142 Works

Role of endogenous and exogenous attention in task-relevant visual perceptual learning

Kieu N. Nguyen, Takeo Watanabe & George J. Andersen
The present study examined the role of exogenous and endogenous attention in task relevant visual perceptual learning (TR-VPL). VPL performance was assessed by examining the learning to a trained stimulus feature and transfer of learning to an untrained stimulus feature. To assess the differential role of attention in VPL, two types of attentional cues were manipulated; exogenous and endogenous. In order to assess the effectiveness of the attentional cue, the two types of attentional cues...

Data from: Naturalized distributions show that climatic disequilibrium is structured by niche size in pines (Pinus L.)

Daniel L. Perret, Andrew B. Leslie & Dov F. Sax
Aim: The assumption that species’ native distributions are in equilibrium with climate has been shown to be frequently violated, despite its centrality to many niche model applications. We currently lack a framework that predicts these violations. Here we examine whether variation in climatic disequilibrium is structured by properties of species’ native distributions and climatic niches. Location: Global Methods: We built climatic niche models for 106 pine (Pinus L.) species, including 25 that have naturalized outside...

Data from: Polygenic adaptation on height is overestimated due to uncorrected stratification in genome-wide association studies

Mashaal Sohail, Robert M. Maier, Andrea Ganna, Alex Bloemendal, Alicia R. Martin, Michael C. Turchin, Charleston W. K. Chang, Joel Hirschhorn, Mark J. Daly, Nick Patterson, Benjamin Neale, Iain Mathieson, David Reich & Shamil R. Sunyaev
Genetic predictions of height differ among human populations and these differences have been interpreted as evidence of polygenic adaptation. These differences were first detected using SNPs genome-wide significantly associated with height, and shown to grow stronger when large numbers of sub-significant SNPs were included, leading to excitement about the prospect of analyzing large fractions of the genome to detect polygenic adaptation for multiple traits. Previous studies of height have been based on SNP effect size...

Data from: Predicting the evolutionary dynamics of seasonal adaptation to novel climates in Arabidopsis thaliana

Alexandre Fournier-Level, Emily O. Perry, Jonathan A. Wang, Peter T. Braun, Andrew Migneault, Martha D. Cooper, C. Jessica E. Metcalf & Johanna Schmitt
Anticipating the effect of climate change on plants requires understanding its evolutionary consequence on traits and genes in complex realistic environments. How seasonal variation has an impact on the dynamics of adaptation in natural populations remains unclear. We simulated adaptation to different climate change scenarios, grounding our analysis in experimental data and explicitly exploring seasonal variation. Seasonal variation dramatically affected the dynamics of adaptation: Marked seasonality led to genetic differentiation within the population to different...

Data from: Environmental gradients and the evolution of successional habitat specialization: a test case with 14 Neotropical forest sites

Susan G. Letcher, Jesse R. Lasky, Robin L. Chazdon, Natalia Norden, S. Joseph Wright, Jorge A. Meave, Eduardo A. Pérez-García, Rodrigo Muñoz, Eunice Romero-Pérez, Ana Andrade, José Luis Andrade, Patricia Balvanera, Justin M. Becknell, Tony V. Bentos, Radika Bhaskar, Frans Bongers, Vanessa Boukili, Pedro H. S. Brancalion, Ricardo G. César, Deborah A. Clark, David B. Clark, Dylan Craven, Alexander DeFrancesco, Juan M. Dupuy, Bryan Finegan … & G. Bruce Williamson
1. Successional gradients are ubiquitous in nature, yet few studies have systematically examined the evolutionary origins of taxa that specialize at different successional stages. Here we quantify successional habitat specialization in Neotropical forest trees and evaluate its evolutionary lability along a precipitation gradient. Theoretically, successional habitat specialization should be more evolutionarily conserved in wet forests than in dry forests due to more extreme microenvironmental differentiation between early and late successional stages in wet forest. 2....

