14 Works

Data from: Nonnative old-field species inhabit early-season phenological niches and exhibit unique sensitivity to climate

Rachel Reeb, Isabel Acevedo, Mason Heberling & Sara Kuebbing
Native and nonnative plant species can exhibit differences in the timing of their reproductive phenology as well as their phenological sensitivity to climate. These contrasts may influence species’ interactions and the invasion potential of nonnative species; however, a limited number of phenology studies expressly consider phenological mismatches among native and nonnative species over broad spatial or temporal scales. To fill this knowledge gap, we used two complementary approaches: first, we quantified the flowering phenology of...

Tracking the Near East origins and European dispersal of the house mouse

Thomas CUCCHI, Katerina Papayianni, Sophie Cersoy, Laetitia Aznar-Cormano, Antoine Zazzo, Régis Debruyne, Rémi Berthon, Adrian Bălășescu, Alan Simmons, François Valla, Yannis Hamilakis, Fanis Mavridis, Marjan Mashkour, Jamshid Darvish, Roohollah Siahsarvi, Fereidoun Biglari, Cameron A. Petrie, Lloyd Weeks, Alireza Sardari, Sepideh Maziar, Christiane Denys, David Orton, Emma Jenkins, Melinda Zeder, Jeremy B. Searle … & Jean-Denis Vigne
The house mouse (Mus musculus) is one of the most invasive mammals and an evolutionary model. However, the timing and components of its origin and dispersal remain poorly documented. To track its synanthropisation and subsequent biological invasion during the develoment of complex human societies, we analyzed 829 Mus specimens from 43 archaeological contexts in Southwestern Asia and Southeastern Europe, dating between 40,000 and 3,000 cal. BP, combining geometric morphometris numerical taxonomy with ancient mitochondrial DNA...

Topological structure and dynamics of three-dimensional active nematics

Guillaume Duclos, Thomas Powers, Aparna Baskaran, Zvonimir Dogic, Vincenzo Vitelli, Federico Toschi, Raymond Adkins, Debarghya Banerjee, Matthew Peterson, Minu Varghese, Itamar Kolvin, Robert Pelcovits, Sebastian Streichan, Daniel Beller, Arvind Baskaran, Michael Hagan, Matthew S. E. Peterson, Robert A. Pelcovits, Thomas R. Powers, Michael F. Hagan & Sebastian J. Streichan
Topological structures are effective descriptors of the nonequilibrium dynamics of diverse many-body systems. For example, motile, point-like topological defects capture the salient features of two-dimensional active liquid crystals composed of energy-consuming anisotropic units. We dispersed force-generating microtubule bundles in a passive colloidal liquid crystal to form a three-dimensional active nematic. Light-sheet microscopy revealed the temporal evolution of the millimeter-scale structure of these active nematics with single-bundle resolution. The primary topological excitations are extended, charge-neutral disclination...

Data for: A coordinate-system-independent method for comparing joint rotational mobilities

Armita Razieh Manafzadeh & Stephen Miles Gatesy
Three-dimensional studies of range of motion currently plot joint poses in an "Euler space" whose axes are angles measured in the joint's three rotational degrees of freedom. Researchers then compute the volume of a pose cloud to measure rotational mobility. However, pairs of poses that are equally different from one another in orientation are not always plotted equally far apart in Euler space. This distortion causes a single joint's mobility to change when measured based...

The bite force-gape relationship as an avenue of biomechanical adaptation to trophic niche in two salmonid fishes

Elska B. Kaczmarek & Nicholas J. Gidmark
All skeletal muscles produce their largest forces at a single optimal length, losing force when stretched or shortened. In vertebrate feeding systems, this fundamental force-length relationship translates to variation in bite force across gape, which affects the food types that can be eaten effectively. We measured the bite force-gape curves of two sympatric species: king salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and pink salmon (O. gorbuscha). Cranial anatomical measurements are not significantly different between species, however, peak bite...

Analysis of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) titers of recovered COVID-19 patients

Jeffrey Gold, William Baumgartl, Ramazan Okyay, Warren Licht, Paul Fidel, Mairi Noverr, Larry Tilley, David Hurley, Balázs Rada & John Ashford
The measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine has been theorized to provide protection against COVID-19. Our aim was to determine whether any MMR IgG titers are inversely correlated with severity in recovered COVID-19 patients previously vaccinated with MMR II. We divided 80 subjects into two groups, comparing MMR titers to recent COVID-19 severity. The MMR II group consisted of 50 subjects who would primarily have MMR antibodies from the MMR II vaccine, and a comparison group of 30...

