67 Works

Data from: Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of Phaeosphaeria nodorum and its close relatives indicate cryptic species and an origin in the Fertile Crescent

Megan C. McDonald, Mohammad Razavi, Timothy L. Friesen, Patrick C. Brunner & Bruce A. McDonald
The origin of the fungal wheat pathogen Phaeosphaeria nodorum remains unclear despite earlier intensive global population genetic and phylogeographical studies. We sequenced 1,683 bp distributed across three loci in 355 globally distributed Phaeosphaeria isolates, including 74 collected in Iran near the center of origin of wheat. We identified nine phylogenetically distinct clades, including two previously unknown species tentatively named P1 and P2 collected in Iran. Coalescent analysis indicates that P1 and P2 are sister species...

Data from: Aphid symbionts and endogenous resistance traits mediate competition between rival parasitoids

Laura J. Kraft, James Kopco, Jason P. Harmon & Kerry M. Oliver
Insects use endogenous mechanisms and infection with protective symbionts to thwart attacks from natural enemies. Defenses that target specific enemies, however, potentially mediate competition between rivals and thereby impact community composition. Following its introduction to North America to control pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum), the parasitoid Aphidius ervi competitively displaced other parasitoids, except for the native Praon pequodorum. The pea aphid exhibits tremendous clonal variation in resistance to A. ervi, primarily through infection with the heritable...

Data from: Soil conditioning affects interactions between native and invasive exotic perennials of semi-natural grasslands

Stefanie N. Vink, Nicholas R. Jordan, Laura Aldrich-Wolfe, Sheri C. Huerd, Craig C. Sheaffer & Linda L. Kinkel
1. Semi–natural perennial grasslands are of increasing importance as components of multifunctional agroecosystems, combining biomass production with provision of other ecosystem services. Soil legacies from previous land use or exotic species can hinder their establishment, but might be overcome through a multi–stage successional strategy, whereby certain species are used to facilitate native grassland species establishment. We tested this strategy via a feedback experiment examining soil conditioning effects on interference interactions between native and exotic species....

Data from: Seasonally sympatric but allochronic: differential expression of hypothalamic genes in a songbird during gonadal development

Carolyn M. Bauer, Adam M. Fudickar, Skylar Anderson-Buckingham, Mikus Abolins-Abols, Jonathan W. Atwell, Ellen D. Ketterson & Timothy J. Greives
Allochrony, the mismatch of reproductive schedules, is one mechanism that can mediate sympatric speciation and diversification. In songbirds, the transition into breeding condition and gonadal growth is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis at multiple levels. We investigated whether the difference in reproductive timing between two, seasonally sympatric subspecies of dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis) was related to gene expression along the HPG axis. During the sympatric pre-breeding stage, we measured hypothalamic and testicular mRNA expression...

Data from: Early breeding females experience greater telomere loss

Jessica L. Graham, Carolyn M. Bauer, Britt J. Heidinger, Ellen D. Ketterson & Timothy J. Greives
Annual reproductive success is often highest in individuals that initiate breeding early, yet relatively few individuals start breeding during this apparently optimal time. This suggests that individuals, particularly females who ultimately dictate when offspring are born, incur costs by initiating reproduction early in the season. We hypothesized that increases in the aging rate of somatic cells may be one such cost. Telomeres, the repetitive DNA sequences on the ends of chromosomes, may be good proxies...

Effects of back‐mounted biologgers on condition, diving and flight performance in a breeding seabird

Tom J. Evans, Rebecca C. Young, Hannah Watson, Olof Olsson & Susanne Åkesson
Biologging devices are providing detailed insights into the behaviour and movement of animals in their natural environments. It is usually assumed that this method of gathering data does not impact on the behaviour observed. However, potential negative effects on birds have rarely been investigated before field‐based studies are initiated. Seabirds which both fly and use pursuit diving may be particularly sensitive to increases in drag and load resulting from carrying biologging devices. We studied chick‐rearing...

