16 Works

Data from: Alate production in an aphid in relation to ant tending and alarm pheromone

Karolina Tegelaar & Olof Leimar
1. Winged dispersal is vital for aphids as predation pressure and host plant conditions fluctuate. 2. Ant-tended aphids also need to disperse, but this may represent a cost for the ants, resulting in an evolutionary conflict of interest over aphid dispersal. 3. The combined effects of aphid alarm pheromone, indicating predation risk, and ant attendance on the production of winged aphids were examined in an experiment with Aphis fabae (Homoptera: Aphididae) (Scopoli 1763) aphids and...

Data from: Performance of forest bryophytes with different geographical distributions transplanted across a topographically heterogeneous landscape

C. Johan Dahlberg, Johan Ehrlén & Kristoffer Hylander
Most species distribution models assume a close link between climatic conditions and species distributions. Yet, we know little about the link between species' geographical distributions and the sensitivity of performance to local environmental factors. We studied the performance of three bryophyte species transplanted at south- and north-facing slopes in a boreal forest landscape in Sweden. At the same sites, we measured both air and ground temperature. We hypothesized that the two southerly distributed species Eurhynchium...

Data from: Effects of phylogenetic reconstruction method on the robustness of species delimitation using single-locus data

Cuong Q. Tang, Aelys M. Humphreys, Diego Fontaneto & Timothy G. Barraclough
1. Coalescent-based species delimitation methods combine population genetic and phylogenetic theory to provide an objective means for delineating evolutionarily significant units of diversity. The Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) and the Poisson Tree Process (PTP) are methods that use ultrametric (GMYC or PTP) or non-ultrametric (PTP) gene trees as input, intended for use mostly with single-locus data such as DNA barcodes. 2. Here we assess how robust the GMYC and PTP are to different phylogenetic...

Data from: Diapause induction and relaxed selection on alternative developmental pathways in a butterfly

Karl Gotthard & Inger M. Aalberg Haugen
1. Seasonal phenotypic plasticity entails differential trait expression depending on the time of season. The facultative induction of winter diapause in temperate insects is a developmental switch mechanism often leading to differential expression in life history traits. However, when there is a latitudinal shift from a bivoltine to univoltine life cycle, selection for pathway-specific expression is disrupted, which may allow drift towards less optimal trait values within the non-selected pathway. 2. We use field- and...

Data from: Latitudinal variation in thermal reaction norms of post-winter pupal development in two butterflies differing in phenological specialization

Diana Posledovich, Tenna Toftegaard, Jose A. Navarro-Cano, Christer Wiklund, Johan Ehrlén & Karl Gotthard
Latitudinal clines in thermal reaction norms of development are a common phenomenon in temperate insects. Populations from higher latitudes often develop faster throughout the range of relevant temperatures (i.e countergradient variation) because they must be able to complete their life cycle within a shorter seasonal time window compared to populations at lower latitudes. In the present study, we experimentally demonstrate that two species of butterflies Anthocharis cardamines (L.) and Pieris napi (L.) instead show a...

Data from: Human-induced biotic invasions and changes in plankton interaction networks

Pavel Kratina, Ralph Mac Nally, James R. Thomson, Wim J. Kimmerer & Monika Winder
1.Pervasive and accelerating changes to ecosystems due to human activities remain major sources of uncertainty in predicting the structure and dynamics of ecological communities. Understanding which biotic interactions within natural multitrophic communities are threatened or augmented by invasions of non-native species in the context of other environmental pressures is needed for effective management. 2.We used multivariate autoregressive models with detailed time-series data from largely freshwater and brackish regions of the upper San Francisco Estuary to...

Data from: Identifying multiple coral reef regimes and their drivers across the Hawaiian archipelago

Jean-Baptiste Jouffray, Magnus Nyström, Albert V. Norström, Ivor D. Williams, Lisa M. Wedding, John N. Kittinger & Gareth J. Williams
Loss of coral reef resilience can lead to dramatic changes in benthic structure, often called regime shifts, which significantly alter ecosystem processes and functioning. In the face of global change and increasing direct human impacts, there is an urgent need to anticipate and prevent undesirable regime shifts and, conversely, to reverse shifts in already degraded reef systems. Such challenges require a better understanding of the human and natural drivers that support or undermine different reef...

Data from: Declining rates of species described per taxonomist: slowdown of progress or a side-effect of improved quality in taxonomy?

George Sangster & Jolanda A. Luksenburg
Fig. S1FIGURE S1. Relationship between quality of original descriptions of species (1935–1999) and subsequent revision in five periods of 13 years. Significance levels (*P < 0.05, **P < 0.01) are based on Mann-Whitney U test (A, pages, specimens, characters, taxa compared) and Fisher’s Exact Test (B, illustrations, maps, sonagrams). N.s., not significant.Data fileNew species of birds described in 1935-2009, including details on authorship, number of pages, specimens, characters, and taxa, and presence/absence of illustrations of...

