318 Works

Genomic basis for skin phenotype and cold adaptation in the extinct Steller's sea cow

Diana Le Duc, Akhil Velluva, Molly Cassatt-Johnstone, Remi-Andre Olsen, Sina Baleka, Chen-Ching Lin, Johannes R. Lemke, John R. Southon, Alexander Burdin, Ming-Shan Wang, Sonja Grunewald, Wilfried Rosendahl, Ulrich Joger, Sereina Rutschmann, Thomas B. Hildebrandt, Guido Fritsch, James A. Estes, Janet Kelso, Love Dalén, Michael Hofreiter, Beth Shapiro & Torsten Schöneberg
Steller’s sea cow, an extinct sirenian and one of the largest Quaternary mammals, was described by Georg Steller in 1741 and eradicated by humans within 27 years. Here, we complement Steller’s descriptions with paleogenomic data from 12 individuals. We identified convergent evolution between Steller’s sea cow and cetaceans but not extant sirenians, suggesting a role of several genes in adaptation to cold environments. Among these are inactivations of lipoxygenase genes, which in humans and mouse...

Data from: Effects of phylogenetic reconstruction method on the robustness of species delimitation using single-locus data

Cuong Q. Tang, Aelys M. Humphreys, Diego Fontaneto & Timothy G. Barraclough
1. Coalescent-based species delimitation methods combine population genetic and phylogenetic theory to provide an objective means for delineating evolutionarily significant units of diversity. The Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) and the Poisson Tree Process (PTP) are methods that use ultrametric (GMYC or PTP) or non-ultrametric (PTP) gene trees as input, intended for use mostly with single-locus data such as DNA barcodes. 2. Here we assess how robust the GMYC and PTP are to different phylogenetic...

Data from: Heterospecific mating interactions as an interface between ecology and evolution

Daisuke Kyogoku & David Wheatcroft
Reproductive interference (costly interspecific sexual interactions) are well-understood to promote divergence in mating-relevant traits (i.e. reproductive character displacement: RCD), but it can also reduce population growth, eventually leading to local extinction of one of the species. The ecological and evolutionary processes driven by reproductive interference can interact with each other. These interactions are likely to influence whether the outcome is co-existence or extinction, but remain little studied. In this paper, we first develop an eco-evolutionary...

Maps of northern peatland extent, depth, carbon storage and nitrogen storage

Gustaf Hugelius, Julie Loisel, Sarah Chadburn, Robert B. Jackson, Miriam Jones, Glen MacDonald, Maija Marushchak, David Olefeldt, Maara Packalen, Matthias B. Siewert, Claire Treat, Merritt Turestsky, Carolina Voigt & Zicheng Yu
This dataset is grids of peatland extent, peat depth, peatland organic carbon storage, peatland total nitrogen storage and approximate extent of ombrotrophic/minerotrophic peatlands. The grids are geotiff files in 10 km pixel resolution projected in the World Azimuthal Equidistant projection. Note that the peat depth grid shows potential peat depth everywhere,also where there is no peatland cover. For files on peatland organic carbon, total nitrogen extent and extent of ombrotrophic/minerotrophic peatlands, there are separate files...

Data from: Intergenomic interactions between mitochondrial and Y-linked genes shape male mating patterns and fertility in Drosophila melanogaster

Winston K. W. Yee, Björn Rogell, Bernardo Lemos, Damian K. Dowling & Winston K.W. Yee
Under maternal inheritance, mitochondrial genomes are prone to accumulate mutations that exhibit male-biased effects. Such mutations should, however, place selection on the nuclear genome for modifier adaptations that mitigate mitochondrial-incurred male harm. One gene region that might harbor such modifiers is the Y-chromosome, given the abundance of Y-linked variation for male fertility, and because Y-linked modifiers would not exert antagonistic effects in females because they would be found only in males. Recent studies in Drosophila...

Data from: The importance of trees for woody pasture bird diversity and effects of the European Union's tree density policy

Simon Jakobsson & Regina Lindborg
1. Recent reforms in the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) aim for a greening of the subsidy system with potential improvements for biodiversity conservation. As part of that process, the tree density limit for pastures to qualify for European Union (EU) subsidies has been increased from 50 to 100 trees/ha. However, recent studies show that the high biodiversity values of these habitats may be threatened by these limits, highlighting the need for policy improvements. Still, little...

