14 Works

Data from: Prediction of forest aboveground net primary production from high-resolution vertical leaf-area profiles

K. C. Cushman & James R. Kellner
Temperature and precipitation explain about half the variation in aboveground net primary production (ANPP) among tropical forest sites, but determinants of remaining variation are poorly understood. Here we test the hypothesis that the amount of leaf area, and its vertical arrangement, predicts ANPP when other variables are held constant. Using measurements from airborne lidar in a lowland Neotropical rain forest, we quantify vertical leaf-area profiles and develop models of ANPP driven by leaf area and...

Data from: Age‐dependent leaf physiology and consequences for crown‐scale carbon uptake during the dry season in an Amazon evergreen forest

Loren P. Albert, Jin Wu, Neill Prohaska, Plinio Barbosa De Camargo, Travis E. Huxman, Edgard S. Tribuzy, Valeriy Y. Ivanov, Rafael S. Oliveira, Sabrina Garcia, Marielle N. Smith, Raimundo Cosme Oliveira Junior, Natalia Restrepo-Coupe, Rodrigo Da Silva, Scott C. Stark, Giordane A. Martins, Deliane V. Penha & Scott R. Saleska
* Satellite and tower-based metrics of forest-scale photosynthesis generally increase with dry season progression across central Amazônia, but the underlying mechanisms lack consensus. * We conducted demographic surveys of leaf age composition, and measured age-dependence of leaf physiology in broadleaf canopy trees of abundant species at a central eastern Amazon site. Using a novel leaf-to-branch scaling approach, we used this data to independently test the much-debated hypothesis—arising from satellite and tower-based observations—that leaf phenology could...

Data from: Explaining the ocean’s richest biodiversity hotspot and global patterns of fish diversity

Elizabeth Christina Miller, Kenji T. Hayashi, Dongyuan Song & John J. Wiens
For most marine organisms, species richness peaks in the Central Indo-Pacific region and declines longitudinally, a striking pattern that remains poorly understood. Here, we used phylogenetic approaches to address the causes of richness patterns among global marine regions, comparing the relative importance of colonization time, number of colonization events, and diversification rates (speciation minus extinction). We estimated regional richness using distributional data for almost all percomorph fishes (17,435 species total, including ~72% of all marine...

Data from: All-trans retinoic acid disrupts development in ex vivo cultured fetal rat testes. I: altered seminiferous cord maturation and testicular cell fate

Daniel J. Spade, Edward Dere, Susan J. Hall, Christoph Schorl, Richard N. Freiman & Kim Boekelheide
Exposure to excess retinoic acid disrupts the development of the mammalian testicular seminiferous cord. However, the molecular events surrounding retinoic acid-driven loss of cord structure have not previously been examined. To investigate the mechanisms associated with this adverse developmental effect, fetal rat testes were isolated on gestational day 15, after testis determination and the initiation of cord development, and cultured in media containing all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA; 10-8 to 10-6 M) or vehicle for 3...

Data from: Phenological and fitness responses to climate warming depend upon genotype and competitive neighborhood in Arabidopsis thaliana

Mark A. Taylor, Martha D. Cooper & Johanna Schmitt
1. Increasing temperatures during climate change are known to alter the phenology across diverse plant taxa, but the evolutionary outcomes of these shifts are poorly understood. Moreover, plant temperature-sensing pathways are known to interact with competition-sensing pathways, yet there remains little experimental evidence for how genotypes varying in temperature responsiveness react to warming in realistic competitive settings. 2. We compared flowering time and fitness responses to warming and competition for two near isogenic lines (NILs)...

Data from: Molecular evolution of key metabolic genes during transitions to C4 and CAM photosynthesis

Eric W. Goolsby, Abigail J. Moore, Lillian P. Hancock, Jurriaan M. De Vos & Erika J. Edwards
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Next-generation sequencing facilitates rapid production of well-sampled phylogenies built from very large genetic datasets, which can then be subsequently exploited to examine the molecular evolution of the genes themselves. We present an evolutionary analysis of 83 gene families (19 containing carbon-concentrating mechanism (CCM) genes, 64 containing non-CCM genes) in the portullugo clade (Caryophyllales), a diverse lineage of mostly arid-adapted plants that contains multiple evolutionary origins of all known photosynthesis types in...

Data from: All-trans retinoic acid disrupts development in ex vivo cultured fetal rat testes. II: modulation of mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate toxicity

Daniel J. Spade, Susan J. Hall, Jeremy D. Wortzel, Gerardo Reyes & Kim Boekelheide
Humans are universally exposed to low levels of phthalate esters (phthalates), which are used to plasticize polyvinyl chloride. Phthalates exert adverse effects on the development of seminiferous cords in the fetal testis through unknown toxicity pathways. To investigate the hypothesis that phthalates alter seminiferous cord development by disrupting retinoic acid signaling in the fetal testis, gestational day 15 fetal rat testes were exposed for 1-3 days to 10-6 M all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) alone or...

Data from: Naturalized distributions show that climatic disequilibrium is structured by niche size in pines (Pinus L.)

