18 Works

Data from: Stimulus discriminability may bias value-based probabilistic learning

Iris Schutte, Heleen A. Slagter, Anne G.E. Collins, Michael J. Frank, J. Leon Kenemans & Anne G. E. Collins
Reinforcement learning tasks are often used to assess participants' tendency to learn more from the positive or more from the negative consequences of one's action. However, this assessment often requires comparison in learning performance across different task conditions, which may differ in the relative salience or discriminability of the stimuli associated with more and less rewarding outcomes, respectively. To address this issue, in a first set of studies, participants were subjected to two versions of...

Data from: Heterochrony in the evolution of Trinidadian guppy offspring size: maturation along a uniform ontogenetic trajectory

Terry R. Dial, David N. Reznick & Elizabeth L. Brainerd
The size and maturity of Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) offspring vary among populations adapted to environments of differential predation. Guppy offspring born to low-predation, high-competition environments are larger and more mature than their high-predation ancestors. Here we ask: what specific changes in developmental or birth timing occur to produce the larger, more mature neonates? We collected specimens across the perinatal window of development from five populations and quantified musculoskeletal maturation. We found that all populations...

Data from: Different clades and traits yield similar grassland functional responses

Elisabeth J. Forrestel, Michael J. Donoghue, Erika J. Edwards, Walter Jetz, Justin C. O. Du Toit & Melinda D. Smith
Plant functional traits are viewed as key to predicting important ecosystem and community properties across resource gradients within and among biogeographic regions. Vegetation dynamics and ecosystem processes, such as aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), are increasingly being modeled as a function of the quantitative traits of species, which are used as proxies for photosynthetic rates, and nutrient and water-use efficiency. These approaches rely on an assumption that a certain trait value consistently confers a specific...

Data from: Comparing forest structure and biodiversity on private and public land: secondary tropical dry forests in Costa Rica

Moana McClellan, Rebecca Montgomery, Kristen Nelson & Justin Becknell
Secondary forests constitute a substantial proportion of tropical forestlands. These forests occur on both public and private lands and different underlying environmental variables and management regimes may affect post‐abandonment successional processes and resultant forest structure and biodiversity. We examined whether differences in ownership led to differences in forest structure, tree diversity, and tree species composition across a gradient of soil fertility and forest age. We collected soil samples and surveyed all trees in 82 public...

Data from: Measuring couple relationship quality in a rural African population: validation of a couple functionality assessment tool in Malawi

Allison Ruark, Rachel Chase, John Hembling, Valerie Rhoe Davis, Paul Clayton Perrin & Dorothy Brewster-Lee
Available data suggest that individual and family well-being are linked to the quality of women’s and men’s couple relationships, but few tools exist to assess couple relationship functioning in low and middle-income countries. In response to this gap, Catholic Relief Services has developed a Couple Functionality Assessment Tool (CFAT) to capture valid and reliable data on various domains of relationship quality. This tool is designed to be used by interventions which aim to improve couple...

Data from: Fossils matter: improved estimates of divergence times in Pinus reveal older diversification

Bianca Saladin, Andrew B. Leslie, Rafael O. Wueest, Glenn Litsios, Elena Conti, Nicolas Salamin & Niklaus E. Zimmermann
Background: The taxonomy of pines (genus Pinus) is widely accepted and a robust gene tree based on entire plastome sequences exists. However, there is a large discrepancy in estimated divergence times of major pine clades among existing studies, mainly due to differences in fossil placement and dating methods used. We currently lack a dated molecular phylogeny that makes use of the rich pine fossil record, and this study is the first to estimate the divergence...