Data from: Dopamine promotes motor cortex plasticity and motor skill learning via PLC activation

Mengia-Seraina Rioult-Pedotti, Ana Pekanivic, Clement Osei Atiemo, John Marshall, Andreas Rüdiger Luft & Ana Pekanovic
Dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area, the major midbrain nucleus projecting to the motor cortex, play a key role in motor skill learning and motor cortex synaptic plasticity. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists exert parallel effects in the motor system: they impair motor skill learning and reduce long-term potentiation. Traditionally, D1 and D2 receptor modulate adenylyl cyclase activity and cyclic adenosine monophosphate accumulation in opposite directions via different G-proteins and bidirectionally modulate protein...

Data from: All-trans retinoic acid disrupts development in ex vivo cultured fetal rat testes. II: modulation of mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate toxicity

Daniel J. Spade, Susan J. Hall, Jeremy D. Wortzel, Gerardo Reyes & Kim Boekelheide
Humans are universally exposed to low levels of phthalate esters (phthalates), which are used to plasticize polyvinyl chloride. Phthalates exert adverse effects on the development of seminiferous cords in the fetal testis through unknown toxicity pathways. To investigate the hypothesis that phthalates alter seminiferous cord development by disrupting retinoic acid signaling in the fetal testis, gestational day 15 fetal rat testes were exposed for 1-3 days to 10-6 M all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) alone or...

Data from: A new framework for investigating biotic homogenization and exploring future trajectories: oceanic island plant and bird assemblages as a case study

Kyle C. Rosenblad & Dov F. Sax
Studies of biotic homogenization have focused primarily on characterizing changes that have occurred between some past baseline and the present day. In order to understand how homogenization may change in the future, it is important to contextualize the processes driving these changes. Here, we examine empirical patterns of change in taxonomic similarity among oceanic island plant and bird assemblages. We use these empirical cases to unpack dynamic properties of biotic homogenization, thereby elucidating two important...

Data from: Small and ugly? Phylogenetic analyses of the “selfing syndrome” reveal complex evolutionary fates of monomorphic primrose flowers

Jurriaan M. De Vos, Rafael O. Wüest & Elena Conti
One of the most common trends in plant evolution, loss of self-incompatibility and ensuing increases in selfing, is generally assumed to be associated with a suite of phenotypic changes, notably a reduction of floral size, termed the selfing syndrome. We investigate whether floral morphological traits indeed decrease in a deterministic fashion after losses of self-incompatibility, as traditionally expected, using a phylogeny of 124 primrose species containing nine independent transitions from heterostyly (heteromorphic incompatibility) to homostyly...

Multiple dimensions of dietary diversity in large mammalian herbivores

Tyler Kartzinel & Robert Pringle
Theory predicts that trophic specialization (i.e., low dietary diversity) should make consumer populations sensitive to environmental disturbances, yet diagnosing specialists is complicated both by the difficulty of precisely quantifying diet composition and by definitional ambiguity—what makes a diet ‘diverse’? We sought to characterize the relationship between taxonomic dietary diversity (TDD) and phylogenetic dietary diversity (PDD) in a species-rich community of large mammalian herbivores in semi-arid East African savanna. We hypothesized that TDD and PDD would...

Depth dependent azimuthal anisotropy beneath the Juan de Fuca plate system

Zachary Eilon & Donald Forsyth
We use surface wave measurements to reveal anisotropy as a function of depth within the Juan de Fuca and Gorda plate system. Using a two-plane wave method, we measure phase velocity and azimuthal anisotropy of fundamental mode Rayleigh waves, solving for anisotropic shear velocity. These surface wave measurements are jointly inverted with constraints from shear wave splitting studies using a Markov chain approach.

The extensibility of the plantar fascia influences the windlass mechanism during human running

Lauren Welte, Luke Kelly, Sarah Kessler, Daniel Lieberman, Susan D'Andrea, Glen Lichtwark & Michael Rainbow
The arch of the human foot is unique among hominins as it is compliant at ground-contact but sufficiently stiff to enable push-off. These behaviours are partly facilitated by the ligamentous plantar fascia whose role is central to two mechanisms. The ideal windlass mechanism assumes that the plantar fascia has a nearly constant length to directly couple toe dorsiflexion with a change in arch shape. However, the plantar fascia also stretches and then shortens throughout gait...

