12 Works

Data from: Optimizing Coastal Restoration with the Stress Gradient Hypothesis

Hallie Fischman, Sinead M. Crotty & Christine Angelini
Restoration efforts have been escalating worldwide in response to widespread habitat degradation. However, coastal restoration attempts notoriously vary in their ability to establish resilient, high-functioning ecosystems. Conventional restoration attempts disperse transplants in competition-minimizing arrays, yet recent studies suggest that clumping transplants to maximize facilitative, intraspecific interactions improves restoration success. Here, we modify the Stress Gradient Hypothesis to generate predictions about where each restoration design will perform best across environmental stress gradients. We then test the...

Trophic rewilding revives biotic resistance to shrub invasion

Jennifer Guyton, Johan Pansu, Tyler Kartzinel, Tyler Coverdale, Arjun Potter, Joshua Daskin, Matthew Hutchinson, Ana Gledis Da Conceição, Mike Peel, Marc Stalmans & Robert Pringle
Trophic rewilding seeks to rehabilitate degraded ecosystems by repopulating them with large animals, thereby reestablishing strong top-down interactions. Yet there are vanishingly few tests of whether such initiatives can restore ecosystem structure and functions, and on what timescales. Here we show that war-induced collapse of large-mammal populations in Mozambique’s Gorongosa National Park exacerbated woody encroachment by the invasive shrub Mimosa pigra—one of the world’s ‘100 worst’ invasive species—and that one decade of concerted trophic rewilding...

Dual function of epaxial musculature for swimming and suction feeding in largemouth bass

Yordano Jimenez & Elizabeth Brainerd
The axial musculature of many fishes generates the power for both swimming and suction feeding. In the case of the epaxial musculature, unilateral activation bends the body laterally for swimming, and bilateral activation bends the body dorsally to elevate the neurocranium for suction feeding. But how does a single muscle group effectively power these two distinct behaviors? Prior electromyographic (EMG) studies have identified fishes’ ability to activate dorsal and ventral epaxial regions independently, but no...

Optimizing Coastal Restoration with the Stress Gradient Hypothesis

Hallie S Fischman, Sinead M Crotty & Christine Angelini
Restoration efforts have been escalating worldwide in response to widespread habitat degradation. However, coastal restoration attempts notoriously vary in their ability to establish resilient, high-functioning ecosystems. Conventional restoration attempts disperse transplants in competition-minimizing arrays, yet recent studies suggest that clumping transplants to maximize facilitative interactions may improve restoration success. Here, we modify the Stress Gradient Hypothesis to generate predictions about where each restoration design will perform best across environmental stress gradients. We then test this...

Data from: Covariation of diet and gut microbiome in African megafauna

Tyler R. Kartzinel, Julianna C. Hsing, Paul M. Musili, Bianca R. P. Brown & Robert M. Pringle
A major challenge in biology is to understand how phylogeny, diet, and environment shape the mammalian gut microbiome. Yet most studies of non-human microbiomes have relied on relatively coarse dietary categorizations and have focused either on individual wild populations or on captive animals that are sheltered from environmental pressures, which may obscure the effects of dietary and environmental variation on microbiome composition in diverse natural communities. We analyzed plant and bacterial DNA in fecal samples...

Data from: The prevalence of MS in the United States: a population-based estimate using health claims data

Mitchell T. Wallin, William J. Culpepper, Jonathan D. Campbell, Lorene M. Nelson, Annette Langer-Gould, Ruth Ann Marrie, Gary R. Cutter, Wendy E. Kaye, Laurie Wagner, Helen Tremlett, Stephen L. Buka, Piyameth Dilokthornsakul, Barbara Topol, Lie H. Chen & Nicholas G. LaRocca
Objective: To generate a national multiple sclerosis (MS) prevalence estimate for the United States by applying a validated algorithm to multiple administrative health claims (AHC) datasets. Methods: A validated algorithm was applied to private, military, and public AHC datasets to identify adult cases of MS between 2008 and 2010. In each dataset, we determined the 3-year cumulative prevalence overall and stratified by age, sex, and census region. We applied insurance-specific and stratum-specific estimates to the...

