61 Works

Ignorance is not bliss: Evolutionary naïveté in an endangered desert fish and implications for conservation

Craig Stockwell, Craig Stockwell, Madison Schmelzer, Bailey Gillis, Cody Anderson & Brian Wisenden
Predator naïveté has been invoked to explain the impacts of non-native predators on isolated populations that evolved with limited predation. Such impacts have been repeatedly observed for the endangered Pahrump Poolfish, Empetrichthys latos, a desert species that evolved in isolation since the end of the Pleistocene. We tested poolfish anti-predator responses to conspecific chemical alarm cues released from damaged epithelial tissue in terms of reduction in fish activity and movement out of the water column....

Data from: Soil conditioning affects interactions between native and invasive exotic perennials of semi-natural grasslands

Stefanie N. Vink, Nicholas R. Jordan, Laura Aldrich-Wolfe, Sheri C. Huerd, Craig C. Sheaffer & Linda L. Kinkel
1. Semi–natural perennial grasslands are of increasing importance as components of multifunctional agroecosystems, combining biomass production with provision of other ecosystem services. Soil legacies from previous land use or exotic species can hinder their establishment, but might be overcome through a multi–stage successional strategy, whereby certain species are used to facilitate native grassland species establishment. We tested this strategy via a feedback experiment examining soil conditioning effects on interference interactions between native and exotic species....

Data from: Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of Phaeosphaeria nodorum and its close relatives indicate cryptic species and an origin in the Fertile Crescent

Megan C. McDonald, Mohammad Razavi, Timothy L. Friesen, Patrick C. Brunner & Bruce A. McDonald
The origin of the fungal wheat pathogen Phaeosphaeria nodorum remains unclear despite earlier intensive global population genetic and phylogeographical studies. We sequenced 1,683 bp distributed across three loci in 355 globally distributed Phaeosphaeria isolates, including 74 collected in Iran near the center of origin of wheat. We identified nine phylogenetically distinct clades, including two previously unknown species tentatively named P1 and P2 collected in Iran. Coalescent analysis indicates that P1 and P2 are sister species...

Data from: Seasonally sympatric but allochronic: differential expression of hypothalamic genes in a songbird during gonadal development

Carolyn M. Bauer, Adam M. Fudickar, Skylar Anderson-Buckingham, Mikus Abolins-Abols, Jonathan W. Atwell, Ellen D. Ketterson & Timothy J. Greives
Allochrony, the mismatch of reproductive schedules, is one mechanism that can mediate sympatric speciation and diversification. In songbirds, the transition into breeding condition and gonadal growth is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis at multiple levels. We investigated whether the difference in reproductive timing between two, seasonally sympatric subspecies of dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis) was related to gene expression along the HPG axis. During the sympatric pre-breeding stage, we measured hypothalamic and testicular mRNA expression...

Data from: Aphid symbionts and endogenous resistance traits mediate competition between rival parasitoids

Laura J. Kraft, James Kopco, Jason P. Harmon & Kerry M. Oliver
Insects use endogenous mechanisms and infection with protective symbionts to thwart attacks from natural enemies. Defenses that target specific enemies, however, potentially mediate competition between rivals and thereby impact community composition. Following its introduction to North America to control pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum), the parasitoid Aphidius ervi competitively displaced other parasitoids, except for the native Praon pequodorum. The pea aphid exhibits tremendous clonal variation in resistance to A. ervi, primarily through infection with the heritable...

Data from: Early breeding females experience greater telomere loss

Jessica L. Graham, Carolyn M. Bauer, Britt J. Heidinger, Ellen D. Ketterson & Timothy J. Greives
Annual reproductive success is often highest in individuals that initiate breeding early, yet relatively few individuals start breeding during this apparently optimal time. This suggests that individuals, particularly females who ultimately dictate when offspring are born, incur costs by initiating reproduction early in the season. We hypothesized that increases in the aging rate of somatic cells may be one such cost. Telomeres, the repetitive DNA sequences on the ends of chromosomes, may be good proxies...