Data from: Dietary shifts in a group of early Eocene euarchontans (Microsyopidae) in association with climatic change

Keegan Selig, Amy Chew & Mary Silcox
The Microsyopidae, a family of plesiadapiforms known from over 1,500 stratigraphically controlled specimens from the southern Bighorn Basin of Wyoming, span the first three million years of the early Eocene. The early Eocene is characterized by rapid fluctuations in climate during the period represented by this collection of microsyopids, making this an ideal sample to examine how climate influenced early stem primate biology, particularly dietary ecology. An evolving lineage of microsyopine microsyopids is known from...

Data from: Mitochondrial–nuclear epistasis affects fitness within species but does not contribute to fixed incompatibilities between species of Drosophila

Kristi L. Montooth, Colin D. Meiklejohn, Dawn N. Abt & David M. Rand
Efficient mitochondrial function requires physical interactions between the proteins encoded by the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. Coevolution between these genomes may result in the accumulation of incompatibilities between divergent lineages. We test whether mitochondrial–nuclear incompatibilities have accumulated within the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup by combining divergent mitochondrial and nuclear lineages and quantifying the effects on relative fitness. Precise placement of nine mtDNAs from D. melanogaster, D. simulans, and D. mauritiana into two D. melanogaster nuclear...

Data from: Modeling of kidney hemodynamics: probability-based topology of an arterial network

Dmitry D. Postnov, Donald J. Marsh, Thomas H. Braunstein, Niels-Henrik Holstein-Rathlou, Erik A. Martens & Olga Sosnovtseva
Through regulation of the extracellular fluid volume, the kidneys provide important long-term regulation of blood pressure. At the level of the individual functional unit (the nephron), pressure and flow control involves two different mechanisms that both produce oscillations. The nephrons are arranged in a complex branching structure that delivers blood to each nephron and, at the same time, provides a basis for an interaction between adjacent nephrons. The functional consequences of this interaction are not...

Data from: El Niño drives a widespread ulcerative skin disease outbreak in Galapagos marine fishes

Robert W. Lamb, Franz Smith, Anaide W. Aued, Pelayo Salinas-De-León, Jenifer Suarez, Marta Gomez-Chiarri, Roxanna Smolowitz, Cem Giray & Jon D. Witman
Climate change increases local climatic variation and unpredictability, which can alter ecological interactions and trigger wildlife disease outbreaks. Here we describe an unprecedented multi-species outbreak of wild fish disease driven by a climate perturbation. The 2015–16 El Niño generated a +2.5 °C sea surface temperature anomaly in the Galapagos Islands lasting six months. This coincided with a novel ulcerative skin disease affecting 18 teleost species from 13 different families. Disease signs included scale loss and...

Data from: Repeated origin of three-dimensional leaf venation releases constraints on the evolution of succulence in plants

R. Matthew Ogburn & Erika J. Edwards
Succulent water storage is a prominent feature among plants adapted to arid zones, but we know little about how succulence evolves and how it is integrated into organs already tasked with multiple functions. Increased volume in succulent leaves, for example, may result in longer transport distances between veins and the cells that they supply, which in turn could negatively impact photosynthesis [1, 2, 3 and 4]. We quantified water storage [5] in a group of...

Data from: Diet reveals links between morphology and foraging in a cryptic temperate reef fish

Natalia S. Winkler, Maite Paz-Goicoechea, Robert W. Lamb & Alejandro Pérez-Matus
Predators select prey so as to maximize energy and minimize manipulation time. In order to reduce prey detection and handling time, individuals must actively select their foraging space (microhabitat) and populations exhibit morphologies that are best suited for capturing locally available prey. We explored how variation in diet correlates with habitat type, and how these factors influence key morphological structures (mouth gape, eye diameter, fin length, fin area, and pectoral fin ratio) in a common...

Data from: Sneeze to leave: African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) use variable quorum thresholds facilitated by sneezes in collective decisions.

Reena H. Walker, Andrew J. King, John Weldon McNutt & Neil R. Jordan
In despotically driven animal societies, one or a few individuals tend to have a disproportionate influence on group decision-making and actions. However, global communication allows each group member to assess the relative strength of preferences for different options amongst their group-mates. Here, we investigate collective decisions by free-ranging African wild dog packs in Botswana. African wild dogs exhibit dominant-directed group living and take part in stereotyped social rallies: high energy greeting ceremonies that occur before...

