162 Works

Observed Precipitation, Temperature, and Snow Water Equivalent for the Rio Grande headwaters from 1905-2015

David Gutzler
This file summarizes the data found in RG_obs_PTSWEQ.csv used in the analysis of the contribution of precipitation, temperature, and SWE to the interannual variability of runoff generation in the Rio Grande headwaters.

Disentangling lousy relationships: Comparative phylogenomics of two sucking louse lineages parasitizing chipmunks

Kayce Bell, Julie M. Allen, Kevin P. Johnson, John R. Demboski & Joseph A. Cook
The evolution of obligate parasites is often interpreted in light of their hosts’ evolutionary history. An expanded approach is to examine the histories of multiple lineages of parasites that inhabit similar environments on a particular host lineage. Western North American chipmunks (genus Tamias) have a broad distribution, a history of divergence with gene flow, and host two species of sucking lice (Anoplura), Hoplopleura arboricola and Neohaematopinus pacificus. From total genomic sequencing, we obtained sequences of...

Single-arm, open-label, multicenter first in human study to evaluate the safety and performance of Dura Sealant Patch in reducing CSF leakage following elective cranial surgery: The ENCASE trial

Tristan Van Doormaal, Menno Germans, Menno Germans, Mariska Sie, Bart Brouwers, Andrew Carlson, Jan Willem Dankbaar, Jorn Fierstra, Paul Depauw, Pierre Robe & Luca Regli
Objective: The Dural Sealant Patch (DSP) is designed for watertight dural closure after cranial surgery. The goal of this study is to assess, for the first time, safety and performance of the DSP as a means of reducing CSF leakage in patients undergoing elective cranial intradural surgery with a dural closure procedure. Design: First in human, open-label, single-arm, multicenter study with 360 days (12 months) follow up. Setting: Three large tertiary reference neurosurgical centers, 2...

Complex histories of gene flow and a mitochondrial capture event in a non-sister pair of bird

Ethan Gyllenhaal, Michael Andersen, Jenna McCullough, Xena Mapel, Tri Haryoko, Knud Jønsson & Leo Joseph
Hybridization, introgression, and reciprocal gene flow during speciation, specifically the generation of mitonuclear discordance, are increasingly observed as parts of the speciation process. Genomic approaches provide insight into where, when, and how adaptation operates during and after speciation and can measure historical and modern introgression. Whether adaptive or neutral in origin, hybridization can cause mitonuclear discordance by placing the mitochondrial genome of one species (or population) in the nuclear background of another species. The latter,...

Telemetry validated nitrogen stable isotope clocks identify ocean-to-estuarine habitat shifts in mobile organisms

Oliver Shipley, Alisa Newton, Michael Frisk, Gregory Henkes, Jake LaBelle, Merry Camhi, Michael Hyatt, Hans Walters & Jill Olin
1. Throughout their life history, many animals transition among heterogenous environments to facilitate behaviors such as reproduction, foraging, and predator avoidance. The dynamic environmental and biological conditions experienced by mobile species are integrated in the chemical composition of their tissues, providing retrospective insight into movement. 2. Here, we present a unique nitrogen stable isotope clocks (‘isotopic clocks’), which integrate tissue turnover rates, consumer stable isotope ratios, and habitat-specific isotope baselines and can be used to...

Data from: Empirical test of the native–nonnative distinction: Native and nonnative assemblages of Anolis lizards are similar in morphology and phylogeny

Steven Poe & Ian M. Latella
1. Nonnative ("invasive," "exotic," "naturalized") species frequently are vilified. However, some philosophers and ecologists have questioned whether nonnative species and assemblages are objectively, ahistorically identifiable as different entities relative to native species and assemblages, once selection biases are taken into account. 2. We used an unprecedented dataset of morphology, phylogeny, and assemblage content for 336 species of Anolis lizard to compare morphological and phylogenetic characteristics of variability and central tendency between native assemblages and those...

