321 Works

Structural plasticity of olfactory neuropils in relation to insect diapause

Maertha Eriksson, Niklas Janz, Sören Nylin & Mikael A Carlsson
1. Many insects that live in temperate zones spend the cold season in a state of dormancy, referred to as diapause. As the insect must rely on resources that were gathered before entering diapause, keeping a low metabolic rate is of utmost importance. Organs that are metabolically expensive to maintain, such as the brain, can therefore become a liability to survival if they are too large. 2. Insects that go through diapause as adults generally...

Niche differentiation within a cryptic pathogen complex: climatic drivers and hyperparasitism at multiple spatial scales

Maria Faticov
Pathogens are embedded in multi-trophic food webs, which often include co-occurring cryptic species within the same pathogen complex. Nonetheless, we still lack an understanding of what dimensions of the ecological niche might allow these cryptic species to coexist. We explored the role of climate, host characteristics (tree autumn phenology) and attack by the fungal hyperparasite Ampelomyces (a group of fungi attacking plant pathogens) in defining the niches of three powdery mildew species (Erysiphe alphitoides, E....

DNA-based assessment of environmental degradation in an unknown fauna: the freshwater macroinvertebrates of the Indo-Burmese hotspot

, Alfred Burian, Thomas Creedy & Alfried Vogler
New methods are required for biomonitoring of poorly known tropical ecosystems, but biological assessments of environmental status are limited by insufficient information on taxonomy, composition, and ecology of local communities. The current work applies DNA-based assessment to establish the impact of various types of anthropogenic disturbances on the freshwater macroinvertebrates in an understudied biodiversity hotspot in South Asia, an area that attracts increasing attention for the loss of aquatic ecosystems. We sampled 16 river systems...

Simultaneous selection on vegetative and reproductive phenology in a perennial herb

Elsa Fogelström, Giulia Zacchello & Johan Ehrlén
The timing of different life history events are often correlated, and selection might only rarely be exerted independently on the timing of a single event. In plants, phenotypic selection has often been shown to favour earlier flowering. However, little is known about to what extent this selection acts directly vs. indirectly via vegetative phenology, and if selection on the two traits is correlational. We estimated direct, indirect and correlational phenotypic selection on vegetative and reproductive...

Whole-genome resequencing confirms reproductive isolation between sympatric demes of brown trout (Salmo trutta) detected with allozymes

Atal Saha, Anastasia Andersson, Sara Kurland, Naomi Keehnen, Verena Kutschera, Ola Hössjer, Diana Ekman, Sten Karlsson, Marty Kardos, Gunnar Ståhl, Fred Allendorf, Nils Ryman & Linda Laikre
The sympatric existence of genetically distinct populations of the same species remains a puzzle in ecology. Coexisting salmonid fish populations are known from over 100 freshwater lakes. Most studies of sympatric populations have used limited numbers of genetic markers making it unclear if genetic divergence involves only certain parts of the genome. We return to the first reported case of salmonid sympatry, initially detected through contrasting homozygosity at a single allozyme locus (coding for lactate...

Genomic basis for skin phenotype and cold adaptation in the extinct Steller's sea cow

Diana Le Duc, Akhil Velluva, Molly Cassatt-Johnstone, Remi-Andre Olsen, Sina Baleka, Chen-Ching Lin, Johannes R. Lemke, John R. Southon, Alexander Burdin, Ming-Shan Wang, Sonja Grunewald, Wilfried Rosendahl, Ulrich Joger, Sereina Rutschmann, Thomas B. Hildebrandt, Guido Fritsch, James A. Estes, Janet Kelso, Love Dalén, Michael Hofreiter, Beth Shapiro & Torsten Schöneberg
Steller’s sea cow, an extinct sirenian and one of the largest Quaternary mammals, was described by Georg Steller in 1741 and eradicated by humans within 27 years. Here, we complement Steller’s descriptions with paleogenomic data from 12 individuals. We identified convergent evolution between Steller’s sea cow and cetaceans but not extant sirenians, suggesting a role of several genes in adaptation to cold environments. Among these are inactivations of lipoxygenase genes, which in humans and mouse...