Data from: Morphological and functional maturity of the oral jaws covary with offspring size in Trinidadian guppies

Terry R. Dial, Luz Patricia Hernandez & Elizabeth L. Brainerd
Large size of individual offspring is routinely selected for in highly competitive environments, such as in low-predation populations of the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Large guppy offspring outcompete their smaller conspecifics, but the functional mechanisms underlying this advantage are unknown. We measured jaw kinematics during benthic feeding and cranial musculoskeletal morphologies in neonates and juveniles from five populations of Trinidadian guppy and found that both kinematics and morphologies vary substantially with neonatal size. Rotation at...

Data from: A chloroplast tree for Viburnum (Adoxaceae) and its implications for phylogenetic classification and character evolution

Wendy C. Clement, Mónica Arakaki, Patrick W. Sweeney, Erika J. Edwards & Michael J. Donoghue
Premise of the study: Despite recent progress, significant uncertainties remain concerning relationships among early-branching lineages within Viburnum (Adoxaceae). This has prohibited a new classification, and has hindered studies of character evolution and the increasing use of Viburnum in addressing a wide range of ecological and evolutionary questions. We hoped to resolve these issues by sequencing whole plastid genomes for representative species and combining these with molecular data previously obtained from an expanded taxon sample. Methods:...

Data from: Global effects of soil and climate on leaf photosynthetic traits and rates

Vincent Maire, Ian J. Wright, I. Colin Prentice, Niels H. Batjes, Radika Bhaskar, Peter M. Van Bodegom, Will K. Cornwell, David Ellsworth, Ülo Niinemets, Alejandro Ordoñez, Peter B. Reich & Louis S. Santiago
Aim: The influence of soil properties on photosynthetic traits in higher plants is poorly quantified in comparison with that of climate. We address this situation by quantifying the unique and joint contributions to global leaf-trait variation from soils and climate. Location: Terrestrial ecosystems world-wide. Methods: Using a trait dataset comprising 1509 species from 288 sites, with climate and soil data derived from global datasets, we quantified the effects of 20 soil and 26 climate variables...

Data from: Adaptive evolution of C4 photosynthesis through recurrent lateral gene transfer

Pascal-Antoine Christin, Erika J. Edwards, Guillaume Besnard, Susanna F. Boxall, Richard Gregory, Elizabeth A. Kellogg, Colin P. Osborne & James Hartwell
C4 photosynthesis is a complex trait that confers higher productivity under warm and arid conditions. It has evolved more than 60 times via the co-option of genes present in C3 ancestors followed by alteration of the patterns and levels of expression, and adaptive changes in the coding sequences, but the evolutionary path to C4 photosynthesis is still poorly understood. The grass lineage Alloteropsis offers unparalleled opportunities for studying C4 evolution, because it includes a C3...

Data from: Falling with style: bats perform complex aerial rotations by adjusting wing inertia

Attila J. Bergou, Sharon M. Swartz, Hamid Vejdani, Daniel K. Riskin, Lauren Reimnitz, Gabriel Taubin & Kenneth S. Breuer
The remarkable maneuverability of flying animals results from precise movements of their highly specialized wings. Bats have evolved an impressive capacity to control their flight, in large part due to their ability to modulate wing shape, area, and angle of attack through many independently controlled joints. Bat wings, however, also contain many bones and relatively large muscles, and thus the ratio of bats’ wing mass to their body mass is larger than it is for...

Data from: Do latex and resin canals spur plant diversification? re-examining a classic example of escape and radiate coevolution

Michael R. Foisy, Loren P. Albert, Daniel W.W. Hughes & Marjorie G. Weber
(1) The association between increased lineage diversification rates and the evolution of latex and resin canals is widely cited as a paradigmatic example of Ehrlich and Raven’s “escape-and-radiate” hypothesis of coevolution. However, it has been over a quarter-century since the original study, and updates to phylogenetic comparative methods, plant molecular systematics, and phenotypic data warrant a reassessment of this classic finding. (2) We gathered data on latex and resin canals across over 300 families and...

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