Data from: Sea level, topography, and island diversity: phylogeography of the Puerto Rican Red-eyed Coquí, Eleutherodactylus antillensis

Brittany S. Barker, Javier A. Rodríguez-Robles, Vani S. Aran, Ashley Montoya, Robert B. Waide & Joseph A. Cook
Quaternary climatic oscillations caused changes in sea level that altered the size, number, and degree of isolation of islands, particularly in land-bridge archipelagoes. Elucidating the demographic effects of these oscillations increases our understanding of the role of climate change in shaping evolutionary processes in archipelagoes. The Puerto Rican Bank (Puerto Rico and the Eastern Islands, which comprise Vieques, Culebra, the Virgin Islands, and associated islets) in the eastern Caribbean Sea periodically coalesced during glaciations and...

Data from: Cryptic diversity in black rats Rattus rattus of the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador

Sandi Willows-Munro, Robert C. Dowler, Michael R. Jarcho, Reese B. Phillips, Howard L. Snell, Tammy R. Wilbert & Cody W. Edwards
Human activity has facilitated the introduction of a number of alien mammal species to the Galápagos Archipelago. Understanding the phylogeographic history and population genetics of invasive species on the Archipelago is an important step in predicting future spread and designing effective management strategies. In this study, we describe the invasion pathway of Rattus rattus across the Galápagos using microsatellite data, coupled with historical knowledge. Microsatellite genotypes were generated for 581 R. rattus sampled from 15...

Data from: Environmental heterogeneity has a weak effect on diversity during community assembly in tallgrass prairie

Sara G. Baer, John M. Blair & Scott L. Collins
Understanding what constrains the persistence of species in communities is at the heart of community assembly theory and its application to conserving and enhancing biodiversity. The “environmental heterogeneity hypothesis” predicts greater species coexistence in habitats with greater resource variability. In the context of community assembly, environmental heterogeneity may influence the variety and strength of abiotic conditions and competitive interactions (environmental filters) to affect the relative abundance of species and biodiversity. We manipulated key resources that...

Data from: Exploring microbial dark matter to resolve the deep archaeal ancestry of eukaryotes

Jimmy H. Saw, Anja Spang, Katarzyna Zaremba-Niedzwiedzka, Lina Juzokaite, Jeremy A. Dodsworth, Senthil Murugapiran, Dan R. Colman, Cristina Takacs-Vesbach, Brian P. Hedlund, Lionel Guy & Thijs J.G. Ettema
The origin of eukaryotes represents an enigmatic puzzle, which is still lacking a number of essential pieces. Whereas it is currently accepted that the process of eukaryogenesis involved an interplay between a host cell and an alphaproteobacterial endosymbiont, we currently lack detailed information regarding the identity and nature of these players. A number of studies have provided increasing support for the emergence of the eukaryotic host cell from within the archaeal domain of life, displaying...

Data from: Isotopic niches support the resource breadth hypothesis

Jonathan A. Rader, Seth D. Newsome, Pablo Sabat, R. Terry Chesser, Michael E. Dillon & Carlos Martínez Del Rio
Because a broad spectrum of resource use allows species to persist in a wide range of habitat types, and thus permits them to occupy large geographical areas, and because broadly distributed species have access to more diverse resource bases, the resource breadth hypothesis posits that the diversity of resources used by organisms should be positively related with the extent of their geographic ranges. We investigated isotopic niche width in a small radiation of South American...

Data from: Clock gene evolution: seasonal timing, phylogenetic signal, or functional constraint?

Trevor J. Krabbenhoft & Thomas F. Turner
Genetic determinants of seasonal reproduction are not fully understood, but may be important predictors of organism responses to climate change. We used a comparative approach to study the evolution of seasonal timing within a fish community in a natural common garden setting. We tested the hypothesis that allelic length variation in the PolyQ domain of a circadian rhythm gene, Clock1a, corresponded to interspecific differences in seasonal reproductive timing across five native and one introduced cyprinid...

Data from: Fitness decline in spontaneous mutation accumulation lines of Caenorhabditis elegans with varying effective population sizes

Vaishali Katju, Lucille B. Packard, Lijing Bu, Peter David Keightley & Ulfar Bergthorsson
The rate and fitness effects of new mutations have been investigated by mutation accumulation (MA) experiments in which organisms are maintained at a constant minimal population size to facilitate the accumulation of mutations with minimal efficacy of selection. We evolved 35 MA lines of Caenorhabditis elegans in parallel for 409 generations at three population sizes (N = 1, 10, and 100), representing the first spontaneous long-term MA experiment at varying population sizes with corresponding differences...

