142 Works

Data from: Phylogenomic analyses support traditional relationships within Cnidaria

Felipe Zapata, Freya E. Goetz, Stephen A. Smith, Mark Howison, Stefan Siebert, Samuel H. Church, Steven M. Sanders, Cheryl Lewis Ames, Catherine S. McFadden, Scott C. France, Marymegan Daly, Allen G. Collins, Steven H. D. Haddock, Casey W. Dunn & Paulyn Cartwright
Cnidaria, the sister group to Bilateria, is the most diverse group of animals in terms of morphology, lifecycles, ecology, and development. How this diversity originated and evolved is not well understood because phylogenetic relationships among major cnidarian lineages are unclear, and recent studies present contrasting phylogenetic hypotheses. Here, we use transcriptome data from 15 newly-sequenced species in combination with 26 publicly available genomes and transcriptomes to assess phylogenetic relationships among major cnidarian lineages. Phylogenetic analyses...

Data from: Falling with style: bats perform complex aerial rotations by adjusting wing inertia

Attila J. Bergou, Sharon M. Swartz, Hamid Vejdani, Daniel K. Riskin, Lauren Reimnitz, Gabriel Taubin & Kenneth S. Breuer
The remarkable maneuverability of flying animals results from precise movements of their highly specialized wings. Bats have evolved an impressive capacity to control their flight, in large part due to their ability to modulate wing shape, area, and angle of attack through many independently controlled joints. Bat wings, however, also contain many bones and relatively large muscles, and thus the ratio of bats’ wing mass to their body mass is larger than it is for...

Data from: Phylogenomic analyses of Echinodermata support the sister groups of Asterozoa and Echinozoa

Adrian Reich, Casey Dunn, Koji Akasaka & Gary Wessel
Echinoderms (sea urchins, sea stars, brittle stars, sea lilies and sea cucumbers) are a group of diverse organisms, second in number within deuterostome species to only the chordates. Echinoderms serve as excellent model systems for developmental biology due to their diverse developmental mechanisms, tractable laboratory use, and close phylogenetic distance to chordates. In addition, echinoderms are very well represented in the fossil record, including some larval features, making echinoderms a valuable system for studying evolutionary...

Data from: Repeated origin of three-dimensional leaf venation releases constraints on the evolution of succulence in plants

R. Matthew Ogburn & Erika J. Edwards
Succulent water storage is a prominent feature among plants adapted to arid zones, but we know little about how succulence evolves and how it is integrated into organs already tasked with multiple functions. Increased volume in succulent leaves, for example, may result in longer transport distances between veins and the cells that they supply, which in turn could negatively impact photosynthesis [1, 2, 3 and 4]. We quantified water storage [5] in a group of...

Data from: A chloroplast tree for Viburnum (Adoxaceae) and its implications for phylogenetic classification and character evolution

Wendy C. Clement, Mónica Arakaki, Patrick W. Sweeney, Erika J. Edwards & Michael J. Donoghue
Premise of the study: Despite recent progress, significant uncertainties remain concerning relationships among early-branching lineages within Viburnum (Adoxaceae). This has prohibited a new classification, and has hindered studies of character evolution and the increasing use of Viburnum in addressing a wide range of ecological and evolutionary questions. We hoped to resolve these issues by sequencing whole plastid genomes for representative species and combining these with molecular data previously obtained from an expanded taxon sample. Methods:...

Data from: Intraspecific variation in seed dispersal of a Neotropical tree and its relationship to fruit and tree traits

Carol K. Augspurger, Susan E. Franson, Katherine C. Cushman & Helene C. Muller-Landau
The distribution of wind-dispersed seeds around a parent tree depends on diaspore and tree traits, as well as wind conditions and surrounding vegetation. This study of a neotropical canopy tree, Platypodium elegans, explored the extent to which parental variation in diaspore and tree traits explained (1) rate of diaspore descent in still air, (2) distributions of diaspores dispersed from a 40-m tower in the forest, and (3) natural diaspore distributions around the parent tree. The...

Data from: Trait integration and macroevolutionary patterns in the pollination biology of conifers

Andrew B. Leslie, Jeremy Michael Beaulieu, Peter R. Crane, Patrick Knopf & Michael J. Donoghue
Integration influences patterns of trait evolution, but the relationship between these patterns and the degree of trait integration is not well understood. In order to explore this further, we study a specialized pollination mechanism in conifers whose traits are linked through function but not development. This mechanism depends on interactions among three characters: pollen that is buoyant, ovules that face downward at pollination, and the production of a liquid droplet that buoyant grains float through...

Data from: Diet reveals links between morphology and foraging in a cryptic temperate reef fish

Natalia S. Winkler, Maite Paz-Goicoechea, Robert W. Lamb & Alejandro Pérez-Matus
Predators select prey so as to maximize energy and minimize manipulation time. In order to reduce prey detection and handling time, individuals must actively select their foraging space (microhabitat) and populations exhibit morphologies that are best suited for capturing locally available prey. We explored how variation in diet correlates with habitat type, and how these factors influence key morphological structures (mouth gape, eye diameter, fin length, fin area, and pectoral fin ratio) in a common...