Ignorance is not bliss: Evolutionary naïveté in an endangered desert fish and implications for conservation

Craig Stockwell, Craig Stockwell, Madison Schmelzer, Bailey Gillis, Cody Anderson & Brian Wisenden
Predator naiveté has been invoked to explain the impacts of non-native predators on isolated populations that evolved with limited predation. Such impacts have been repeatedly observed for the endangered Pahrump poolfish, Empetrichthys latos, a desert fish species that evolved in isolation since the end of the Pleistocene. We tested Pahrump poolfish anti-predator responses to conspecific chemical alarm cues released from damaged epidermal tissue in terms of fish activity and water column position. Pahrump poolfish behavioural...

Reduced representation sequencing to understand the evolutionary history of Torrey pine (Pinus torreyana Parry) with implications for rare species conservation

Lionel Di Santo, Sean Hoban, Thomas Parchman, Jessica Wright & Jill Hamilton
Understanding the contribution of neutral and adaptive evolutionary processes to population differences is often necessary for better-informed management and conservation of rare species. In this study, we focused on Pinus torreyana Parry (Torrey pine), one of the world’s rarest pines, endemic to one island and one mainland population in California. Small population size, low genetic diversity, and susceptibility to abiotic and biotic stresses suggest Torrey pine may benefit from inter-population genetic rescue to preserve the...

Effects of temperature and wildflowers on survival and macronutrient stores of the alfalfa leafcutting bee under extended cold storage

Mia Park, Casey Delphia, Cassandra Prince, George Yocum, Joseph Rinehart, Kevin O'Neill, Laura Burkle, Julia Bowsher & Kendra Greenlee
Megachile rotundata (F.) is an important pollinator of alfalfa in the United States. Enhancing landscapes with wildflowers is a primary strategy for conserving pollinators and may improve sustainability of M. rotundata. Changing cold storage temperatures from a traditionally static thermal regime (STR) to a fluctuating thermal regime (FTR) improves overwintering success and extends M. rotundata’s shelf life and pollination window. Whether floral resources enhance overwintering survival and/or interact with thermal regime are unknown. With these...

Data from: Deciphering the evolutionary history and developmental mechanisms of a complex sexual ornament: the abdominal appendages of Sepsidae (Diptera)

Julia H. Bowsher, Yuchen Ang, Tanner Ferderer & Rudolf Meier
Male abdomen appendages are a novel trait found within Sepsidae (Diptera). Here we demonstrate that they are likely to have evolved once, were lost three times, and then secondarily gained in one lineage. The developmental basis of these appendages was investigated by counting the number of histoblast cells in each abdominal segment in four species: two that represented the initial instance of appendage evolution, one that has secondarily gained appendages, and one species that did...

Data from: Restoring fire to grasslands is critical for migrating shorebird populations

Torre J. Hovick, J. Matthew Carroll, R. Dwayne Elmore, Craig A. Davis & Samuel D. Fuhlendorf
Fire is a disturbance process that maintains the structure and function of grassland ecosystems while sustaining grassland biodiversity. Conversion of grasslands to other land uses coupled with altered disturbance regimes have greatly diminished the habitat available to many grassland dependent species. These changes have been linked to declines in breeding bird populations, but may also be critical for migrating bird populations such as those shorebird species that depend on mesic grasslands during migration. We examined...

Data from: Do glucocorticoids predict fitness? Linking environmental conditions, corticosterone and reproductive success in the blue tit, Cyanistes caeruleus

Lindsay J. Henderson, Neil P. Evans, Britt J. Heidinger, Katherine A. Herborn & Kathryn E. Arnold
Glucocorticoids, including corticosterone (CORT), have been suggested to provide a physiological link between ecological conditions and fitness. Specifically, CORT, which is elevated in response to harsh conditions, is predicted to be correlated with reduced fitness. Yet, empirical studies show that CORT can be non-significantly, positively and negatively linked with fitness. Divergent environmental conditions between years or study systems may influence whether CORT is linked to fitness. To test this, we monitored free-living blue tits (Cyanistes...

Data from: Phenotypic integration in an extended phenotype: among‐individual variation in nest‐building traits of the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata)

Raphaël Royauté, Elisabeth S. Wilson, Bryan R. Helm, Rachel E. Malinger, Jarrad Prasifka, Kendra J. Greenlee & Julia H. Bowsher
Structures such as nests and burrows are an essential component of many organisms’ life-cycle and requires a complex sequence of behaviors. Because behaviors can vary consistently among individuals and be correlated with one another, we hypothesized that these structures would 1) show evidence of among-individual variation, 2) be organized into distinct functional modules, and 3) show evidence of trade-offs among functional modules due to limits on energy budgets. We tested these hypotheses using the alfalfa...