Data from: Assembly of root-associated bacteria communities: interactions between abiotic and biotic factors

Sarah L. Dean, Emily C. Farrer, Andrea Porras-Alfaro, Katharine N. Suding & Robert L. Sinsabaugh
Nitrogen (N) deposition in many areas of the world is over an order of magnitude greater than it would be in absence of human activity. We ask how abiotic (N) and biotic (plant host and neighborhood) effects interact to influence root-associated bacterial (RAB) community assembly. Using 454 pyrosequencing, we examined RAB communities from two dominant alpine tundra plants, Geum rossii and Deschampsia cespitosa, under control, N addition and D. cespitosa removal treatments, implemented in a...

Data from: Does gene tree discordance explain the mismatch between macroevolutionary models and empirical patterns of tree shape and branching times?

Tanja Stadler, James H. Degnan & Noah A. Rosenberg
Classic null models for speciation and extinction give rise to phylogenies that differ in distribution from empirical phylogenies. In particular, empirical phylogenies are less balanced and have branching times closer to the root compared to phylogenies predicted by common null models. This difference might be due to null models of the speciation and extinction process being too simplistic, or due to the empirical datasets not being representative of random phylogenies. A third possibility arises because...

Data from: Fire frequency drives habitat selection by a diverse herbivore guild impacting top–down control of plant communities in an African savanna

Deron E. Burkepile, Dave I. Thompson, Richard W. S. Fynn, Sally E. Koerner, Stephanie Eby, Navashni Govender, Nicole Hagenah, Nathan P. Lemoine, Katherine J. Matchett, Kevin R. Wilcox, Scott L. Collins, Kevin P. Kirkman, Alan K. Knapp & Melinda D. Smith
In areas with diverse herbivore communities such as African savannas, the frequency of disturbance by fire may alter the top–down role of different herbivore species on plant community dynamics. In a seven year experiment in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, we examined the habitat use of nine common herbivore species across annually burned, triennially burned and unburned areas. We also used two types of exclosures (plus open access controls) to examine the impacts of...

Data from: Fungal symbionts maintain a rare plant population but demographic advantage drives the dominance of a common host

Yan-Yi Anny Chung, Thomas E. X. Miller, Jennifer A. Rudgers & Tom E. X. Miller
1. A potential driver of species abundance that remains understudied is the interaction between host species and their microbial symbionts. Beneficial symbionts could promote the dominance of common host species by increasing their population growth rates more than they do for rare species, and symbiont benefits could be important for maintaining rare species in communities. Alternatively, intrinsic differences in demography, independent of interactions with symbionts, could be the main driver of species’ relative abundances. 2....

Data from: Low serum sodium levels at hospital admission: outcomes among 2.3 million hospitalized patients

Saleem Al Mawed, V. Shane Pankratz, Kelly Chong, Matthew Sandoval, Maria-Eleni Roumelioti & Mark Unruh
Background: Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder among hospitalized patients. Controversies still exist over the relationship between hyponatremia and outcomes of hospitalized patients. Methods: To analyze the association of low serum sodium levels at hospital admission with in-hospital mortality and patient disposition and to compare the distribution of the risk of death associated with hyponatremia across the lifespan of hospitalized patients, we conducted an observational study of 2.3 million patients using data extracted from...

Data from: Efficacy of Aedes aegypti control by indoor Ultra Low Volume (ULV) insecticide spraying in Iquitos, Peru

Christian E. Gunning, Kenichi Okamoto, Helvio Astete, Gissella M. Vasquez, Erik B. Erhardt, Clara Del Aguila, Raul Pinedo, Roldan Cardenas, Carlos Pacheco, Enrique Chalco, Hugo Rodriguez-Ferruci, Thomas W. Scott, Alun L. Lloyd, Fred Gould, Amy C. Morrison, Kenichi W. Okamoto & Erik Erhardt
Background: Aedes aegypti is a primary vector of dengue, chikungunya, Zika, and urban yellow fever viruses. Indoor, ultra low volume (ULV) space spraying with pyrethroid insecticides is the main approach used for Ae. aegypti emergency control in many countries. Given the widespread use of this method, the lack of large-scale experiments or detailed evaluations of municipal spray programs is problematic. Methodology/Principal Findings: Two experimental evaluations of non-residual, indoor ULV pyrethroid spraying were conducted in Iquitos,...