Effects of back‐mounted biologgers on condition, diving and flight performance in a breeding seabird

Tom J. Evans, Rebecca C. Young, Hannah Watson, Olof Olsson & Susanne Åkesson
Biologging devices are providing detailed insights into the behaviour and movement of animals in their natural environments. It is usually assumed that this method of gathering data does not impact on the behaviour observed. However, potential negative effects on birds have rarely been investigated before field‐based studies are initiated. Seabirds which both fly and use pursuit diving may be particularly sensitive to increases in drag and load resulting from carrying biologging devices. We studied chick‐rearing...

Data from: Landscape genetics reveal broad and fine‐scale population structure due to landscape features and climate history in the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) in North Dakota

Justin M. Waraniak, Justin D. L. Fisher, Kevin Purcell, David M. Mushet & Craig A. Stockwell
Prehistoric climate and landscape features play large roles structuring wildlife populations. The amphibians of the northern Great Plains of North America present an opportunity to investigate how these factors affect colonization, migration, and current population genetic structure. This study used 11 microsatellite loci to genotype 1230 northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) from 41 wetlands (30 samples/wetland) across North Dakota. Genetic structure of the sampled frogs was evaluated using Bayesian and multivariate clustering methods. All analyses...

Data from: The geometric framework for nutrition reveals interactions between protein and carbohydrate during larval growth in honey bees

Bryan R. Helm, Garett P. Slater, Arun Rajamohan, George D. Yocum, Kendra J. Greenlee & Julia H. Bowsher
In holometabolous insects, larval nutrition affects adult body size, a life history trait with a profound influence on performance and fitness. Individual nutritional components of larval diets are often complex and may interact with one another, necessitating the use of a geometric framework for elucidating nutritional effects. In the honey bee, Apis mellifera, nurse bees provision food to developing larvae, directly moderating growth rates and caste development. However, the eusocial nature of honey bees makes...

Data from: Early to rise, early to breed: a role for daily rhythms in seasonal reproduction

Jessica L. Graham, Natalie J. Cook, Katie B. Needham, Michaela Hau & Timothy J. Greives
Vertebrates use environmental cues to time reproduction to optimal breeding conditions. Numerous laboratory studies have revealed that light experienced during a critical window of the circadian (daily) rhythm can influence reproductive physiology. However, whether these relationships observed in captivity hold true under natural conditions and how they relate to observed variation in timing of reproductive output remains largely unexplored. Here we test the hypothesis that individual variation in daily timing recorded in nature (i.e. chronotype)...

Data from: A pre-breeding immune challenge delays reproduction in the female dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis)

Katie B. Needham, Natalie J. Cook, Alexa R. Rutherford & Timothy J. Greives
Precise timing of life-history transitions in predictably changing environments is hypothesized to aid in individual survival and reproductive success, by appropriately matching an animal's physiology and behavior with prevailing environmental conditions. Therefore, it is imperative for individuals to time energetically costly life-history stages (i.e. reproduction) so they overlap with seasonal peaks in food abundance and quality. Female lifetime reproductive fitness is affected by several factors that influence energy balance, including arrival date, timing of egg...

Data from: Effect of pyric herbivory on source-sink dynamics in grassland birds

Craig A. Davis, Roy T. Churchwell, Samuel D. Fuhlendorf, David M. Engle & Torre J. Hovick
Grasslands world-wide provide a host of ecosystem services. In particular, these grasslands serve as biodiversity repositories for a myriad of imperilled animal species. One such group is grassland birds, which have experienced significant declines, predominantly caused by extensive loss and degradation of native grasslands. Rangeland management that promotes increasing and sustaining livestock production through reducing the inherent, disturbance-driven variability that historically occurred in grasslands is considered a major contributing factor to these declines. An alternative...