Data from: Statistical context dictates the relationship between feedback-related EEG signals and learning

Matthew R. Nassar, Rasmus Bruckner & Michael J. Frank
Learning should be adjusted according to the surprise associated with observed outcomes but calibrated according to statistical context. For example, when occasional changepoints are expected, surprising outcomes should be weighted heavily to speed learning. In contrast, when uninformative outliers are expected to occur occasionally, surprising outcomes should be less influential. Here we dissociate surprising outcomes from the degree to which they demand learning using a predictive inference task and computational modeling. We show that the...

Data from: Small RNAs in rat sperm are a predictive and sensitive biomarker of exposure to the testicular toxicant ethylene glycol monomethyl ether.

Angela R. Stermer, Gerardo Reyes, Susan J. Hall & Kim Boekelheide
Testicular histology and semen parameters are considered the gold standards when determining male reproductive toxicity. Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) is a testicular toxicant with well-described effects on histopathology and sperm parameters. To compare the predictivity and sensitivity of molecular biomarkers of testicular toxicity to the traditional endpoints, small RNAs in the sperm were analyzed by next generation RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). Adult rats were exposed to 0, 50, 60, or 75 mg/kg EGME by oral gavage...

Data from: A new way to estimate neurologic disease prevalence in the United States

Lorene M. Nelson, Mitchell T. Wallin, Ruth Ann Marrie, W.J. Culpepper, Annette Langer-Gould, Jon Campbell, Stephen Buka, Helen Tremlett, Gary Cutter, Wendy Kaye, Laurie Wagner & Nicholas G. Larocca
Objective: Considerable gaps exist in knowledge regarding the prevalence of neurologic diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), in the United States. Therefore, the MS Prevalence Working Group sought to review and evaluate alternative methods for obtaining a scientifically valid estimate of national MS prevalence in the current health care era. Methods: We carried out a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis for 3 approaches to estimate MS prevalence: population-based MS registries, national probability health...

Consumer mobility predicts impacts of herbivory across a wave stress gradient

Robert Lamb, Franz Smith & Jon Witman
Environmental stress impedes predation and herbivory by limiting the ability of animals to search for and consume prey. We tested the contingency of this relationship on consumer traits, and specifically hypothesized that herbivore mobility relative to the return time of limiting environmental stress would predict consumer effects. We examined how wave-induced water motion affects marine communities via herbivory by highly mobile (fish) versus slow moving (pencil urchin) consumers at two wave-sheltered and two wave-exposed rocky...

Data from: Polygenic adaptation on height is overestimated due to uncorrected stratification in genome-wide association studies

Mashaal Sohail, Robert M. Maier, Andrea Ganna, Alex Bloemendal, Alicia R. Martin, Michael C. Turchin, Charleston W. K. Chang, Joel Hirschhorn, Mark J. Daly, Nick Patterson, Benjamin Neale, Iain Mathieson, David Reich & Shamil R. Sunyaev
Genetic predictions of height differ among human populations and these differences have been interpreted as evidence of polygenic adaptation. These differences were first detected using SNPs genome-wide significantly associated with height, and shown to grow stronger when large numbers of sub-significant SNPs were included, leading to excitement about the prospect of analyzing large fractions of the genome to detect polygenic adaptation for multiple traits. Previous studies of height have been based on SNP effect size...

Data from: Do latex and resin canals spur plant diversification? re-examining a classic example of escape and radiate coevolution

Michael R. Foisy, Loren P. Albert, Daniel W.W. Hughes & Marjorie G. Weber
(1) The association between increased lineage diversification rates and the evolution of latex and resin canals is widely cited as a paradigmatic example of Ehrlich and Raven’s “escape-and-radiate” hypothesis of coevolution. However, it has been over a quarter-century since the original study, and updates to phylogenetic comparative methods, plant molecular systematics, and phenotypic data warrant a reassessment of this classic finding. (2) We gathered data on latex and resin canals across over 300 families and...

Registration Year

  • 2019
    12

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    12

Affiliations

  • Brown University
    12
  • University of Alabama at Birmingham
    2
  • Stanford University
    2
  • Princeton University
    2
  • University of Manitoba
    2
  • University of Florida
    2
  • University of British Columbia
    2
  • University of Maryland, Baltimore
    2
  • University of Pennsylvania
    1
  • Stanford University School of Medicine
    1