63 Works

Data from: Contrasting patterns of functional diversity in coffee root fungal communities associated with organic and conventionally-managed fields

Laura Aldrich-Wolfe, Elizabeth Sternhagen, Logan Schmaltz, Riley McGlynn, Eliza Hartmann, Peter Johnson, W. Gaya Shivega, Katie Black, Rebecca Asheim Keller & Stefanie Vink
The structure and function of fungal communities in the coffee rhizosphere is shaped by crop environment. Because coffee can be grown along a management continuum from conventional application of pesticides and fertilizers in full sun to organic management in a shaded understory, we used coffee fields to hold host constant while comparing rhizosphere fungal communities in markedly different environmental conditions with regard to shade and inputs. We characterized the shade and soil environment in 25...

Bean CAP Snap Bean Diversity Panel Passport Data

James R. Myers
The accessions used to create the Snap Bean Diversity Panel were 149 snap bean cultivars and germplasm lines selected from North American and European germplasm. This panel was developed with support from the Common Bean Coordinated Agriculture Project (USDA-NIFA grant no. 2009-85606-05964). The accompanying data set contains information, where known, about pod traits and plant growth habit, USDA-NPGS Plant Introduction (PI) number, who bred the cultivar, market class and pod sieve size, plant variety protection...

A meta-analysis of the influence of anthropogenic noise on terrestrial wildlife communication strategies

Cameron Duquette, Cameron Duquette, Torre Hovick & Scott Loss
1. Human-caused noise pollution dominates the soundscape of modern ecosystems, from urban centers to national parks. Though wildlife can generally alter their communication to accommodate many types of natural noise (e.g. wind, wave action, heterospecific communication), noise pollution from anthropogenic sources pushes the limits of wildlife communication flexibility by causing loud, low-pitched, and near-continuous interference. Because responses to noise pollution are variable and taxa-specific, multi-species risk assessments and mitigation are not currently possible. 2. We...

VCF files for D. serrata transposable elements

Sarah Signor
Transposable elements are an important element of the complex genomic ecosystem. Transposable element insertion also appears to be bursty – either due to invasion of new transposable elements that are not yet repressed, de-repression due to instability of organismal defense systems, stress, or genetic variation in hosts. Here, we characterize the transposable element landscape in an important model Drosophila, D. serrata, and investigate variation in transposable element copy number between genotypes and in the population...

Experimentally elevated testosterone shortens telomeres across years in a free-living songbird

Britt Heidinger, Samuel Slowiniski, Aubrey Sirman, Nicole Gerlach & Ellen Ketterson
Reproductive investment often comes at a cost to longevity, but the mechanisms that underlie these long-term effects are not well understood. In male vertebrates, elevated testosterone has been shown to increase reproductive success, but simultaneously decrease survival. One factor that may contribute to or serve as a biomarker of these long-term effects of testosterone on longevity is telomeres, which are often positively related to lifespan and have been shown to shorten in response to reproduction....

Why did the chicken NOT cross the road? Anthropogenic development influences the movement of a grassland bird

David Londe, Robert Elmore, Craig Davis, Torre Hovick, Samuel Fuhlendorf & Jimmy Rutledge
Movement and selection are inherently linked behaviors that form the foundation of a species space-use patterns. Anthropogenic development in natural ecosystems can result in a variety of behavioral responses that can involve changes in either movement (speed or direction of travel) or selection (resources used) behaviors which in turn may cause differential population level consequences including loss of landscape level connectivity. Understanding how a species alters these different behaviors in response to human activity is...

Assessment of biogeographic variation in traits of Lewis flax (Linum lewisii) for use in restoration and agriculture

Peter Innes, André Gossweiler, Scott Jensen, Derek Tilley, Loren St. John, Thomas Jones, Stanley Kitchen & Brent S. Hulke
Lewis flax (Linum lewisii) is widely distributed across western North America and is currently used in native ecosystem restoration. There is also growing interest in de novo domestication of Lewis flax as a perennial oilseed crop. To better understand this species and facilitate both restoration and domestication, we used common gardens to assess bio-geographical variation in a variety of seed and growth traits from 37 flax accessions, consisting of 35 wild populations from the Intermountain...

Microclimate temperatures impact nesting preference in Megachile rotundata

Elisabeth Wilson, Claire Murphy, Joseph Rinehart, George Yocum & Julia Bowsher
The temperature of the nest influences fitness in cavity-nesting bees. Females may choose 14 nest cavities that mitigate their offspring’s exposure to stressful temperatures. This study aims to 15 understand how cavity temperature impacts the nesting preference of the solitary bee Megachile 16 rotundata under field conditions. We designed and 3D printed nest boxes that measured the 17 temperatures of 432 cavities. Nest boxes were four-sided with cavity entrances facing northeast, 18 northwest, southeast, and...

Data from: Patterns of intraspecific variation through ontogeny–a case study of the Cretaceous nautilid Eutrephoceras dekayi and modern Nautilus pompilius

Amane Tajika, Neil Landman, Naoki Morimoto, Kenji Ikuno & Tom Linn
The magnitude and ontogenetic patterns of intraspecific variation can provide important insights into the evolution and development of organisms. Understanding the intraspecific variation of organisms is a key to correctly pursuing studies in major fields of palaeontology. However, intraspecific variation has been largely overlooked in ectocochleate cephalopods, particularly nautilids. Furthermore, little is known regarding the evolutionary pattern. Here, we present morphological data for the Cretaceous nautilid Eutrephoceras dekayi (Morton, 1834) and the modern nautilid Nautilus...