Data from: Specificity of multi-modal aphid defenses against two rival parasitoids

Adam J. Martinez, Kyungsun L. Kim, Jason P. Harmon & Kerry M. Oliver
Insects are often attacked by multiple natural enemies, imposing dynamic selective pressures for the development and maintenance of enemy-specific resistance. Pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) have emerged as models for the study of variation in resistance against natural enemies, including parasitoid wasps. Internal defenses against their most common parasitoid wasp, Aphidius ervi, are sourced through two known mechanisms– 1) endogenously encoded resistance or 2) infection with the heritable bacterial symbiont, Hamiltonella defensa. Levels of resistance can...

Microclimate temperatures impact nesting preference in Megachile rotundata

Elisabeth Wilson, Claire Murphy, Joseph Rinehart, George Yocum & Julia Bowsher
The temperature of the nest influences fitness in cavity-nesting bees. Females may choose 14 nest cavities that mitigate their offspring’s exposure to stressful temperatures. This study aims to 15 understand how cavity temperature impacts the nesting preference of the solitary bee Megachile 16 rotundata under field conditions. We designed and 3D printed nest boxes that measured the 17 temperatures of 432 cavities. Nest boxes were four-sided with cavity entrances facing northeast, 18 northwest, southeast, and...

Data from: Patterns of intraspecific variation through ontogeny–a case study of the Cretaceous nautilid Eutrephoceras dekayi and modern Nautilus pompilius

Amane Tajika, Neil Landman, Naoki Morimoto, Kenji Ikuno & Tom Linn
The magnitude and ontogenetic patterns of intraspecific variation can provide important insights into the evolution and development of organisms. Understanding the intraspecific variation of organisms is a key to correctly pursuing studies in major fields of palaeontology. However, intraspecific variation has been largely overlooked in ectocochleate cephalopods, particularly nautilids. Furthermore, little is known regarding the evolutionary pattern. Here, we present morphological data for the Cretaceous nautilid Eutrephoceras dekayi (Morton, 1834) and the modern nautilid Nautilus...

Data from: Thermal history of alfalfa leafcutting bees affects nesting and diapause incidence

Kayla Earls, Kendra Greenlee, Monique Porter & Joseph Rinehart
Variable spring temperatures may expose developing insects to sublethal conditions, resulting in long-term consequences. The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata, overwinters as a prepupa inside a brood cell, resuming development in spring. During these immobile stages of development, bees must tolerate unfavourable temperatures. In this study, we test how exposure to low temperature stress during development affects subsequent reproduction and characteristics of the F1 generation. Developing male and female M. rotundata were exposed to either...

Possibility of bridge inspection through drive-by vehicles

Mijia Yang & Chang Liu
Based on virtual simulations of vehicle-bridge interactions, the possibility of detecting stiffness reduction damages in bridges through vehicle responses has been tested in two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) settings. Short Time Fourier Transformation (STFT) has been used to process the acceleration data of vehicles. The energy band variation was found strongly related to damage parameters. More important, initial entering conditions of vehicles are critical in obtaining vehicle responses through the vehicle bridge interaction...

Megachile rotundata overwintering nCounter gene expression

Lizzette Cambron, George Yocum, Kathleen Yeater & Kendra Greenlee
Within the United States and Canada, the primary pollinator of alfalfa is the alfalfa leafcutting bee (ALCB), Megachile rotundata. Our previous findings showed that overwintering conditions impacted gene expression profile in ALCB prepupae that entered diapause early in the season. However, ALCB are a bivoltine species, which begs the question of whether bees entering diapause later in the season also show this trend. To better understand the effects of the timing of diapause initiation, we...

Spatially discrete disturbance processes enhance grassland floral resources

Cameron Duquette, Torre Hovick, Benjamin Geaumont, Jason Harmon, Ryan Limb & Kevin Sedivec
Grasslands provide essential floral resources for both managed and wild pollinators. However, grassland flowers in remaining native landscapes are threatened due to nonnative plant invasions and alterations to historic disturbance regimes such as fire and grazing. The potential for managed disturbance to promote grassland floral resources remains unclear. Fire and grazing historically occurred interactively, but uniform application of each may be a detriment to floral resources and the pollinators depending on them. Though fire can...

