206 Works

Data from: Genome-wide signatures of local selection in the panmictic European eel

Jose Martin Pujolar, Magnus W. Jacobsen, Thomas D. Als, Jane Frydenberg, Kasper Munch, Bjarni Jónsson, Jianbo B. Jian, Ling Cheng, Gregory E. Maes, Louis Bernatchez & Michael M. Hansen
Next-generation sequencing and the collection of genome-wide data allow identifying adaptive variation and footprints of directional selection. Using a large SNP data set from 259 RAD-sequenced European eel individuals (glass eels) from eight locations between 34 and 64oN, we examined the patterns of genome-wide genetic diversity across locations. We tested for local selection by searching for increased population differentiation using FST-based outlier tests and by testing for significant associations between allele frequencies and environmental variables....

Data from: Soil microbiome responses to the short-term effects of Amazonian deforestation

Acácio A. Navarrete, Siu M. Tsai, Lucas W. Mendes, Karoline Faust, Mattias De Hollander, Noriko A. Cassman, Johannes A. Van Veen, Eiko E. Kuramae & Jeroen Raes
Slash-and-burn clearing of forest typically results in increase in soil nutrient availability. However, the impact of these nutrients on the soil microbiome is not known. Using next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and shotgun metagenomic DNA, we compared the structure and the potential functions of bacterial community in forest soils to deforested soils in the Amazon region and related the differences to soil chemical factors. Deforestation decreased soil organic matter content and factors linked...

Data from: Taxonomic challenges in freshwater fishes: a mismatch between morphology and DNA barcoding in fish of the north-eastern part of the Congo basin

Eva Decru, Tuur Moelants, Koen De Gelas, Emmanuel Vreven, Erik Verheyen & Jos Snoeks
This study evaluates the utility of DNA barcoding to traditional morphology-based species identifications for the fish fauna of the north-eastern Congo basin. We compared DNA sequences (COI) of 821 samples from 206 morphologically identified species. Best match, best close match and all species barcoding analyses resulted in a rather low identification success of 87.5%, 84.5% and 64.1%, respectively. The ratio ‘nearest-neighbour distance/maximum intraspecific divergence’ was lower than 1 for 26.1% of the samples, indicating possible...

Data from: Temporal genetic stability in natural populations of the waterflea Daphnia magna in response to strong selection pressure

Luisa Orsini, Hollie Marshall, Maria Cuenca Cambronero, Anurag Chaturvedi, Kelley W. Thomas, Michael E. Pfrender, Katina I. Spanier & Luc De Meester
Studies monitoring changes in genetic diversity and composition through time allow a unique understanding of evolutionary dynamics and persistence of natural populations. However, such studies are often limited to species with short generation times that can be propagated in the laboratory or few exceptional cases in the wild. Species that produce dormant stages provide powerful models for the reconstruction of evolutionary dynamics in the natural environment. A remaining open question is to what extent dormant...

Data from: All roads lead to home: panmixia of European eel in the Sargasso Sea

Thomas D Als, Michael M Hansen, Gregory E Maes, Martin Castonguay, Lasse Riemann, Kim Aarestrup, Peter Munk, Henrik Sparholt, Reinhold Hanel & Louis Bernatchez
European eels (Anguilla anguilla) spawn in the remote Sargasso Sea in partial sympatry with American eels (Anguilla rostrata), and juveniles are transported more than 5,000 kilometres back to the European and North African coasts. The two species have been regarded as classic textbook examples of panmixia, each comprising a single, randomly mating population. However, several recent studies based on continental samples have found subtle, but significant, genetic differentiation, interpreted as geographical or temporal heterogeneity between...

Relationship of total and calculated free 25-hydroxyvitamin D to biomarkers and metabolic indices in healthy children

Christine Simpson, Jane Zhang, Dirk Vanderschueren, Lei Fu, Teresita Pennestri, Roger Bouillon, David Cole & Thomas Carpenter
ABSTRACT Context: Vitamin D status is usually assessed by serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Whether free 25-hydroxyvitamin D measures better correlate with various clinical outcomes is unclear. Objective: To identify correlations between total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (t25-OHD), calculated and direct measures of free 25-OHD, and to identify associations of these measures with other outcomes in children, across the 6 common GC haplotypes. Design: Healthy urban-dwelling children underwent measurement of relevant variables. Setting: Academic medical center Participants: Healthy,...

