133 Works

Bergmann's rule is followed at multiple stages of post-embryonic development in a long-distance migratory songbird

Joseph Youtz, Kelly Miller, Emerson Bowers, Samantha Rogers, Lesley Bulluck, Matthew Johnson, Brian Peer, Katie Percy, Erik Johnson, Elizabeth Ames, Christopher Tonra & Than Boves
Aim: We assessed the presence of Bergmann’s rule in a model migratory species across all life stages on their breeding grounds. We then compared historic and contemporary egg sizes to understand if the biogeographic patterns during this developmental life stage have changed over time. Location: Eastern North America. Time period: 1865 to 2019. Major taxa: Prothonotary warbler, Protonotaria citrea Methods: We measured the size of eggs, young and old nestlings, and adults (of two age...

Testing for adaptive radiation: a new approach applied to Madagascar frogs

Daniel Moen, Rojo Ravelojaona, Carl Hutter & John Wiens
Adaptive radiation is a key topic at the intersection of ecology and evolutionary biology. Yet the definition and identification of adaptive radiation both remain contentious. Here, we introduce a new approach for identifying adaptive radiations which combines key aspects of two widely used definitions. Our approach compares evolutionary rates in morphology, performance, and diversification between the candidate radiation and other clades. We then apply this approach to a putative adaptive radiation of frogs from Madagascar...

Body size, trophic position, and the coupling of different energy pathways across a saltmarsh landscape

Friedrich Keppeler, Jill Olin, Paola López-Duarte, Michael Polito, Linda Hooper-Bùi, Sabrina Taylor, Nancy Rabalais, F Joel Fodrie, Brian Roberts, R Eugene Turner, Charles Martin & Olaf Jensen
Here, we listed the bulk stable isotope values (δ13C and δ15N) and body size measurements of organisms that were analyzed in the manuscript "Body size, trophic position, and the coupling of different energy pathways across a saltmarsh landscape", published in Limnology and Oceanography Letters. Our dataset is a compilation of samplings obtained by the Southern Louisiana marsh food webs project within the Coastal Waters Consortium (CWC) II (Lopez-Duarte et al. 2017a [https://doi.org/10.7266/N7XS5SGD], Lopez-Duarte et al....

A deglacial hazard cascade exemplified by the landslide, tsunami and outburst flood at Elliot Creek, Southern Coast Mountains, British Columbia, Canada

Marten Geertsema, Brian Menounos, Gemma Bullard, Jonathan Carrivick, John Clague, Chunli Dai, Davide Donati, Goran Ekstrom, Jennifer Jackson, Patrick Lynett, Manuele Pichierri, Andy Pon, Dan Shugar, Doug Stead, Justin Del Bel Belluz, Pierre Friele, Ian Giesbrecht, Derek Heathfield, Tom Millard, Sasha Nasonova, Andrew Schaeffer, Brent Ward, Darren Blaney, Erik Blaney, Camille Brillon … & Meghan Sharp
We describe and model the evolution of a recent landslide and outburst flood in the southern Coast Mountains, British Columbia, Canada. About 18 Mm3 of rock descended 1000 m from a steep valley wall and traveled across the toe of a glacier before entering a 0.6 km2 glacier lake and producing a >100-m high wave. Water overtopped the lake outlet and scoured a 10-km long channel before depositing debris on a 2 km2 fan below...

Bill size, bill shape, and body size constrain bird song evolution on a macroevolutionary scale

Amelia-Juliette Demery, Kevin Burns & Nicholas Mason
Studying macroevolutionary patterns of phenotypic variation and their driving forces in large radiations can shed light on how biodiversity is generated across broad spatiotemporal scales. In this study, we integrated song and morphological variation across more than 300 species representing the largest family of songbirds, the tanagers (Thraupidae), to uncover how morphological variables of the vocal tract combine to shape vocal evolution on a macroevolutionary scale. We found that body size correlated with multiple frequency...

Data from: Disturbed Amazonian forests support diminished breeding bird communities

Cameron Rutt, Michael Kaller & Philip Stouffer
Twenty percent of the Brazilian Amazon has now been deforested, and deforestation rates are increasing. This compels us to evaluate the conservation potential of human-modified landscapes, yet the ecological value of regenerating and fragmented Amazonian forests remains poorly understood. To date, most faunal studies in disturbed forests have examined metrics derived from presence or abundance. Although valuable, these data cannot tell us how old-growth species are using disturbed forests. In this study, we complement presence...