Data from: Spatial heterogeneity in species composition constrains plant community responses to herbivory and fertilization

Dorothee Hodapp, Elizabeth T. Borer, W. Stanley Harpole, Eric M. Lind, Eric W. Seabloom, Peter B. Adler, Juan Alberti, Carlos A. Arnillas, Jonathan D. Bakker, Lori Biederman, Marc Cadotte, Elsa E. Cleland, Scott Collins, Philip A. Fay, Jennifer Firn, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Oscar Iribarne, Johannes M.H. Knops, Rebecca L. McCulley, Andrew MacDougall, Joslin L. Moore, John W. Morgan, Brent Mortensen, Kimberly J. La Pierre … & Johannes M. H. Knops
Environmental change can result in substantial shifts in community composition. The associated immigration and extinction events are likely constrained by the spatial distribution of species. Still, studies on environmental change typically quantify biotic responses at single spatial (time series within a single plot) or temporal (spatial beta-diversity at single time points) scales, ignoring their potential interdependence. Here, we use data from a global network of grassland experiments to determine how turnover responses to two major...

Predicting amphibian intraspecific diversity with machine learning: Challenges and prospects for integrating traits, geography, and genetic data

Lisa Barrow
The growing availability of genetic datasets, in combination with machine learning frameworks, offer great potential to answer long-standing questions in ecology and evolution. One such question has intrigued population geneticists, biogeographers, and conservation biologists: What factors determine intraspecific genetic diversity? This question is challenging to answer because many factors may influence genetic variation, including life history traits, historical influences, and geography, and the relative importance of these factors varies across taxonomic and geographic scales. Furthermore,...

Supporting data for changing climate reallocates the carbon debt of frequent-fire forests

Matthew Hurteau, Marissa Goodwin, Harold Zald & Malcolm North
Ongoing climate change will likely alter the carbon carrying capacity of forests as they adjust to climatic extremes and changing disturbance regimes. Increasing drought frequency and severity are already causing widespread tree mortality events, which can exacerbate the carbon debt that has developed as a result of fire-exclusion. Reducing tree density and surface fuels decreases the risk of high-severity wildfire and may also limit drought-induced mortality by reducing competition. We utilized a long-term thinning and...

Data for: Evaluating the impact of physical frailty during ageing in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii)

Melissa Emery Thompson, Stephanie Fox, Kris Sabbi, Emily Otali, Nicole Thompson Gonzalez, Martin Muller, Richard Wrangham & Zarin Machanda
While declining physical performance is an expected consequence of aging, human clinical research has placed increasing emphasis on physical frailty as a predictor of death and disability in the elderly. We examined non-invasive measures approximating frailty in a richly-sampled longitudinal dataset on wild chimpanzees. Using urinary creatinine to assess lean body mass, we demonstrated moderate but significant declines in physical condition with age in both sexes. While older chimpanzees spent less of their day in...

Distinguishing between dispersal and vicariance: A novel approach using anti-tropical taxa across the fish Tree of Life

William Ludt & Corinne Myers
Aim: Anti-tropical taxa are species split by the tropics into disjunct northern and southern populations. These distributions occur throughout the Tree of Life, but the mechanisms proposed to drive this pattern are debated and generally fit into two categories: dispersal and vicariance. Here we quantitatively test the prevalence of dispersal and vicariance as plausible drivers of anti-tropical marine distributions using intra-specific anti-tropical marine fishes as a model system. Location: Primarily Indo-Pacific. Major Taxa Studied: Marine...

Wild chimpanzees exhibit human-like aging of glucocorticoid regulation

Melissa Emery Thompson, Stephanie Fox, Andreas Berghaenel, Kris Sabbi, Sarah Phillips-Garcia, Drew Enigk, Emily Otali, Zarin Machanda, Richard Wrangham & Martin Muller
Cortisol, a key product of the stress response, has critical influences on degenerative aging in humans. In turn, cortisol production is affected by senescence of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, leading to progressive dysregulation and increased cortisol exposure. These processes have been studied extensively in industrialized settings, but few comparative data are available from humans and closely-related species living in natural environments, where stressors are very different. Here, we examine age-related changes in urinary cortisol in...

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