Brown University Carpal Dataset

Bardiya Akhbari, Joseph J Crisco, Doublas C Moore, David H Laidlaw, Edward Akelman, Arnold-Peter C Weiss & Scott W Wolfe
This packaged folder contains the carpal bone anatomy for 120 wrists along with the calculated motion of the carpal bones in various postures. This version also contains the predictive quadratic surface model and the graphic user interface (GUI) that enables the user to observe the dataset. CT images of wrists from 90 healthy volunteers (43 males and 47 females) were acquired in various wrist positions. The outer cortical surfaces of the carpal bones, radius, and...

Role of endogenous and exogenous attention in task-relevant visual perceptual learning

Kieu N. Nguyen, Takeo Watanabe & George J. Andersen
The present study examined the role of exogenous and endogenous attention in task relevant visual perceptual learning (TR-VPL). VPL performance was assessed by examining the learning to a trained stimulus feature and transfer of learning to an untrained stimulus feature. To assess the differential role of attention in VPL, two types of attentional cues were manipulated; exogenous and endogenous. In order to assess the effectiveness of the attentional cue, the two types of attentional cues...

Data from: Drought and soil nutrients effects on symbiotic nitrogen fixation in seedlings from eight Neotropical legume species

Lindsay McCulloch, Daniel Piotto & Stephen Porder
Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is a dominant source of nitrogen to many terrestrial ecosystems, and thus may influence their responses to global change. High legume species diversity and abundance are thought to lead to high rates of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in Neotropical forests. However, how changes in water and nutrient availability will affect symbiotic nitrogen fixation have only recently been explored, even as droughts begin to increase in severity and frequency in the Neotropics. To explore...

The hidden costs of dietary restriction: implications for its evolutionary and mechanistic origins

Andrew W McCracken, Gracie Adams, Laura Hartshorne, Marc Tatar & Mirre J. P. Simons
Dietary restriction (DR) extends life span across taxa. Despite considerable research, universal mechanisms of DR have not been identified, limiting its translational potential. Guided by the conviction that DR evolved as an adaptive, pro-longevity physiological response to food scarcity, biomedical science has interpreted DR as an activator of pro-longevity molecular pathways. Current evolutionary theory predicts that organisms invest in their soma during DR, and thus when resource availability improves, should outcompete rich-fed controls in survival...

Multiple dimensions of dietary diversity in large mammalian herbivores

Tyler Kartzinel & Robert Pringle
Theory predicts that trophic specialization (i.e., low dietary diversity) should make consumer populations sensitive to environmental disturbances, yet diagnosing specialists is complicated both by the difficulty of precisely quantifying diet composition and by definitional ambiguity—what makes a diet ‘diverse’? We sought to characterize the relationship between taxonomic dietary diversity (TDD) and phylogenetic dietary diversity (PDD) in a species-rich community of large mammalian herbivores in semi-arid East African savanna. We hypothesized that TDD and PDD would...

Depth dependent azimuthal anisotropy beneath the Juan de Fuca plate system

Zachary Eilon & Donald Forsyth
We use surface wave measurements to reveal anisotropy as a function of depth within the Juan de Fuca and Gorda plate system. Using a two-plane wave method, we measure phase velocity and azimuthal anisotropy of fundamental mode Rayleigh waves, solving for anisotropic shear velocity. These surface wave measurements are jointly inverted with constraints from shear wave splitting studies using a Markov chain approach.

Data from: Dietary shifts in a group of early Eocene euarchontans (Microsyopidae) in association with climatic change

Keegan Selig, Amy Chew & Mary Silcox
The Microsyopidae, a family of plesiadapiforms known from over 1,500 stratigraphically controlled specimens from the southern Bighorn Basin of Wyoming, span the first three million years of the early Eocene. The early Eocene is characterized by rapid fluctuations in climate during the period represented by this collection of microsyopids, making this an ideal sample to examine how climate influenced early stem primate biology, particularly dietary ecology. An evolving lineage of microsyopine microsyopids is known from...

The extensibility of the plantar fascia influences the windlass mechanism during human running

Lauren Welte, Luke Kelly, Sarah Kessler, Daniel Lieberman, Susan D'Andrea, Glen Lichtwark & Michael Rainbow
The arch of the human foot is unique among hominins as it is compliant at ground-contact but sufficiently stiff to enable push-off. These behaviours are partly facilitated by the ligamentous plantar fascia whose role is central to two mechanisms. The ideal windlass mechanism assumes that the plantar fascia has a nearly constant length to directly couple toe dorsiflexion with a change in arch shape. However, the plantar fascia also stretches and then shortens throughout gait...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    14

Resource Types

  • Dataset
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Affiliations

  • Brown University
    14
  • University of California, Santa Barbara
    2
  • Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self Organization
    1
  • Federal University of Southern Bahia
    1
  • University of California, Merced
    1
  • Stanford University
    1
  • Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
    1
  • Princeton University
    1
  • Laboratoire des sciences de l'ingénieur de l'informatique et de l'imagerie
    1
  • Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier
    1