Data from: Accelerated diversification explains the exceptional species richness of tropical characoid fishes

Bruno Melo, Brian Sidlauskas, Thomas Near, Fabio Roxo, Ava Ghezelayagh, Luz Ochoa, Melanie Stiassny, Jairo Arroyave, Jonathan Chang, Brant Faircloth, Daniel MacGuigan, Richard Harrington, Ricardo Benine, Michael Burns, Kendra Hoekzema, Natalia Sanches, Javier Maldonado-Ocampo, Ricardo Castro, Fausto Foresti, Michael Alfaro & Claudio Oliveira
The Neotropics harbor the most species-rich freshwater fish fauna on the planet, but the timing of that exceptional diversification remains unclear. Did the Neotropics accumulate species steadily throughout their long history, or attain their remarkable diversity recently? Biologists have long debated the relative support for these museum and cradle hypotheses, but few phylogenies of megadiverse tropical clades have included sufficient taxa to distinguish between them. We used 1288 ultraconserved element loci spanning 293 species, 211...

Natural history and community science records confirm rapid geographic shifts in the distribution of Bachman’s Sparrow (Peucaea aestivalis) since 1850

Amie Settlecowski, Kathryn Davis, James Cox, Stefan Woltmann & Sabrina Taylor
North American grassland birds colonized emerging habitat created by expanding agriculture in a pattern of eastward expansions from the mid-1800s to mid-1900s. These birds have been declining, since at least the mid1900s, largely as result of anthropogenic landscape change. Only one bird that now breeds predominantly in southeastern pine savannas is thought to have experienced a concurrent range expansion into this region: Peucaea aestivalis (Bachman’s Sparrow). However, our understanding of the P. aestivalis expansion, and...

No Escape: The Influence of Substrate Sodium on Plant Growth and Tissue Sodium Responses

Luis Santiago-Rosario, Kyle Harms, Bret Elderd, Pamela Hart & Maheshi Dassanayake
This dataset contains data from a systematic review carried out to understand substrate sodium's influence on plant growth and sodium accumulation strategies. Accordingly, we carried out a systematic review of plants’ responses to variation in substrate sodium concentrations. We compared biomass and tissue-sodium accumulation among 107 cultivars or populations (67 species in 20 plant families), broadly expanding beyond the agricultural and model taxa for which several generalizations previously had been made. We hypothesized a priori...

Data from: Combining citizen science species distribution models and stable isotopes reveals migratory connectivity in the secretive Virginia rail

Auriel M. V. Fournier, Alexis R. Sullivan, Joseph K. Bump, Marie Perkins, Mark C. Shieldcastle & Sammy L. King
Stable hydrogen isotope (δD) methods for tracking animal movement are widely used yet often produce low resolution assignments. Incorporating prior knowledge of abundance, distribution or movement patterns can ameliorate this limitation, but data are lacking for most species. We demonstrate how observations reported by citizen scientists can be used to develop robust estimates of species distributions and to constrain δD assignments. We developed a Bayesian framework to refine isotopic estimates of migrant animal origins conditional...

Data from: Transcriptomics reveal transgenerational effects in purple sea urchin embryos: adult acclimation to upwelling conditions alters the response of their progeny to differential pCO2 levels

Juliet M. Wong, Kevin M. Johnson, Morgan W. Kelly & Gretchen E. Hofmann
Understanding the mechanisms with which organisms can respond to a rapidly changing ocean is an important research priority in marine sciences, especially in light of recent predictions regarding the pace of ocean change in the coming decades. Transgenerational effects, in which the experience of the parental generation can shape the phenotype of their offspring, may serve as such a mechanism. In this study, adult purple sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, were conditioned to regionally and ecologically...

Data from: Willet be one species or two?: a genomic view of the evolutionary history of Tringa semipalmata

Jessica A. Oswald, Michael G. Harvey, Rosalind C. Remsen, DePaul U. Foxworth, Steven W. Cardiff, Donna L. Dittmann, Libby C. Megna, Matthew D. Carling & Robb T. Brumfield
The Willet (Tringa semipalmata; Scolopacidae) is composed of 2 morphologically and vocally distinct subspecies with broadly disjunct breeding distributions in North America. Nominate T. s. semipalmata breeds in coastal salt and brackish marshes along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of eastern North America and the West Indies, and T. s. inornata breeds in wet grasslands and prairies in the northwestern interior of North America. To assess divergence and test for hybridization between the 2 subspecies,...