Data from: Interacting effects of genetic variation for seed dormancy and flowering time on phenology, life history, and fitness of experimental Arabidopsis thaliana populations over multiple generations in the field

Mark A. Taylor, Martha D. Cooper, Reena Sellamuthu, Peter Braun, Andrew Migneault, Alyssa Browning, Emily Perry & Johanna Schmitt
• Major alleles for seed dormancy and flowering time are well-studied, and can interact to influence seasonal timing and fitness within generations. However, little is known about how this interaction controls phenology, life history, and population fitness across multiple generations in natural seasonal environments. • To examine how seed dormancy and flowering time shape annual plant life cycles over multiple generations, we established naturally dispersing populations of recombinant inbred lines of Arabidopsis thaliana segregating early...

Data from: A tale of two studies: detection and attribution of the impacts of invasive plants in observational surveys

Kevin E. Mueller, Alexandra G. Lodge, Alexander M. Roth, Timothy J. S. Whitfeld, Sarah E. Hobbie & Peter B. Reich
1.Short-term experiments cannot characterize how long-lived, invasive shrubs influence ecological properties that can be slow to change, including native diversity and soil fertility. Observational studies are thus necessary, but often suffer from methodological issues. 2.To highlight ways of improving the design and interpretation of observational studies that assess the impacts of invasive plants, we compare two studies of nutrient cycling and earthworms along two separate gradients of invasive shrub abundance. By considering the divergent sampling...

Data from: Persistent differences between coastal and offshore kelp forest communities in a warming Gulf of Maine

Jon D. Witman & Robert W. Lamb
Kelp forests provide important ecosystem services, yet coastal kelp communities are increasingly altered by anthropogenic impacts. Kelp forests in remote, offshore locations may provide an informative contrast due to reduced impacts from local stressors. We tested the hypothesis that shallow kelp assemblages (12-15 m depth) and associated fish and benthic communities in the coastal southwest Gulf of Maine (GOM) differed significantly from sites on Cashes Ledge, 145 km offshore by sampling five coastal and three...

Data from: Reducing therapeutic misconception: a randomized intervention trial in hypothetical clinical trials

Paul P. Christopher, Paul S. Appelbaum, Debbie Truong, Karen Albert, Louise Maranda, Charles Lidz & Charles Lidz
Background: Participants in clinical trials frequently fail to appreciate key differences between research and clinical care. This phenomenon, known as therapeutic misconception, undermines informed consent to clinical research, but to date there have been no effective interventions to reduce it and concerns have been expressed that to do so might impede recruitment. We determined whether a scientific reframing intervention reduces therapeutic misconception without significantly reducing willingness to participate in hypothetical clinical trials. Methods: This prospective...

Data from: Multiple stressors and the potential for synergistic loss of New England salt marshes

Sinead M. Crotty, Christine Angelini & Mark D. Bertness
Climate change and other anthropogenic stressors are converging on coastal ecosystems worldwide. Understanding how these stressors interact to affect ecosystem structure and function has immediate implications for coastal planning, however few studies quantify stressor interactions. We examined past and potential future interactions between two leading stressors on New England salt marshes: sea-level rise and marsh crab (Sesarma reticulatum) grazing driven low marsh die-off. Geospatial analyses reveal that crab-driven die-off has led to an order of...

Data from: Curvature-induced stiffening of a fish fin

Khoi Nguyen, Ning Yu, Mahesh M. Bandi, Madhusudhan Venkadesan & Shreyas Mandre
How fish modulate their fin stiffness during locomotive manoeuvres remains unknown. We show that changing the fin's curvature modulates its stiffness. Modelling the fin as bendable bony rays held together by a membrane, we deduce that fin curvature is manifested as a misalignment of the principal bending axes between neighbouring rays. An external force causes neighbouring rays to bend and splay apart, and thus stretches the membrane. This coupling between bending the rays and stretching...