Pre-adaptation to climate change through topography-driven evolution of traits and their plasticity

Hanne De Kort, Bart Panis, Steven Janssens, Kenny Helsen & Olivier Honnay
1. Climate change will increase the level of drought stress experienced by plant communities, but the spatial distribution of projected changes in dryness remains highly uncertain. Species can, to some extent, deal with climate uncertainty through natural variation in adaptive responses to environmental heterogeneity and predictability. Biodiversity conservation could thus target populations pre-adapted to climatic heterogeneity to anticipate climate uncertainty. Disentangling evolution of trait means vs. trait plasticity, however, requires a sampling design with genetic...

Tree diversity is key for promoting the diversity and abundance of forest‐associated taxa in Europe

Eric Allan, Evy Ampoorter, Luc Barbaro, Hervé Jactel, Lander Baeten, Johanna Boberg, Monique Carnol, Bastien Castagneyrol, Yohan Charbonnier, Seid Muhie Dawud, Marc Deconchat, Pallieter De Smedt, Hans De Wandeler, Virginie Guyot, Stephan Hättenschwiler, François‐Xavier Joly, Julia Koricheva, Harriet Milligan, Bart Muys, Diem Nguyen, Sophia Ratcliffe, Karsten Raulund‐Rasmussen, Michael Scherer‐Lorenzen, Fons Plas, J. Van Keer … & Lars Vesterdal
Plant diversity is an important driver of diversity at other trophic levels, suggesting that cascading extinctions could reduce overall biodiversity. Most evidence for positive effects of plant diversity comes from grasslands. Despite the fact that forests are hotspots of biodiversity, the importance of tree diversity, in particular its relative importance compared to other management related factors, in affecting forest‐associated taxa is not well known. To address this, we used data from 183 plots, located in...

A historical-genetic reconstruction of human extra-pair paternity

Maarten H.D. Larmuseau, Pieter Van Den Berg, Sofie Claerhout, Francesc Calafell, Alessio Boattini, Leen Gruyters, Michiel Vandenbosch, Kelly Nivelle, Ronny Decorte & Tom Wenseleers
Paternity testing using genetic markers has shown that extra-pair paternity (EPP) is common in many pair-bonded species. Evolutionary theory and empirical data show that extra-pair copulations can increase the fitness of males as well as females. This can carry a significant fitness cost for the social father, who then invests in rearing offspring that biologically are not his own. In human populations, the incidence and correlates of extra-pair paternity remain highly contentious. Here, we use...

Identification of a queen pheromone mediating the rearing of adult sexuals in the pharaoh ant Monomorium pharaonis

Ricardo Caliari Oliveira
Division of labour between reproductive queens and mostly sterile workers is among the defining characteristics of social insects. Queen-produced chemical signals advertising her presence and fertility status, i.e. queen pheromones, are normally used to assert the queen’s reproductive dominance in the colony. Most queen pheromones identified to date are chemicals that stop the daughter workers from reproducing. Nevertheless, it has long been suggested that queen pheromones could also regulate reproduction in different ways. In some...

Data from: Oxidative stress mediates rapid compensatory growth and its costs

Lizanne Janssens & Robby Stoks
1. While oxidative stress has been hypothesized to function both as a constraint on and a cost of growth, its mediatory role in shaping life history is still highly debated. Empirical studies about the role of oxidative stress in shaping growth responses and the associated costs are scarce and the two hypotheses have never been combined in one study. 2. By directly manipulating oxidative stress we tested its role in determining compensatory growth responses and...