Data from: Body odour disgust sensitivity predicts authoritarian attitudes

Marco Tullio Liuzza, Torun Lindholm, Caitlin B. Hawley, Marie Gustafsson-Sendén, Ingrid Ekström & Jonas K. Olofsson
Authoritarianism has resurfaced as a research topic in political psychology, as it appears relevant to explain current political trends. Authoritarian attitudes have been consistently linked to feelings of disgust, an emotion that is thought to have evolved to protect the organism from contamination. We hypothesized that body odour disgust sensitivity (BODS) might be associated with authoritarianism, as chemo-signalling is a primitive system for regulating interpersonal contact and disease avoidance, which are key features also in...

Data from: Population demography and heterozygosity-fitness correlations in natural guppy populations: an examination using sexually selected fitness traits

Catherine E. Grueber, John L. Fitzpatrick, Alessandro Devigili, Clelia Gasparini, Indar W. Ramnarine & Jonathan P. Evans
Heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFCs) have been examined in a wide diversity of contexts, and the results are often used to infer the role of inbreeding in natural populations. Although population demography, reflected in population-level genetic parameters such as allelic diversity or identity disequilibrium, is expected to play a role in the emergence and detectability of HFCs, direct comparisons of variation in HFCs across many populations of the same species, with different genetic histories, are rare. Here,...

Data from: Functional coupling constrains craniofacial diversification in Lake Tanganyika cichlids

Masahito Tsuboi, Alejandro Gonzalez-Voyer & Niclas Kolm
Functional coupling, where a single morphological trait performs multiple functions, is a universal feature of organismal design. Theory suggests that functional coupling may constrain the rate of phenotypic evolution, yet empirical tests of this hypothesis are rare. In fish, the evolutionary transition from guarding the eggs on a sandy/rocky substrate (i.e. substrate guarding) to mouthbrooding introduces a novel function to the craniofacial system and offers an ideal opportunity to test the functional coupling hypothesis. Using...

Trophic complexity in aqueous systems: bacterial species richness and protistan predation regulate dissolved organic carbon and dissolved total nitrogen removal

Muhammad Saleem, Ingo Fetzer, Hauke Harms & Antonis Chatzinotas
Loading of water bodies with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved total nitrogen (DTN) affects their integrity and functioning. Microbial interactions mitigate the negative effects of high nutrient loads in these ecosystems. Despite numerous studies on how biodiversity mediates ecosystem functions, whether and how diversity and complexity of microbial food webs (horizontal, vertical) and the underlying ecological mechanisms influence nutrient removal has barely been investigated. Using microbial microcosms accommodating systematic combinations of prey (bacteria) and...

Data from: Internet-delivered therapist-guided physical activity for mild to moderate depression: a randomized controlled trial

Morgan Ström, Carl-Johan Uckelstam, Gerhard Andersson, Peter Hassmén, Göran Umefjord & Per Carlbring
Objective: The main hypothesis, and the objective of the study, was to test if the participants allocated to the treatment group would show a larger reduction in depressive symptoms than those in the control group. Methods: This study was a randomized nine week trial of an Internet-administered treatment based on guided physical exercise for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). A total of 48 participants with mild to moderate depression, diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for...

Data from: Guppies occupy consistent positions in social networks: mechanisms and consequences

Stefan Krause, Alexander D.M. Wilson, Indar W. Ramnarine, James E. Herbert-Read, Romain J.G. Clément & Jens Krause
The social network approach has focused increasing attention on the complex web of relationships found in animal groups and populations. As such, network analysis has been used frequently to identify the role that particular individuals play in their social interactions and this approach has led to the question of whether, and in what context, individuals consistently occupy certain positions within their network. Here we investigated the social networks of guppies, Poecilia reticulata, in the wild...

Data from: Quantifying the importance of functional traits for primary production in aquatic plant communities

Camilla Gustafsson & Alf Norkko
1. Aquatic plant meadows are important coastal habitats that sustain many ecosystem functions such as primary production and carbon sequestration. Currently, there is a knowledge gap in understanding which plant functional traits e.g. leaf size or plant height underlie primary production in aquatic plant communities. 2. To study how plant traits are related to primary production, we conducted a field survey in the Baltic Sea, Finland, which is characterized by high plant species and functional...

