A. Lessios, Shang Yin Vanson Liu, William B. Ludt, Hawis Madduppa, John M. Pandolfi, Robert R. Toonen, Contributing Members Of Diversity Of The Indo-Pacific Network & Michelle R. Gaither
Aim: To test hypothesized biogeographic partitions of the tropical Indo-Pacific Ocean with phylogeographic data from 56 taxa, and to evaluate the strength and nature of barriers emerging from this test. Location: The Indo-Pacific Ocean. Time Period: Pliocene through the Holocene. Major Taxa Studied: 56 marine species. Methods: We tested eight biogeographic hypotheses for partitioning of the Indo-Pacific using a novel modification to analysis of molecular variance. Putative barriers to gene flow emerging from this analysis...

Data from: Ecological partitioning among parapatric cryptic species

Alice Dennis & Michael Hellberg
Geographic range differences among species may result from differences in their physiological tolerances. In the intertidal zone, marine and terrestrial environments intersect to create a unique habitat, across which physiological tolerance strongly influences range. Traits to cope with environmental extremes are particularly important here because many species live near their physiological limits and environmental gradients can be steep. The snail Melampus bidentatus occurs in coastal salt marshes in the western Atlantic and the Gulf of...

Data from: The effects of skeletal asymmetry on interpreting biological variation and taphonomy in the fossil record

Brandon P. Hedrick, Emma R. Schachner, Gabriel Rivera, Peter Dodson & Stephanie E. Pierce
Biological asymmetry is present in all bilaterally symmetric organisms as a result of normal developmental instability. However, fossilized organisms, which have undergone distortion due to burial, may have additional asymmetry as a result of taphonomic processes. To investigate this issue, we evaluated the magnitude of shape variation resulting from taphonomy on vertebrate bone using a novel application of fluctuating asymmetry. We quantified the amount of total variance attributed to asymmetry in a taphonomically distorted fossil...

Data from: Genomic, ecological, and morphological approaches to investigating species limits: a case study in modern taxonomy from Tropical Eastern Pacific surgeonfishes

William B. Ludt, Moises A. Bernal, Erica Kenworthy, Eva Salas & Prosanta Chakrabarty
A wide variety of species are distinguished by slight color variations. However, molecular analyses have repeatedly demonstrated that coloration does not always correspond to distinct evolutionary histories between closely related groups, suggesting that this trait is labile and can be misleading for species identification. In the present study, we analyze the evolutionary history of sister species of Prionurus surgeonfishes in the Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP), which are distinguished by the presence or absence of dark...

Data from: Virulence-driven trade-offs in disease transmission: a meta-analysis

Miguel A. Acevedo, Forrest P. Dillemuth, Andrew J. Flick, Matthew J. Faldyn & Bret D. Elderd
The virulence--transmission trade-off hypothesis proposed more than 30 years ago is the cornerstone in the study of host-parasite co-evolution. This hypothesis rests on the premise that virulence is an unavoidable and increasing cost because the parasite uses host resources to replicate. This cost associated with replication ultimately results in a deceleration in transmission rate because increasing within-host replication increases host mortality. Empirical tests of predictions of the hypothesis have found mixed support, which cast doubt...

Data from: Resolving deep nodes in an ancient radiation of neotropical fishes in the presence of conflicting signals from incomplete lineage sorting

Fernando Alda, Victor A. Tagliacollo, Maxwell J. Bernt, Brandon T. Waltz, William B. Ludt, Brant C. Faircloth, Michael E. Alfaro, James S. Albert & Prosanta Chakrabarty
Resolving patterns of ancient and rapid diversifications is one of the most challenging tasks in evolutionary biology. These difficulties arise from confusing phylogenetic signals that are associated with the interplay of incomplete lineage sorting and homoplasy. Phylogenomic analyses of hundreds, or even thousands, of loci offer the potential to resolve such contentious relationships. Yet, how much useful phylogenetic information these large data sets contain remains uncertain and often goes untested. Here, we assess the utility...

Data from: A unifying framework for quantifying the nature of animal interactions

Jonathan R. Potts, Karl Mokross & Mark A. Lewis
Collective phenomena, whereby agent-agent interactions determine spatial patterns, are ubiquitous in the animal kingdom. On the other hand, movement and space use are also greatly influenced by the interactions between animals and their environment. Despite both types of interaction fundamentally influencing animal behaviour, there has hitherto been no unifying framework for the models proposed in both areas. Here, we construct a general method for inferring population-level spatial patterns from underlying individual movement and interaction processes,...

Inferring the mammal tree: Species-level sets of phylogenies for questions in ecology, evolution, and conservation

Nathan S. Upham, Jacob A. Esselstyn & Walter Jetz
Big, time-scaled phylogenies are fundamental to connecting evolutionary processes to modern biodiversity patterns. Yet inferring reliable phylogenetic trees for thousands of species involves numerous trade-offs that have limited their utility to comparative biologists. To establish a robust evolutionary timescale for all ~6000 living species of mammals, we developed credible sets of trees that capture root-to-tip uncertainty in topology and divergence times. Our ‘backbone-and-patch’ approach to tree-building applies a newly assembled 31-gene supermatrix to two levels...

Transgenerational plasticity and the capacity to adapt to low salinity in the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica

Joanna Griffiths, Kevin Johnson, Kyle Sirovy, Mark Yeats, Francis Pan, Jerome La Peyre & Morgan Kelly
Salinity conditions in oyster breeding grounds in the Gulf of Mexico are expected to drastically change due to increased precipitation from climate change and anthropogenic changes to local hydrology. We determined the capacity of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, to adapt via standing genetic variation or acclimate through transgenerational plasticity. We outplanted oysters to either a low or medium salinity site in Louisiana for two years. We then crossed adult parents using a North Carolina...

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