Data from: Morphological and functional maturity of the oral jaws covary with offspring size in Trinidadian guppies

Terry R. Dial, Luz Patricia Hernandez & Elizabeth L. Brainerd
Large size of individual offspring is routinely selected for in highly competitive environments, such as in low-predation populations of the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Large guppy offspring outcompete their smaller conspecifics, but the functional mechanisms underlying this advantage are unknown. We measured jaw kinematics during benthic feeding and cranial musculoskeletal morphologies in neonates and juveniles from five populations of Trinidadian guppy and found that both kinematics and morphologies vary substantially with neonatal size. Rotation at...

Data from: Sneeze to leave: African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) use variable quorum thresholds facilitated by sneezes in collective decisions.

Reena H. Walker, Andrew J. King, John Weldon McNutt & Neil R. Jordan
In despotically driven animal societies, one or a few individuals tend to have a disproportionate influence on group decision-making and actions. However, global communication allows each group member to assess the relative strength of preferences for different options amongst their group-mates. Here, we investigate collective decisions by free-ranging African wild dog packs in Botswana. African wild dogs exhibit dominant-directed group living and take part in stereotyped social rallies: high energy greeting ceremonies that occur before...

Multiple dimensions of dietary diversity in large mammalian herbivores

Tyler Kartzinel & Robert Pringle
Theory predicts that trophic specialization (i.e., low dietary diversity) should make consumer populations sensitive to environmental disturbances, yet diagnosing specialists is complicated both by the difficulty of precisely quantifying diet composition and by definitional ambiguity—what makes a diet ‘diverse’? We sought to characterize the relationship between taxonomic dietary diversity (TDD) and phylogenetic dietary diversity (PDD) in a species-rich community of large mammalian herbivores in semi-arid East African savanna. We hypothesized that TDD and PDD would...

Depth dependent azimuthal anisotropy beneath the Juan de Fuca plate system

Zachary Eilon & Donald Forsyth
We use surface wave measurements to reveal anisotropy as a function of depth within the Juan de Fuca and Gorda plate system. Using a two-plane wave method, we measure phase velocity and azimuthal anisotropy of fundamental mode Rayleigh waves, solving for anisotropic shear velocity. These surface wave measurements are jointly inverted with constraints from shear wave splitting studies using a Markov chain approach.

Data from: Dietary shifts in a group of early Eocene euarchontans (Microsyopidae) in association with climatic change

Keegan Selig, Amy Chew & Mary Silcox
The Microsyopidae, a family of plesiadapiforms known from over 1,500 stratigraphically controlled specimens from the southern Bighorn Basin of Wyoming, span the first three million years of the early Eocene. The early Eocene is characterized by rapid fluctuations in climate during the period represented by this collection of microsyopids, making this an ideal sample to examine how climate influenced early stem primate biology, particularly dietary ecology. An evolving lineage of microsyopine microsyopids is known from...

The extensibility of the plantar fascia influences the windlass mechanism during human running

Lauren Welte, Luke Kelly, Sarah Kessler, Daniel Lieberman, Susan D'Andrea, Glen Lichtwark & Michael Rainbow
The arch of the human foot is unique among hominins as it is compliant at ground-contact but sufficiently stiff to enable push-off. These behaviours are partly facilitated by the ligamentous plantar fascia whose role is central to two mechanisms. The ideal windlass mechanism assumes that the plantar fascia has a nearly constant length to directly couple toe dorsiflexion with a change in arch shape. However, the plantar fascia also stretches and then shortens throughout gait...

Data from: A map of local adaptation in Arabidopsis thaliana

Alexandre Fournier-Level, Arthur Korte, Martha D. Cooper, Magnus Nordborg, Johanna Schmitt & Amity M. Wilczek
Local adaptation is critical for species persistence in the face of rapid environmental change, but its genetic basis is not well understood. We identified candidate loci for local adaptation in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana from a genome-wide association study of lifetime fitness in geographically diverse accessions grown in field experiments in four sites across the species’ native range. Fitness-associated loci exhibited both geographic and climatic signatures of local adaptation. High-fitness alleles were generally distributed closer...

Data from: Understanding angiosperm diversification using small and large phylogenetic trees

Stephen A. Smith, Jeremy M. Beaulieu, Alexandros Stamatakis, Michael J. Donoghue, J. M. Beaulieu, M. J. Donoghue, S. A. Smith & A. Stamatakis
How will the emerging possibility of inferring ultra-large phylogenies influence our ability to identify shifts in diversification rate? For several large angiosperm clades (Angiospermae, Monocotyledonae, Orchidaceae, Poaceae, Eudicotyledonae, Fabaceae, and Asteraceae), we explore this issue by contrasting two approaches: (1) using small backbone trees with an inferred number of extant species assigned to each terminal clade and (2) using a mega-phylogeny of 55473 seed plant species represented in GenBank. The mega-phylogeny approach assumes that the...

Data from: Resolving the evolutionary relationships of molluscs with phylogenomic tools

Stephen A. Smith, Casey W. Dunn, Nerida G. Wilson, Freya E. Goetz, Caitlin Feehery, Sónia C. S. Andrade, Greg W. Rouse & Gonzalo Giribet
Molluscs (snails, octopuses, clams, and relatives) have great body plan disparity, and among animals only arthropods surpass them in species number. This diversity has made Mollusca one of the best-studied groups of animals, yet their evolutionary relationships remain poorly resolved. Open questions have important implications for the origin of Mollusca and morphological evolution within the group. These include whether the shell-less vermiform aplacophoran molluscs diverged prior to the origin of the shelled molluscs (Conchifera), or...

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