Data from: Target enrichment of ultraconserved elements from arthropods provides a genomic perspective on relationships among Hymenoptera

Brant C. Faircloth, Michael G. Branstetter, Noor D. White & Séan G. Brady
Gaining a genomic perspective on phylogeny requires the collection of data from many putatively independent loci across the genome. Among insects, an increasingly common approach to collecting this class of data involves transcriptome sequencing, because few insects have high-quality genome sequences available; assembling new genomes remains a limiting factor; the transcribed portion of the genome is a reasonable, reduced subset of the genome to target; and the data collected from transcribed portions of the genome...

Data from: Phylogenomic analysis of carangimorph fishes reveals flatfish asymmetry arose in a blink of the evolutionary eye

Richard C. Harrington, Brant C. Faircloth, Ron I. Eytan, W. Leo Smith, Thomas J. Near, Michael E. Alfaro & Matt Friedman
Background: Flatfish cranial asymmetry represents one of the most remarkable morphological innovations among vertebrates, and has fueled vigorous debate on the manner and rate at which strikingly divergent phenotypes evolve. A surprising result of many recent molecular phylogenetic studies is the lack of support for flatfish monophyly, where increasingly larger DNA datasets of up to 23 loci have yielded a polyphyletic or only weakly supported flatfish clade. Lack of resolution for flatfish relationships has been...

Data from: Earth history and the passerine superradiation

Carl H. Oliveros, Daniel J. Field, Daniel T. Ksepka, F. Keith Barker, Alexandre Aleixo, Michael J. Andersen, Per Alström, Brett W. Benz, Edward L. Braun, Michael J. Braun, Gustavo A. Bravo, Robb T. Brumfield, R. Terry Chesser, Santiago Claramunt, Joel Cracraft, Andrés M. Cuervo, Elizabeth P. Derryberry, Travis C. Glenn, Michael G. Harvey, Peter A. Hosner, Leo Joseph, Rebecca T. Kimball, Andrew L. Mack, Colin M. Miskelly, A. Townsend Peterson … & Brant C. Faircloth
Avian diversification has been influenced by global climate change, plate tectonic movements, and mass extinction events. However, the impact of these factors on the diversification of the hyperdiverse perching birds (passerines) is unclear because family level relationships are unresolved and the timing of splitting events among lineages is uncertain. We analyzed DNA data from 4,060 nuclear loci and 137 passerine families using concatenation and coalescent approaches to infer a comprehensive phylogenetic hypothesis that clarifies relationships...

Data from: The negative effects of pathogen-infected prey on predators: a meta-analysis

Andrew J. Flick, Miguel A. Acevedo & Bret D. Elderd
Intra-guild predation (IGP) – where a top predator (IGPred) consumes both a basal resource and a competitor for that resource (IGPrey) – has become a fundamental part of understanding species interactions and community dynamics. IGP communities composed of intraguild predators and prey have been well studied; however, we know less about IGP communities composed of predators, pathogens, and resources. Resource quality plays an important role in community dynamics and may influence IGP dynamics as well....

Data from: A generalized residual technique for analyzing complex movement models using earth mover's distance

Jonathan R. Potts, Marie Auger-Méthé, Karl Mokross & Mark A. Lewis
1. Complex systems of moving and interacting objects are ubiquitous in the natural and social sciences. Predicting their behavior often requires models that mimic these systems with sufficient accuracy, while accounting for their inherent stochasticity. Though tools exist to determine which of a set of candidate models is best relative to the others, there is currently no generic goodness-of-fit framework for testing how close the best model is to the real complex stochastic system. 2....

Data from: Isolation with asymmetric gene flow during the nonsynchronous divergence of dry forest birds

Jessica A. Oswald, Isaac Overcast, , Michael J. Andersen & Brian Tilston Smith
Dry forest bird communities in South America are often fragmented by intervening mountains and rainforests, generating high local endemism. The historical assembly of dry forest communities likely results from dynamic processes linked to numerous population histories among codistributed species. Nevertheless, species may diversify in the same way through time if landscape and environmental features, or species ecologies, similarly structure populations. Here we tested whether six co-distributed taxon pairs that occur in the dry forests of...