The probability of being infected with haemosporidian parasites increases with host age

Samuel Slowinski, Aidan Geissler, Nicole Gerlach, Britt Heidinger & Ellen Ketterson
In vertebrates, disease susceptibility often varies with age. Older individuals may be more susceptible than younger individuals due to senescent declines in immune function. Alternatively, disease susceptibility may decrease with age if older individuals are more likely to have had prior exposures to parasites and acquired adaptive immune responses that allowed them to resist future infections. Disease susceptibility can also vary with reproductive state, and reproductive hormones have been shown to increase infection susceptibility. Here...

The tepary bean genome provides insight into evolution and domestication under heat stress

Samira Mafi Moghaddam, Atena Oladzad, Chu Shin Koh, Larissa Ramsay, John Hart, Sujan Mamidi, Genevieve Hoopes, Avinash Sreedasyam, Andrew Wiersma, Dongyan Zhao, Jane Grimwood, John P. Hamilton, Jerry Jenkins, Brieanne Vaillancourt, Joshua C. Wood, Jeremy Schmutz, Sateesh Kahale, Tiomothy Porch, Kirstin E. Bett, C. Robin Buell & Phillip E. McClean
Tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolis A. Gray), native to the Sonoran Desert, is highly adapted to heat and drought. It is a sister species of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), the most important legume protein source for direct human consumption, and whose production is threatened by climate change. Analysis of the tepary genome revealed mechanisms for resilience to moderate heat stress and a reduced disease resistance gene repertoire, consistent with adaptation to arid, hot environments. Extensive...

Diet quantity influences caste determination in honey bees (Apis mellifera)

Julia Bowsher, Garett Slater & George Yocum
In species that care for their young, provisioning has profound effects on offspring fitness. Provisioning is important in honey bees because nutritional cues determine whether a female becomes a reproductive queen or sterile worker. A qualitative difference between the larval diets of queens and workers is thought to drive this divergence; however, no single compound seems to be responsible. Diet quantity may have a role during honey bee caste determination yet has never been formally...

The effects of body mass on immune cell concentrations of terrestrial mammals

Cynthia J. Downs, Ned A. Dochtermann, Ray Ball, Kirk C. Klasing & Lynn B. Martin
Theory predicts that body mass should affect the way organisms evolve and use immune defenses. We investigated the relationship between body mass and blood neutrophil and lymphocyte concentrations among 250+ terrestrial mammalian species. We tested whether existing theories (e.g., Protecton Theory, immune system complexity, and rate of metabolism) accurately predicted the scaling of immune cell concentrations. We also evaluated the predictive power of body mass for these leukocyte concentrations compared to sociality, diet, life history,...

Collision between biological process and statistical analysis revealed by mean-centering

David Westneat, Yimen Araya-Ajoy, Hassen Allegue, Barbara Class, Niels Dingemanse, Ned Dochtermann, Laszlo Garamszegi, Julien Martin, Shinichi Nakagawa, Denis Reale & Holger Schielzeth
1. Animal ecologists often collect hierarchically-structured data and analyze these with linear mixed-effects models. Specific complications arise when the effect sizes of covariates vary on multiple levels (e.g., within vs among subjects). Mean-centering of covariates within subjects offers a useful approach in such situations, but is not without problems. 2. A statistical model represents a hypothesis about the underlying biological process. Mean-centering within clusters assumes that the lower level responses (e.g. within subjects) depend on...

Anoxia hormesis in cactus moth

Giancarlo Lopez-Martinez & Daniel Hahn
As part of Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programs, irradiation can effectively induce sterility in insects by damaging germline genomic DNA. However, irradiation also induces other off-target side effects that reduce the quality and performance of sterilized males, including the formation of damaging free radicals that can reduce sterile male performance. Thus, treatments that reduce off-target effects of irradiation on male performance while maintaining sterility can improve the feasibility and economy of SIT programs. We previously...

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Affiliations

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