Fast life-histories are associated with larger brain size in killifishes

Will Sowersby, Simon Eckerström-Liedholm, Alexander Kotrschal, Joacim Näslund, Piotr Rowiński, Alejandro Gonzalez-Voyer & Björn Rogell
The high energetic demands associated with the vertebrate brain are proposed to result in a trade-off between the pace of life-history and relative brain size. However, because both life-history and brain size also have a strong relationship with body size, any associations between the pace of life-history and relative brain size may be confounded by coevolution with body size. Studies on systems where contrasts in the pace of life-history occur without concordant contrasts in body...

Data from: Urbanization affects oak–pathogen interactions across spatial scales

Laura Van Dijk, Xoaquin Moreira, Anna Barr, Luis Abdala-Roberts, Bastien Castagneyrol, Maria Faticov, Bess Hardwick, Jan Ten Hoopen, Raul De La Mata, Ricardo Matheus Pires, Tomas Roslin, Dmitry Schigel, Bart Timmermans & Ayco Tack
The world is rapidly urbanizing, thereby transforming natural landscapes and changing the abundance and distribution of organisms. However, insights into the effects of urbanization on species interactions, and plant-pathogen interactions in particular, are lacking. We investigated the effects of urbanization on powdery mildew infection on Quercus robur at continental and within-city scales. At the continental scale, we compared infection levels between urban and rural areas of different-sized cities in Europe, and investigated whether plant traits,...

Long-term warming affects ecosystem functioning through species turnover and intraspecific trait variation

Tiina Salo, Johanna Mattila & Johan Eklöf
Effects of climate change on natural ecosystems can be mediated by ecological processes, but also by rapid evolutionary adaptations and/or non-heritable trait changes in organisms. So far, most studies testing the importance of inter- vs. intraspecific changes for how communities and their functioning responds to climate change are either short-term laboratory experiments in highly controlled (artificial) environments, or long-term field surveys suffering from lack of experimental manipulation. Here, we quantified how community composition and functioning...

In-plate toxicometabolomics of single zebrafish embryos

Anton Ribbenstedt, Malte Posselt, Carl Brunius & Jonathan P. Benskin
Toxicometabolomic studies involving zebrafish embryos have become increasingly popular for linking apical endpoints to biochemical perturbations as part of adverse outcome pathway determination. These experiments involve pooling embryos to generate sufficient biomass for metabolomic measurement, which adds both time and cost. To address this limitation, we developed a high-throughput toxicometabolomic assay involving single zebrafish embryos. Incubation, microscopy, embryo extraction, and instrumental metabolomic analysis were all performed in the same 96-well plate, following acquisition of conventional...

Methane emission and sulfide levels increase in tropical seagrass sediments during temperature stress: a mesocosm experiment

Mats Björk, Rushingisha George, Martin Gullström, Thomas J. Lyimo & Matern S.P. Mtolera
Climate change-induced ocean warming is expected to greatly affect carbon dynamics and sequestration in vegetated shallow waters, especially in the upper subtidal where water temperatures may fluctuate considerably and can reach high levels at low tides. This might alter the greenhouse gas balance and significantly reduce the carbon sink potential of tropical seagrass meadows. In order to assess such consequences, we simulated temperature stress during low tide exposures by subjecting seagrass plants (Thalassia hemprichii) and...

Out in the open: behavior’s effect on predation-risk and thermoregulation by aposematic caterpillars

Matthew Nielsen & Johanna Mappes
Warning coloration should be under strong stabilizing selection but often displays considerable intraspecific variation. Opposing selection on color by predators and temperature is one potential explanation for this seeming paradox. Despite the importance of behavior for both predator avoidance and thermoregulation, its role in mediating selection by predators and temperature on warning coloration has received little attention. Wood tiger moth caterpillars, Arctia plantaginis, have aposematic coloration, an orange patch on the black body. The size...