Data from: Diet reveals links between morphology and foraging in a cryptic temperate reef fish

Natalia S. Winkler, Maite Paz-Goicoechea, Robert W. Lamb & Alejandro Pérez-Matus
Predators select prey so as to maximize energy and minimize manipulation time. In order to reduce prey detection and handling time, individuals must actively select their foraging space (microhabitat) and populations exhibit morphologies that are best suited for capturing locally available prey. We explored how variation in diet correlates with habitat type, and how these factors influence key morphological structures (mouth gape, eye diameter, fin length, fin area, and pectoral fin ratio) in a common...

Data from: Sneeze to leave: African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) use variable quorum thresholds facilitated by sneezes in collective decisions.

Reena H. Walker, Andrew J. King, John Weldon McNutt & Neil R. Jordan
In despotically driven animal societies, one or a few individuals tend to have a disproportionate influence on group decision-making and actions. However, global communication allows each group member to assess the relative strength of preferences for different options amongst their group-mates. Here, we investigate collective decisions by free-ranging African wild dog packs in Botswana. African wild dogs exhibit dominant-directed group living and take part in stereotyped social rallies: high energy greeting ceremonies that occur before...

Data from: Morphological and functional maturity of the oral jaws covary with offspring size in Trinidadian guppies

Terry R. Dial, Luz Patricia Hernandez & Elizabeth L. Brainerd
Large size of individual offspring is routinely selected for in highly competitive environments, such as in low-predation populations of the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Large guppy offspring outcompete their smaller conspecifics, but the functional mechanisms underlying this advantage are unknown. We measured jaw kinematics during benthic feeding and cranial musculoskeletal morphologies in neonates and juveniles from five populations of Trinidadian guppy and found that both kinematics and morphologies vary substantially with neonatal size. Rotation at...

Data from: Targeted enrichment of large gene families for phylogenetic inference: phylogeny and molecular evolution of photosynthesis genes in the Portullugo clade (Caryophyllales)

Abigail J. Moore, Jurriaan M. De Vos, Lillian P. Hancock, Eric Goolsby & Erika J. Edwards
Hybrid enrichment is an increasingly popular approach for obtaining hundreds of loci for phylogenetic analysis across many taxa quickly and cheaply. The genes targeted for sequencing are typically single-copy loci, which facilitate a more straightforward sequence assembly and homology assignment process. However, this approach limits the inclusion of most genes of functional interest, which often belong to multi-gene families. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of including large gene families in hybrid enrichment protocols for phylogeny...

Data from: The rate of transient beta frequency events predicts behavior across tasks and species

Hyeyoung Shin, Robert Law, Shawn Tsutsui, Christopher I. Moore & Stephanie R. Jones
Beta oscillations (15-29Hz) are among the most prominent signatures of brain activity. Beta power is predictive of healthy and abnormal behaviors, including perception, attention and motor action. In non-averaged signals, beta can emerge as transient high-power 'events'. As such, functionally relevant differences in averaged power across time and trials can reflect changes in event number, power, duration, and / or frequency span. We show that functionally relevant differences in averaged beta power in primary somatosensory...

Data from: Decoupled diversification dynamics of feeding morphology following a major functional innovation in marine butterflyfishes

Nicolai Konow, Samantha Price, Rickard Abom, David Bellwood, Peter Wainwright & Richard Abom
The diversity of fishes on coral reefs is influenced by the evolution of feeding innovations. For instance, the evolution of an intramandibular jaw joint has aided shifts to corallivory in Chaetodon butterflyfishes following their Miocene colonization of coral reefs. Today, over half of all Chaetodon species consume coral, easily the largest concentration of corallivores in any reef fish family. In contrast with Chaetodon, other chaetodontids, including the long-jawed bannerfishes, remain less intimately associated with coral...

Registration Year

  • 2017
    18

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    18

Affiliations

  • Brown University
    18
  • Yale University
    3
  • University of California, Davis
    3
  • University of Minnesota
    2
  • Cleveland State University
    1
  • University of Washington
    1
  • Columbia University
    1
  • Royal Botanic Gardens
    1
  • Johns Hopkins University
    1
  • University of Lausanne
    1