Data from: Metabolome dynamics of diapause in the butterfly Pieris napi: distinguishing maintenance, termination and post-diapause phases

Philipp Lehmann, Peter Pruisscher, Vladimir Kostal, Martin Moos, Petr Simek, Soren Nylin, Rasmus Agren, Leif Varemo, Christer Wiklund, Christopher W. Wheat & Karl Gotthard
Diapause is a deep resting stage facilitating temporal avoidance of unfavourable environmental conditions that is used by many insects to adapt their life cycle to seasonal variation. Although considerable work has been invested in trying to understand each of the major diapause stages (induction, maintenance and termination), we know very little about the transitions between stages, especially diapause termination. Understanding diapause termination is critical for modelling and predicting spring emergence and winter physiology of insects,...

Data from: Adaptation to fluctuating environments in a selection experiment with Drosophila melanogaster

Olga Kubrak, Sören Nylin, Thomas Flatt, Dick Nässel & Olof Leimar
A fundamental question in life-history evolution is how organisms cope with fluctuating environments, including variation between stressful and benign conditions. For short-lived organisms, environments commonly vary between generations. Using a novel experimental design, we exposed wild-derived Drosophila melanogaster to three different selection regimes: one where generations alternated between starvation and benign conditions, and starvation was always preceded by early exposure to cold; another where starvation and benign conditions alternated in the same way, but cold...

Data from: Persistent postmating, prezygotic reproductive isolation between populations

Martin D. Garlovsky & Rhonda R. Snook
Studying reproductive barriers between populations of the same species is critical to understand how speciation may proceed. Growing evidence suggests postmating, prezygotic (PMPZ) reproductive barriers play an important role in the evolution of early taxonomic divergence. However, the contribution of PMPZ isolation to speciation is typically studied between species in which barriers that maintain isolation may not be those that contributed to reduced gene flow between populations. Moreover, in internally fertilizing animals, PMPZ isolation is...

Data from: Comparison of capture and storage methods for aqueous macrobial eDNA using an optimized extraction protocol: advantage of enclosed filter

Johan Spens, Alice R. Evans, David Halfmaerten, Steen W. Knudsen, Mita E. Sengupta, Sarah S. T. Mak, Eva E. Sigsgaard & Micaela Hellström
Aqueous environmental DNA (eDNA) is an emerging efficient non-invasive tool for species inventory studies. To maximize performance of downstream quantitative PCR (qPCR) and next-generation sequencing (NGS) applications, quality and quantity of the starting material is crucial, calling for optimized capture, storage and extraction techniques of eDNA. Previous comparative studies for eDNA capture/storage have tested precipitation and ‘open’ filters. However, practical ‘enclosed’ filters which reduce unnecessary handling have not been included. Here, we fill this gap...

Data from: Air humidity thresholds trigger active moss spore release to extend dispersal in space and time

Victor Johansson, Niklas Lönnell, Üllar Rannik, Sebastian Sundberg & Kristoffer Hylander
1. Understanding the complete dispersal process is important for making realistic predictions of species distributions, but mechanisms for diaspore release in wind-dispersed species are often unknown. However, diaspore release under conditions that increase the probability of longer dispersal distances and mechanisms that extend dispersal events in time may have evolutionary advantages. 2. We quantified air humidity thresholds regulating spore release in the moss Brachythecium rutabulum. We also investigated the prevailing micrometeorological conditions when these thresholds...

Data from: Testosterone in ancient hair from an extinct species

Lee Koren, Devorah Matas, Patrícia Pečnerová, Love Dalén, Alexei Tikhonov, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Katherine E. Wynne-Edwards & Eli Geffen
Testosterone is a key regulator in vertebrate development, physiology, and behaviour. Whereas technology allows extraction of a wealth of genetic information from extant as well as extinct species, complimentary information on steroid hormone levels may add a social, sexual, and environmental context. Hair shafts have been previously used to sequence DNA from >50,000 14C years old Siberian woolly mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius). Hair-testing has also been used to measure endogenous steroids in multiple extant species. Here...