Linked-read sequencing enables haplotype-resolved resequencing at population scale

Dave Lutgen, Raphael Ritter, Remi-Andre Olsen, Holger Schielzeth, Joel Gruselius, Philip Ewels, Jesús García, Hadoram Shirihai, Manuel Schweizer, Alexander Suh & Reto Burri
The feasibility to sequence entire genomes of virtually any organism provides unprecedented insights into the evolutionary history of populations and species. Nevertheless, many population genomic inferences – including the quantification and dating of admixture, introgression and demographic events, and inference of selective sweeps – are still limited by the lack of high-quality haplotype information. The newest generation of sequencing technology now promises significant progress. To establish the feasibility of haplotype-resolved genome resequencing at population scale,...

The effects of functional response and host abundance fluctuations on genetic rescue in parasitoids with single-locus sex determination

Etsuko Nonaka & Veijo Kaitala
Many parasitoids have single-locus complementary sex determination (sl-CSD), which produces sterile or inviable males when homozygous at the sex determining locus. A previous study theoretically showed that small populations have elevated risks of extinction due to positive feedback between inbreeding and small population size, referred to as the diploid male vortex. A few modeling studies have suggested that the diploid male vortex may not be as common because balancing selection at sex determining loci tends...

Seminal fluid protein divergence among populations exhibiting postmating prezygotic reproductive isolation

Martin Garlovsky, Caroline Evans, Matthew A. Rosenow, Timothy L. Karr & Rhonda R. Snook
Despite holding a central role for fertilisation success, reproductive traits often show elevated rates of evolution and diversification. The rapid evolution of seminal fluid proteins (Sfps) within populations is predicted to cause mis-signalling between the male ejaculate and female reproductive tract between populations resulting in postmating prezygotic (PMPZ) isolation. Crosses between populations of Drosophila montana show PMPZ isolation in the form of reduced fertilisation success in both noncompetitive and competitive contexts. Here we test whether...

Data for: Low predictability of energy balance traits and leaf temperature metrics in desert, montane, and alpine plant communities

Benjamin Blonder, Sabastian Escobar, Rozália Kapás & Sean Michaletz
Leaf energy balance may influence plant performance and community composition. While biophysical theory can link leaf energy balance to many traits and environment variables, predicting leaf temperature and key driver traits with incomplete parameterizations remains challenging. Predicting thermal offsets (δ, Tleaf – Tair difference) or thermal coupling strengths (β, Tleaf vs. Tair slope) is challenging. We ask: 1) whether environmental gradients predict variation in energy balance traits (absorptance, leaf angle, stomatal distribution, maximum stomatal conductance,...

Male-male behavioral interactions drive social-dominance mediated differences in ejaculate traits

Charel Reuland, Brett M. Culbert, Erika Fernlund Isaksson, Ariel F. Kahrl, Alessandro Devigili & John L. Fitzpatrick
Higher social status is expected to result in fitness benefits as it secures access to potential mates. In promiscuous species, male reproductive success is also determined by an individual’s ability to compete for fertilization after mating by producing high quality ejaculates. However, the complex relationship between a male’s investment in social status and ejaculates remains unclear. Here we examine how male social status influences ejaculate quality under a range of social contexts in the pygmy...

Field evidence for colour mimicry overshadowing morphological mimicry

David Outomuro, Alberto Corral-Lopez, Javier Edo Varg, Yiselle P. Cano-Cobos, Rafael Losada & Emilio Realpe
1. Imperfect mimicry may be maintained when the various components of an aposematic signal have different salience for predators. Experimental laboratory studies provide robust evidence for this phenomenon. Yet, evidence from natural settings remains scarce. 2. We studied how natural bird predators assess multiple features in a multicomponent aposematic signal in the Neotropical “clear wing complex” mimicry ring, dominated by glasswing butterflies. 3. We evaluated two components of the aposematic signal, wing colouration and wing...