The effects of body mass on immune cell concentrations of terrestrial mammals

Cynthia J. Downs, Ned A. Dochtermann, Ray Ball, Kirk C. Klasing & Lynn B. Martin
Theory predicts that body mass should affect the way organisms evolve and use immune defenses. We investigated the relationship between body mass and blood neutrophil and lymphocyte concentrations among 250+ terrestrial mammalian species. We tested whether existing theories (e.g., Protecton Theory, immune system complexity, and rate of metabolism) accurately predicted the scaling of immune cell concentrations. We also evaluated the predictive power of body mass for these leukocyte concentrations compared to sociality, diet, life history,...

Diet quantity influences caste determination in honey bees (Apis mellifera)

Julia Bowsher, Garett Slater & George Yocum
In species that care for their young, provisioning has profound effects on offspring fitness. Provisioning is important in honey bees because nutritional cues determine whether a female becomes a reproductive queen or sterile worker. A qualitative difference between the larval diets of queens and workers is thought to drive this divergence; however, no single compound seems to be responsible. Diet quantity may have a role during honey bee caste determination yet has never been formally...

Collision between biological process and statistical analysis revealed by mean-centering

David Westneat, Yimen Araya-Ajoy, Hassen Allegue, Barbara Class, Niels Dingemanse, Ned Dochtermann, Laszlo Garamszegi, Julien Martin, Shinichi Nakagawa, Denis Reale & Holger Schielzeth
1. Animal ecologists often collect hierarchically-structured data and analyze these with linear mixed-effects models. Specific complications arise when the effect sizes of covariates vary on multiple levels (e.g., within vs among subjects). Mean-centering of covariates within subjects offers a useful approach in such situations, but is not without problems. 2. A statistical model represents a hypothesis about the underlying biological process. Mean-centering within clusters assumes that the lower level responses (e.g. within subjects) depend on...

Anoxia hormesis in cactus moth

Giancarlo Lopez-Martinez & Daniel Hahn
As part of Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programs, irradiation can effectively induce sterility in insects by damaging germline genomic DNA. However, irradiation also induces other off-target side effects that reduce the quality and performance of sterilized males, including the formation of damaging free radicals that can reduce sterile male performance. Thus, treatments that reduce off-target effects of irradiation on male performance while maintaining sterility can improve the feasibility and economy of SIT programs. We previously...

Parental age does not influence offspring telomeres during early life in common gulls (Larus canus)

Tuul Sepp, Richard Meitern, Britt Heidinger, Kristina Noreikiene, Kalev Rattiste, Peeter Hõrak, Lauri Saks, Jeffrey Kittilson, Janek Urvik & Mathieu Giraudeau
Parental age can affect offspring telomere length through heritable and epigenetic-like effects, but at what stage during development these effects are established is not well known. To address this, we conducted a cross-fostering experiment in common gulls (Larus canus) that enabled us distinguish between pre- and post-natal parental age effects on offspring telomere length. Whole clutches were exchanged after clutch completion within and between parental age classes (young and old) and blood samples were collected...

The tepary bean genome provides insight into evolution and domestication under heat stress

Samira Mafi Moghaddam, Atena Oladzad, Chu Shin Koh, Larissa Ramsay, John Hart, Sujan Mamidi, Genevieve Hoopes, Avinash Sreedasyam, Andrew Wiersma, Dongyan Zhao, Jane Grimwood, John P. Hamilton, Jerry Jenkins, Brieanne Vaillancourt, Joshua C. Wood, Jeremy Schmutz, Sateesh Kahale, Tiomothy Porch, Kirstin E. Bett, C. Robin Buell & Phillip E. McClean
Tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolis A. Gray), native to the Sonoran Desert, is highly adapted to heat and drought. It is a sister species of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), the most important legume protein source for direct human consumption, and whose production is threatened by climate change. Analysis of the tepary genome revealed mechanisms for resilience to moderate heat stress and a reduced disease resistance gene repertoire, consistent with adaptation to arid, hot environments. Extensive...