European soil seed bank communities across a climate and land-cover gradient

Jan Plue, Hans Van Calster, Inger Auestad, Sofia Basto, Reneé M. Bekker, Hans Henrik Bruun, Richard Chevalier, Guillaume Decocq, Ulf Grandin, Martin Hermy, Hans Jacquemyn, Anna Jakobsson, Rein Kalamees, Rob H. Marrs, Bryndis Marteinsdóttir, Per Milberg, Robin J. Pakeman, Gareth Phoenix, Ken Thompson, Vigdis Vandvik, Markus Wagner, Sara A.O. Cousins, Ove Eriksson, Jamshid Ghorbani, Małgorzata Jankowska-Błaszczuk … & Alistair G. Auffret
This is the data set used for the publication Buffering effects of soil seed banks on plant community composition in response to land use and climate, published in the journal Global Ecology and Biogeography. Aim. Climate and land use are key determinants of biodiversity, with past and ongoing changes posing serious threats to global ecosystems. Unlike most other organism groups, plant species can possess dormant life-history stages such as soil seed banks, which may help...

eDNA quantification to evaluate bullfrog management

Teun Everts, Charlotte Van Driessche, Sabrina Neyrinck, Nico De Regge, Sarah Descamps, Alain De Vocht, Hans Jacquemyn & Rein Brys
Biological invasions contribute now more than ever to the global homogenization of fauna and flora. Large-scale monitoring programs are therefore needed to detect incipient invasions and to evaluate management interventions. As conventional monitoring methods are constrained by large costs, environmental DNA (eDNA)-based methods are increasingly recognized as valuable monitoring tools. However, accurately estimating species abundance from eDNA concentrations in natural systems remains challenging and consequently hinders their integration in management applications. Here, we used droplet...

Genetic composition and diversity of Arabica coffee in the crop’s center of origin and its impact on four major fungal diseases

Beyene Hailu & Yves Bawin
Conventional wisdom states that genetic variation reduces disease levels in plant populations. Nevertheless, crop species have been subject to a gradual loss of genetic variation through selection for specific traits during breeding, thereby increasing their vulnerability to biotic stresses such as pathogens. We explored how genetic variation in Arabica coffee sites in southwestern Ethiopia was related to the incidence of four major fungal diseases. Sixty sites were selected along a gradient of management intensity, ranging...

Reduced stress defense responses contribute to the higher toxicity of a pesticide under warming

Vienna Delnat, Janne Swaegers, Jana Asselman & Robby Stoks
There is a pressing need to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying the, often magnifying, interactive effects between contaminants and natural stressors. We here test our hypothesis that lower general stress defense responses contribute to synergistic interactions between stressors. We focus on the widespread pattern that many contaminants are more toxic at higher temperatures. Specifically, we tested the effects of an environmentally realistic low-effect and high-effect concentration of the pesticide chlorpyrifos under warming at the gene...

Size-mediated priority effects are trait-dependent and consistent across latitudes in a damselfly

Mateusz Raczyński, Robby Stoks, Frank Johansson & Szymon Sniegula
Variation in hatching time (phenology) might cause size differences within populations resulting in size-mediated priority effects (SMPEs) shaping intraspecific interactions. These phenology-driven effects potentially can be strengthened by seasonal time constraints caused by a short growth season, and depend on latitude. Here the single and combined effects of phenology and latitude-associated time constraints on SMPEs in larvae of an aquatic insect, the damselfly Lestes sponsa, are studied. We did so by rearing larvae in groups...

Otolith microstructures analysis of juveniles sole (Solea solea L.) in the Southern North Sea

Silvia Paoletti, Karen Bekaert, Kris Hostens & Filip Volckaert
The dataset contains the individual fish and otolith measurements necessary to analyse the early-life history stages of juvenile common sole in the Southern North Sea. Samples were collected at three major nursery grounds, the Belgian coast, the Dutch coast and the UK coast between 2013 and 2016. The analysis of the otolith microstructures (daily growth rings) allows the back calculation of hatching and settlement periods as well as the investigation of growth conditions. The dataset...

Data from: Temperature variation makes an ectotherm more sensitive to global warming unless thermal evolution occurs

Julie Verheyen & Robby Stoks
1. To assess long-term impacts of global warming on species there is growing interest in latitudinal intraspecific patterns in thermal adaptation. Yet, while both mean temperatures and daily temperature fluctuations (DTFs) are expected to increase under global warming, latitudinal differences in the effects of DTFs have not been documented. 2. We tested whether low-latitude populations of an ectotherm deal better with greater DTF than high-latitude populations, especially at a high mean temperature close to the...