Daniel L. Perret, Andrew B. Leslie & Dov F. Sax
Aim: The assumption that species’ native distributions are in equilibrium with climate has been shown to be frequently violated, despite its centrality to many niche model applications. We currently lack a framework that predicts these violations. Here we examine whether variation in climatic disequilibrium is structured by properties of species’ native distributions and climatic niches. Location: Global Methods: We built climatic niche models for 106 pine (Pinus L.) species, including 25 that have naturalized outside...

Data from: Leaf-cutter ants engineer large nitrous oxide hot spots in tropical forests

Fiona M. Soper, Benjamin W. Sullivan, Brooke B. Osborne, Alanna N. Shaw, Laurent Philippot & Cory C. Cleveland
Though tropical forest ecosystems are among the largest natural sources of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O), the spatial distribution of emissions across landscapes is often poorly resolved. Leaf-cutter ants (LCA, Atta and Acromyrmex, Myrmicinae) are dominant herbivores throughout Central and South America and influence multiple aspects of forest structure and function. In particular, their foraging creates spatial heterogeneity by concentrating large quantities of organic matter (including nitrogen, N) from the surrounding canopy into...

Data from: Counting with DNA in metabarcoding studies: how should we convert sequence reads to dietary data?

Bruce E. Deagle, Austen C. Thomas, Julie C. McInnes, Laurence J. Clarke, Eero J. Vesterinen, Elizabeth L. Clare, Tyler R. Kartzinel & J. Paige Eveson
Advances in DNA sequencing technology have revolutionised the field of molecular analysis of trophic interactions and it is now possible to recover counts of food DNA sequences from a wide range of dietary samples. But what do these counts mean? To obtain an accurate estimate of a consumer’s diet should we work strictly with datasets summarising frequency of occurrence of different food taxa, or is it possible to use relative number of sequences? Both approaches...

Data from: Trophic ecology of large herbivores in a reassembling African ecosystem

Johan Pansu, Jennifer A. Guyton, Arjun B. Potter, Justine L. Atkins, Joshua H. Daskin, Bart Wursten, Tyler R. Kartzinel & Robert M. Pringle
1. Diverse megafauna assemblages have declined or disappeared throughout much of the world, and many efforts are underway to restore them. Understanding the trophic ecology of such reassembling systems is necessary for predicting recovery dynamics, guiding management, and testing general theory. Yet there are few studies of recovering large-mammal communities, and fewer still that have characterized food-web structure with high taxonomic resolution. 2. In Gorongosa National Park, large herbivores have rebounded from near-extirpation following the...

Data from: How do baleen whales stow their filter? A comparative biomechanical analysis of baleen bending

Alexander J. Werth, Diego Rita, Michael V. Rosario, Michael J. Moore & Todd L. Sformo
Bowhead and right whale (balaenid) baleen filtering plates, longer in vertical dimension (3-4+ m) than the closed mouth, presumably bend during gape closure. This has not been observed in live whales, even with scrutiny of videorecorded feeding sequences. To determine what happens to baleen as gape closes, we conducted an integrative, multifactorial study including materials testing, functional (flow tank and kinematic) testing, and histological examination. We measured baleen bending properties along the dorsoventral length of...

Data from: Large-scale patterns of benthic marine communities in the Brazilian Province

Anaide Wrublevski Aued, Franz Smith, Juan Pablo Quimbayo, Davi V. Cândido, Guilherme O. Longo, Carlos E. L. Ferreira, Jon D. Witman, Sergio R. Floeter & Bárbara Segal
As marine ecosystems are influenced by global and regional processes, standardized information on community structure has become crucial for assessing broad-scale responses to natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Extensive biogeographic provinces, such as the Brazilian Province in the southwest Atlantic, present numerous theoretical and methodological challenges for understanding community patterns on a macroecological scale. In particular, the Brazilian Province is composed of a complex system of heterogeneous reefs and a few offshore islands, with contrasting histories...

Data from: El Niño drives a widespread ulcerative skin disease outbreak in Galapagos marine fishes

Robert W. Lamb, Franz Smith, Anaide W. Aued, Pelayo Salinas-De-León, Jenifer Suarez, Marta Gomez-Chiarri, Roxanna Smolowitz, Cem Giray & Jon D. Witman
Climate change increases local climatic variation and unpredictability, which can alter ecological interactions and trigger wildlife disease outbreaks. Here we describe an unprecedented multi-species outbreak of wild fish disease driven by a climate perturbation. The 2015–16 El Niño generated a +2.5 °C sea surface temperature anomaly in the Galapagos Islands lasting six months. This coincided with a novel ulcerative skin disease affecting 18 teleost species from 13 different families. Disease signs included scale loss and...

Registration Year

  • 2018
    14

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    14

Affiliations

  • Brown University
    14
  • University of Arizona
    2
  • Yale University
    2
  • Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
    2
  • University of Montana
    1
  • Princeton University
    1
  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
    1
  • University of Rhode Island
    1
  • Fudan University
    1
  • Roger Williams University
    1