Data from: Vascular patterns in the heads of crocodilians: blood vessels and sites of thermal exchange

William Ruger Porter, Jayc C. Sedlmayr & Lawrence M. Witmer
Extant crocodilians are a highly apomorphic archosaur clade that is endothermic, yet often achieve large body sizes that can be subject to higher heat loads. Therefore, the anatomical and physiological roles that blood vessels play in crocodilian thermoregulation need further investigation to better understand how crocodilians establish and maintain cephalic temperatures and regulate neurosensory tissue temperatures during basking and normal activities. The cephalic vascular anatomy of extant crocodilians, particularly American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) was investigated...

Data from: Target capture and massively parallel sequencing of ultraconserved elements for comparative studies at shallow evolutionary time scales

Brian Tilston Smith, Michael G. Harvey, Brant C. Faircloth, Travis C. Glenn & Robb T. Brumfield
Comparative genetic studies of non-model organisms are transforming rapidly due to major advances in sequencing technology. A limiting factor in these studies has been the identification and screening of orthologous loci across an evolutionarily distant set of taxa. Here, we evaluate the efficacy of genomic markers targeting ultraconserved DNA elements (UCEs) for analyses at shallow evolutionary timescales. Using sequence capture and massively parallel sequencing to generate UCE data for five co-distributed Neotropical rainforest bird species,...

Data from: Inferring speciation history in the Andes with reduced-representation sequence data: an example in the bay-backed antpittas (Aves; Grallariidae; Grallaria hypoleuca s. l.)

Benjamin M. Winger, Peter A. Hosner, Gustavo A. Bravo, Andrés M. Cuervo, Natalia Aristizábal, Luis E. Cueto & John M. Bates
In the Andes, humid-forest organisms frequently exhibit pronounced genetic structure and geographic variation in phenotype, often coincident with physical barriers to dispersal. However, phylogenetic relationships of clades have often been difficult to resolve due to short internodes. Consequently, even in taxa with well-defined genetic structure, the temporal and geographic sequences of dispersal and vicariance events that led to this differentiation have remained opaque, hindering efforts to test the association between diversification and earth history and...

Data from: High phylogenetic utility of an ultraconserved element probe set designed for Arachnida

James Starrett, Shahan Derkarabetian, Marshal Hedin, , John E. McCormack, Brant C. Faircloth & Robert W. Bryson
Arachnida is an ancient, diverse, and ecologically important animal group that contains a number of species of interest for medical, agricultural, and engineering applications. Despite their importance, many aspects of the arachnid tree of life remain unresolved, hindering comparative approaches to arachnid biology. Biologists have made considerable efforts to resolve the arachnid phylogeny; yet, limited and challenging morphological characters, as well as a dearth of genetic resources, have hindered progress. Here, we present a genomic...

Data from: Sequence capture of ultraconserved elements from bird museum specimens

John E. McCormack, Whitney L. E. Tsai, Brant C. Faircloth & Whitney L.E. Tsai
New DNA sequencing technologies are allowing researchers to explore the genomes of the millions of natural history specimens collected prior to the molecular era. Yet, we know little about how well specific next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques work with the degraded DNA typically extracted from museum specimens. Here, we use one type of NGS approach, sequence capture of ultraconserved elements (UCEs), to collect data from bird museum specimens as old as 120 years. We targeted 5060...

Data from: Historical climatic variability and geographical barriers as drivers of community composition in a biodiversity hotspot

Jessica A. Oswald, J. Gordon Burleigh, David W. Steadman, Scott K. Robinson & Andrew W. Kratter
Aim: To evaluate the roles of Quaternary (< 2.6 Ma) climatic stability and geologic barriers (i.e. the Andes Mountains) in shaping the modern community composition and patterns of endemism in Neotropical dry forest bird communities. Location: Marañón Valley and Tumbes, north-western Peru. Methods: We recorded presence and abundance of species in six dry forest bird communities on either side of the Andes Mountains. We used the data to calculate the beta diversity and phylogenetic beta...

Data from: Light stabilizers added to the shell of coextruded wood-high density polyethylene composites to improve mechanical and anti-UV aging properties

Chaozheng Liu, Changtong Mei, Bing Xu, Weimin Chen, Cheng Yong, Ke Wang & Qinglin Wu
Weathering of wood-plastic composite (WPC) leads to discoloration and cracks, which greatly limits its outdoor application. In this study, light stabilizers (including UV-327, HS-944, and Nano-SiO2) were added to the shell of coextruded high-density polyethylene (HDPE) based WPC to improve its anti-ultraviolet (UV) aging property and simultaneously to maintain its good mechanical property. The obtained results showed that the UV-327 was the most effective light stabilizer on improving the mechanical and anti-UV aging properties of...

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