Data from: Larval UV exposure impairs adult immune function through a trade-off with larval investment in cuticular melanin

Sara Debecker, Ruben Sommaruga, Tim Maes & Robby Stoks
Despite the strong impact of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on invertebrates, it is unknown whether it affects immune function across metamorphosis. More generally, the mechanisms on how larval stressors bridge metamorphosis and shape adult fitness in animals with a complex life cycle remain poorly understood. We studied whether cuticular melanin content is upregulated under UV exposure in the larval stage of the damselfly Coenagrion puella and whether this is traded off across metamorphosis against a key...

Data from: Latitudinal and voltinism compensation shape thermal reaction norms for growth rate

Lisa N S Shama, Melina Campero-Paz, K. Mathias Wegner, Marjan De Block & Robby Stoks
Latitudinal variation in thermal reaction norms of key fitness traits may inform about the response of populations to climate warming, yet their adaptive nature and evolutionary potential is poorly known. We assessed the contribution of quantitative genetic, neutral genetic and environmental effects to thermal reaction norms of growth rate for populations of the damselfly Ischnura elegans. Among populations, reaction norms differed primarily in elevation suggesting that time constraints associated with shorter growth seasons in univoltine,...

Data from: Microbial diversity in the floral nectar of Linaria vulgaris along an urbanization gradient

Jacek Bartlewicz, Bart Lievens, Olivier Honnay & Jacquemyn Hans
Background: Microbes are common inhabitants of floral nectar and are capable of influencing plant-pollinator interactions. All studies so far investigated microbial communities in floral nectar in plant populations that were located in natural environments, but nothing is known about these communities in nectar of plants inhabiting urban environments. However, at least some microbes are vectored into floral nectar by pollinators, and because urbanization can have a profound impact on pollinator communities and plant-pollinator interactions, it...

Data from: Latitudinal variation in mycorrhizal diversity associated with a European orchid

Karl J. Duffy, Michael Waud, Bertrand Schatz, Theodora Petanidou & Hans Jacquemyn
Aim: Biodiversity is known to be unevenly distributed along latitudinal gradients. While this pattern has been observed for many different organisms, it is unclear whether the distributions of ecologically important belowground mutualists, such as orchid mycorrhizal fungi (OMF), also vary according to latitude. Location: Europe. Methods: We sampled 37 populations over a 3000 km latitudinal gradient of the European orchid Spiranthes spiralis to test whether the diversity and community composition of OMF are influenced by...

Data from: Areal differences in depth cue integration between monkey and human

Marcelo Armendariz, Hiroshi Ban, Andrew E Welchman & Wim Vanduffel
Electrophysiological evidence suggested primarily the involvement of area MT in depth cue integration in macaques, as opposed to human imaging data pinpointing area V3B/KO. To clarify this conundrum, we decoded monkey fMRI responses evoked by stimuli signaling near or far depths defined by binocular disparity, relative motion and their combination, and we compared results with those from an identical experiment previously performed in humans.Responses in macaque area MT are more discriminable when two cues concurrently...

Data from: 1970s and ‘Patient 0’ HIV-1 genomes illuminate early HIV/AIDS history in North America

Michael Worobey, Thomas D. Watts, Richard A. McKay, Marc A. Suchard, Timothy Granade, Dirk E. Teuwen, Beryl A. Koblin, Walid Heneine, Philippe Lemey & Harold W. Jaffe
The emergence of HIV-1 group M subtype B in North American men who have sex with men was a key turning point in the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Phylogenetic studies have suggested cryptic subtype B circulation in the United States (US) throughout the 1970s1, 2 and an even older presence in the Caribbean2. However, these temporal and geographical inferences, based upon partial HIV-1 genomes that postdate the recognition of AIDS in 1981, remain contentious3, 4 and the...

Data from: Long-term impacts of changed grazing regimes on the vegetation of heterogeneous upland grasslands

Robin J. Pakeman, Debbie A. Fielding, Liese Everts & Nick A. Littlewood
Marginal agricultural land, which in the UK refers particularly to upland grazings, will see changes in management driven by markets, subsidies, grants and environmental change with implications for biodiversity. Using a large-scale, long-term grazing experiment in the UK uplands we assessed the impact of intensification (tripling sheep numbers), abandonment (removal of sheep) and grazer diversification (partial replacement of sheep by cattle) on vegetation composition in a heterogenous area of grassland. Species benefiting from increased grazing...

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