Data from: The effect of a transient immune activation on subjective health perception in two placebo controlled randomised experiments

Mats Lekander, John Axelsson, Caroline Olgart Höglund, Anna Andreasson, Martin Ingvar, Lisa Lidberg, Torbjörn Åkerstedt & Bianka Karshikoff
Background Patient-reported outcomes predict mortality and play increasingly important roles in care, but factors that modify central measures such as health ratings have been little investigated. Building on designated immune-to-brain pathways, we aimed to determine how a short-term induced inflammation response impacts self-reported health status. Methods Lipopolysaccharide injections were used to provoke acute systemic inflammatory responses in healthy men and women and were compared to placebo in two double-blind randomized experiments. In Experiment 1, 8...

Data from: Butterfly-host plant synchrony determines patterns of host use across years and regions

Tenna Toftegaard, Diana Posledovich, Jose A. Navarro-Cano, Christer Wiklund, Karl Gotthard & Johan Ehrlen
Variation in the degree of synchrony among host plants and herbivores can disrupt or intensify species interactions, alter the strength of natural selection on traits associated with phenological timing, and drive novel host plant associations. We used field observations from three regions during four seasons to examine how timing of the butterfly herbivore Anthocharis cardamines relative to six host plant species (Arabis hirsuta, Cardamine pratensis, Arabis glabra, Arabidopsis thaliana, Thlaspi caerulescens, and Capsella bursa-pastoris) influenced...

Data from: Ancient DNA from mastics solidifies connection between material culture and genetics of Mesolithic hunter-gatherers in Scandinavia

Natalia Kashuba, Emrah Kırdök, Hege Damlien, Mikael A. Manninen, Bengt Nordqvist, Per Persson & Anders Götherström
The discussion of an early postglacial dual-route colonization of the Scandinavian Peninsula is largely based on associating genomic data to an early dispersal of lithic technology from the East European Plain. However, a direct link between the two has been lacking. We tackle this problem by analysing human DNA from birch bark pitch mastics, “chewing gums”, from Huseby Klev, a site in western Sweden with eastern lithic technology. We generate genome-wide data for three individuals,...

Data from: Estimation of effective population size in continuously distributed populations: there goes the neighborhood

Maile C. Neel, Kevin McKelvey, Robin S. Waples, Nils Ryman, Michael W. Lloyd, Ruth Short Bull, Fred W. Allendorf & Michael K. Schwartz
Use of genetic methods to estimate effective population size (N^e) is rapidly increasing, but all approaches make simplifying assumptions unlikely to be met in real populations. In particular, all assume a single, unstructured population, and none has been evaluated for use with continuously distributed species. We simulated continuous populations with local mating structure, as envisioned by Wright's concept of neighborhood size (NS), and evaluated performance of a single-sample estimator based on linkage disequilibrium (LD), which...

Data from: Latitudinal variation in plant chemical defences drives latitudinal patterns of leaf herbivory

Xoaquón Moreira, Bastien Castagneyrol, Luis Abdala-Roberts, Jorge C. Berny-Mier Y Terán, Bart G. H. Timmermans, Hans Henrik Kehlet Bruun, Felisa Covelo, Gaétan Glauser, Sergio Rasmann, Ayco J. M. Tack & Hans Henrik Bruun
A long-standing paradigm in ecology holds that herbivore pressure and thus plant defences increase towards lower latitudes. However, recent work has challenged this prediction where studies have found no relationship or opposite trends where herbivory or plant defences increase at higher latitudes. Here we tested for latitudinal variation in herbivory, chemical defences (phenolic compounds), and nutritional traits (phosphorus and nitrogen) in leaves of a long-lived tree species, the English oak Quercus robur. We further investigated...

Data from: Olfactory and visual plant cues as drivers of selective herbivory

Rebecca S. Stutz, Benjamin M. Croak, Nicholas Proschogo, Peter B. Banks & Clare McArthur
Food quality is an important consideration in the foraging strategy of all animals, including herbivores. Those that can detect and assess the nutritional value of plants from afar, using senses such as smell and sight, can forage more efficiently than those that must assess food quality by taste alone. Selective foraging not only affects herbivore fitness but can influence the structure and composition of plant communities, yet little is known about how olfactory and visual...

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