Data from: Diagnostic and prognostic value of soluble syndecan-1 for pleural malignancies

Filip Mundt, Ghazal Heidari-Hamedani, Gustav Nilsonne, Muzaffer Metintas, Anders Hjerpe & Katalin Dobra
Background. The distinction between malignant and benign pleural effusions is a diagnostic challenge today and measuring soluble biomarkers could add to the diagnostic accuracy. Syndecan-1 is a proteoglycan involved in various cellular functions and is cleaved from the cell surface in a regulated manner. The shed fragment, which can be recovered in effusion supernatant and in serum, retains its binding capacities, but often with different functions and signalling properties than the cell-bound form. Aim. This...

Data from: Comparative support for the expensive tissue hypothesis: big brains are correlated with smaller gut and greater parental investment in Lake Tanganyika cichlids

Masahito Tsuboi, Arild Husby, Alexander Kotrschal, Alexander Hayward, Séverine Denise Büchel, Josefina Zidar, Hanne Løvlie & Niclas Kolm
The brain is one of the most energetically expensive organs in the vertebrate body. Consequently, the energetic requirements of encephalization are suggested to impose considerable constraints on brain size evolution. Three main hypotheses concerning how energetic constraints might affect brain evolution predict covariation between brain investment and i) investment into other costly tissues, ii) overall metabolic rate, and iii) reproductive investment. To date, these hypotheses have mainly been tested in homeothermic animals and the existing...

Data from: Personality predicts social dominance in male domestic fowl

Anna Favati, Olof Leimar & Hanne Løvlie
Individuals in social species commonly form dominance relationships, where dominant individuals enjoy greater access to resources compared to subordinates. A range of factors such as sex, age, body size and prior experiences has to varying degrees been observed to affect the social status an individual obtains. Recent work on animal personality (i.e. consistent variation in behavioural responses of individuals) demonstrates that personality can co-vary with social status, suggesting that also behavioural variation can play an...

Data from: Coarse dark patterning functionally constrains adaptive shifts from aposematism to crypsis in strawberry poison frogs

Anna Qvarnström, Andreas Rudh, Torkel Edström, Anders Ödeen, Hanne Løvlie, Birgitta Tullberg & Birgitta S. Tullberg
Ecological specialization often requires tight co-evolution of several traits, which may constrain future evolutionary pathways and make species more prone to extinction. Aposematism and crypsis represent two specialized adaptations to avoid predation. We tested whether the combined effects of color and pattern on prey conspicuousness functionally constrain or facilitate shifts between these two adaptations. We combined data from 17 natural populations of Strawberry poison frogs, Oophaga pumilio with an experimental approach using digitalized images of...

Data from: Variation in two phases of post-winter development of a butterfly

Sandra Stålhandske, Karl Gotthard, Diana Posledovich & Olof Leimar
The temporal aspects of life cycle characteristics, such as diapause development, are under strong selection in seasonal environments. Fine-tuning of the life cycle may be particularly important to match the phenology of potential mates and resources as well as for optimizing abiotic conditions at eclosion. Here, we experimentally study the spring phenology of the orange tip butterfly, Anthocharis cardamines, by analysing post-winter pupal development in three populations along a latitudinal cline in each of Sweden...

Data from: Genetic signs of multiple colonization events in Baltic ciscoes with radiation into sympatric spring and autumn-spawners confined to early post-glacial arrival

Bo Delling, Stefan Palm, Eleftheria Palkopoulou & Tore Prestegaard
Presence of sympatric populations may reflect local diversification or secondary contact of already distinct forms. The Baltic cisco (Coregonus albula) normally spawns in late autumn, but in a few lakes in Northern Europe sympatric autumn and spring- or winter-spawners have been described. So far, the evolutionary relationships and taxonomic status of these main life history forms have remained largely unclear. With microsatellites and mtDNA sequences, we analyzed extant and extinct spring- and autumn-spawners from a...

Data from: Stimulus salience as an explanation for imperfect mimicry

Baharan Kazemi, Gabriella Gamberale-Stille, Birgitta S. Tullberg & Olof Leimar
The theory of mimicry explains how a mimic species gains advantage by resembling a model species . Selection for increased mimic-model similarity should then result in accurate mimicry, yet there are many surprising examples of poor mimicry in the natural world. The existence of imperfect mimics remains a major unsolved conundrum. We propose and experimentally test a novel explanation of the phenomenon. We argue that predators perceive prey as having several traits, but the traits...

Data from: On the origin of the Norwegian lemming

Vendela K. Lagerholm, Edson Sandoval-Castellanos, Dorothee Ehrich, Natalia I. Abramson, Adam Nadachowski, Daniela C. Kalthoff, Mietje Germonpré, Anders Angerbjörn, John R. Stewart & Love Dalén
The Pleistocene glacial cycles resulted in significant changes in species distributions, and it has been discussed whether this caused increased rates of population divergence and speciation. One species that is likely to have evolved during the Pleistocene is the Norwegian lemming (Lemmus lemmus). However, the origin of this species, both in terms of when and from what ancestral taxon it evolved, has been difficult to ascertain. Here, we use ancient DNA recovered from lemming remains...

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