The biogeography of community assembly: latitude and predation drive variation in community trait distribution in a guild of epifaunal crustaceans

Collin Gross, Collin Gross, J Duffy, Kevin Hovel, Melissa Kardish, Pamela Reynolds, Christoffer Boström, Katharyn Boyer, Mathiew Cusson, Johan Eklöf, Aschwin Engelen, Klemens Eriksson, Joel Fodrie, John Griffin, Clara Hereu, Masakazu Hori, A Randall Hughes, Mikhail Ivanov, Pablo Jorgensen, Claudia Kruschel, Kun-Seop Lee, Jonathan Lefcheck, Karen McGlathery, Per-Olav Moksnes, Masahiro Nakaoka … & Jay Stachowicz
While considerable evidence exists of biogeographic patterns in the intensity of species interactions, the influence of these patterns on variation in community structure is less clear. Using a model selection approach on measures of trait dispersion in crustaceans associated with eelgrass (Zostera marina) spanning 30º of latitude in two oceans, we found that dispersion strongly increased with increasing predation and decreasing latitude. Ocean and epiphyte load appeared as secondary predictors; Pacific communities were more overdispersed...

Plant biodiversity declines with increasing coffee yield in Ethiopia’s coffee agroforests

Beyene Zewdie, Ayco Tack, Biruk Ayalew, Melaku Wondafrash, Sileshi Nemomissa & Kristoffer Hylander
1. Tropical agroforestry systems provide farmers with resources for their livelihoods, but are also well recognized as refuges for biodiversity. However, the relationship between yield and biodiversity might be negative in these systems, reflecting a potential trade-off between managing for increased yield or biodiversity. The potential for synergies will depend partly on the shape of the biodiversity-yield relationship, where a concave relationship suggests a faster decline of biodiversity with increasing yields than a linear or...

Data from: Loss-of-heterozygosity facilitates a fitness valley crossing in experimentally evolved multicellular yeast

Beatriz Baselga-Cervera, Noah Gettle & Michael Travisano
These data sets are generated to investigate a simple evolutionary landscape that arises from underdominance at a single locus where the fitness valley consists of only one less-fit genotype. We make use of an experimental system previous evolved in the laboratory, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae snowflake system. This system was experimentally selected resulting in a significant evolutionary shift, the transition from uni-to-multicellularity in asexual diploid populations. We carried out the phenotypic and fitness characterization of the...

Changes in forest structure drive temperature preferences of boreal understory plant communities

Ditte Marie Christiansen, Lars Lønsmann Iversen, Johan Ehrlén & Kristoffer Hylander
1. The local climate in forest understories can deviate substantially from ambient conditions. Moreover, forest microclimates are often characterized by cyclic changes driven by management activities such as clear-cutting and subsequent planting. To understand how and why understory plant communities change, both ambient climate change and temporal variation in forest structure has to be considered. 2. We used inventories from 11436 productive forest sites in Sweden repeated every 10th year 1993 - 2017 to examine...

Climate effects on the breeding ecology of pied flycatchers at the north of their range

Marta Lomas Vega, Thord Fransson & Cecilia Kullberg
The file “Raw data.csv” contains all data used for the analyses of the article “The effects of four decades of climate change on the breeding ecology of an avian sentinel species across a 1500-km latitudinal gradient are stronger at high latitudes” (DOI: 10.1002/ece3.7459). This data was used to investigate the effect of climate warming on the breeding time and breeding success of European pied flycatchers breeding in Sweden during 1982-2017. The data set contains 29035...

Asymmetric regulation of caterpillar development by changes in photoperiod

Olle Lindestad, Karl Gotthard & Inger Aalberg Haugen
Many insects possess the plastic ability to either develop directly to adulthood, or enter diapause and postpone reproduction until the next year, depending on environmental cues (primarily photoperiod) that signal the amount of time remaining until the end of the growth season. These two alternative pathways often differ in co-adapted life history traits, e.g. with slower development and larger size in individuals headed for diapause. The developmental timing of these differences may be of adaptive...

Experimental sexual selection affects the evolution of physiological and life history traits

Martin D. Garlovsky, Luke Holman, Andrew L. Brooks, Rhonda R. Snook & Zorana K. Novicic
Sexual selection and sexual conflict are expected to affect all aspects of the phenotype, not only traits that are directly involved in reproduction. Here, we show coordinated evolution of multiple physiological and life history traits in response to long-term experimental manipulation of the mating system in populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura. Development time was extended under polyandry relative to monogamy in both sexes, potentially due to higher investment in traits linked to sexual selection and sexual...

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