The probability of being infected with haemosporidian parasites increases with host age

Samuel Slowinski, Aidan Geissler, Nicole Gerlach, Britt Heidinger & Ellen Ketterson
In vertebrates, disease susceptibility often varies with age. Older individuals may be more susceptible than younger individuals due to senescent declines in immune function. Alternatively, disease susceptibility may decrease with age if older individuals are more likely to have had prior exposures to parasites and acquired adaptive immune responses that allowed them to resist future infections. Disease susceptibility can also vary with reproductive state, and reproductive hormones have been shown to increase infection susceptibility. Here...

Spatially discrete disturbance processes enhance grassland floral resources

Cameron Duquette, Torre Hovick, Benjamin Geaumont, Jason Harmon, Ryan Limb & Kevin Sedivec
Grasslands provide essential floral resources for both managed and wild pollinators. However, grassland flowers in remaining native landscapes are threatened due to nonnative plant invasions and alterations to historic disturbance regimes such as fire and grazing. The potential for managed disturbance to promote grassland floral resources remains unclear. Fire and grazing historically occurred interactively, but uniform application of each may be a detriment to floral resources and the pollinators depending on them. Though fire can...

Over the hills and through the farms: Land use and topography influence genetic connectivity of northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) in the Prairie Pothole Region

Justin Waraniak, David Mushet & Craig Stockwell
Context Agricultural land-use conversion has fragmented prairie wetland habitats in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR), an area with one of the most wetland-dense regions in the world. This fragmentation can lead to negative consequences for wetland obligate organisms, heightening risk of local extinction and reducing evolutionary potential for populations to adapt to changing environments. Objectives This study models biotic connectivity of prairie-pothole wetlands using landscape genetic analyses of the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) to:...

Cross-generational stressors affect telomeres and survival in house sparrows

Rebecca C. Young, David Westneat, Jennifer Vangorder-Braid, Aubrey Sirman, Stefanie Siller, Jeffrey Kittilson, Anuj Ghimire & Britt J. Heidinger
Parental stress often has long-term consequences for offspring. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects and how they are shaped by conditions offspring subsequently experience are poorly understood. Telomeres, which often shorten in response to stress and predict longevity, may contribute to, and/or reflect these cross-generational effects. Traditionally, parental stress is expected to have negative effects on offspring telomeres, but experimental studies in captive animals suggest that these effects may depend on the subsequent conditions that...

Data from: Phylogenetic conservatism in plant phenology

T. Jonathan Davies, Elizabeth M. Wolkovich, Nathan J. B. Kraft, Nicolas Salamin, Jenica M. Allen, Toby R. Ault, Julio L. Betancourt, Kjell Bolmgren, Elsa E. Cleland, Benjamin I. Cook, Theresa M. Crimmins, Susan J. Mazer, Gregory J. McCabe, Stephanie Pau, Jim Regetz, Mark D. Schwartz & Steven E. Travers
Phenological events – defined points in the life cycle of a plant or animal – have been regarded as highly plastic traits, reflecting flexible responses to various environmental cues. The ability of a species to track, via shifts in phenological events, the abiotic environment through time might dictate its vulnerability to future climate change. Understanding the predictors and drivers of phenological change is therefore critical. Here, we evaluated evidence for phylogenetic conservatism – the tendency...

Data from: Costs of sleeping in: circadian rhythms influence cuckoldry risk in a songbird

Timothy Greives, Sjouke Kingma, Bart Kranstauber, Kim Mortega, Martin Wikelski, Kees Van Oers, Christa Mateman, Glen Ferguson, Giulia Beltrami, Michaela Hau, Sjouke A. Kingma & Timothy J. Greives
1. Circadian (i.e. daily) regulation of behaviors is thought to provide fitness benefits to organisms by enabling them to anticipate diel changes in the environment, such as sunrise. 2. A common behavior among socially monogamous songbirds that usually takes place in the early mornings is extra-pair mating, i.e. copulating with partners outside of the social pair bond. 3. Thus, variation in when individuals begin their daily activity may influence their reproductive success; early risers may...

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