Data from: Thermal history of alfalfa leafcutting bees affects nesting and diapause incidence

Kayla Earls, Kendra Greenlee, Monique Porter & Joseph Rinehart
Variable spring temperatures may expose developing insects to sublethal conditions, resulting in long-term consequences. The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata, overwinters as a prepupa inside a brood cell, resuming development in spring. During these immobile stages of development, bees must tolerate unfavourable temperatures. In this study, we test how exposure to low temperature stress during development affects subsequent reproduction and characteristics of the F1 generation. Developing male and female M. rotundata were exposed to either...

Possibility of bridge inspection through drive-by vehicles

Mijia Yang & Chang Liu
Based on virtual simulations of vehicle-bridge interactions, the possibility of detecting stiffness reduction damages in bridges through vehicle responses has been tested in two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) settings. Short Time Fourier Transformation (STFT) has been used to process the acceleration data of vehicles. The energy band variation was found strongly related to damage parameters. More important, initial entering conditions of vehicles are critical in obtaining vehicle responses through the vehicle bridge interaction...

Megachile rotundata overwintering nCounter gene expression

Lizzette Cambron, George Yocum, Kathleen Yeater & Kendra Greenlee
Within the United States and Canada, the primary pollinator of alfalfa is the alfalfa leafcutting bee (ALCB), Megachile rotundata. Our previous findings showed that overwintering conditions impacted gene expression profile in ALCB prepupae that entered diapause early in the season. However, ALCB are a bivoltine species, which begs the question of whether bees entering diapause later in the season also show this trend. To better understand the effects of the timing of diapause initiation, we...

Data from: Landscape genetics reveal broad and fine‐scale population structure due to landscape features and climate history in the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) in North Dakota

Justin M. Waraniak, Justin D. L. Fisher, Kevin Purcell, David M. Mushet & Craig A. Stockwell
Prehistoric climate and landscape features play large roles structuring wildlife populations. The amphibians of the northern Great Plains of North America present an opportunity to investigate how these factors affect colonization, migration, and current population genetic structure. This study used 11 microsatellite loci to genotype 1230 northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) from 41 wetlands (30 samples/wetland) across North Dakota. Genetic structure of the sampled frogs was evaluated using Bayesian and multivariate clustering methods. All analyses...

Data from: The geometric framework for nutrition reveals interactions between protein and carbohydrate during larval growth in honey bees

Bryan R. Helm, Garett P. Slater, Arun Rajamohan, George D. Yocum, Kendra J. Greenlee & Julia H. Bowsher
In holometabolous insects, larval nutrition affects adult body size, a life history trait with a profound influence on performance and fitness. Individual nutritional components of larval diets are often complex and may interact with one another, necessitating the use of a geometric framework for elucidating nutritional effects. In the honey bee, Apis mellifera, nurse bees provision food to developing larvae, directly moderating growth rates and caste development. However, the eusocial nature of honey bees makes...

Data from: Early to rise, early to breed: a role for daily rhythms in seasonal reproduction

Jessica L. Graham, Natalie J. Cook, Katie B. Needham, Michaela Hau & Timothy J. Greives
Vertebrates use environmental cues to time reproduction to optimal breeding conditions. Numerous laboratory studies have revealed that light experienced during a critical window of the circadian (daily) rhythm can influence reproductive physiology. However, whether these relationships observed in captivity hold true under natural conditions and how they relate to observed variation in timing of reproductive output remains largely unexplored. Here we test the hypothesis that individual variation in daily timing recorded in nature (i.e. chronotype)...

Data from: A pre-breeding immune challenge delays reproduction in the female dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis)

Katie B. Needham, Natalie J. Cook, Alexa R. Rutherford & Timothy J. Greives
Precise timing of life-history transitions in predictably changing environments is hypothesized to aid in individual survival and reproductive success, by appropriately matching an animal's physiology and behavior with prevailing environmental conditions. Therefore, it is imperative for individuals to time energetically costly life-history stages (i.e. reproduction) so they overlap with seasonal peaks in food abundance and quality. Female lifetime reproductive fitness is affected by several factors that influence energy balance, including arrival date, timing of egg...

Data from: Effect of pyric herbivory on source-sink dynamics in grassland birds

Craig A. Davis, Roy T. Churchwell, Samuel D. Fuhlendorf, David M. Engle & Torre J. Hovick
Grasslands world-wide provide a host of ecosystem services. In particular, these grasslands serve as biodiversity repositories for a myriad of imperilled animal species. One such group is grassland birds, which have experienced significant declines, predominantly caused by extensive loss and degradation of native grasslands. Rangeland management that promotes increasing and sustaining livestock production through reducing the inherent, disturbance-driven variability that historically occurred in grasslands is considered a major contributing factor to these declines. An alternative...

Data from: Specificity of multi-modal aphid defenses against two rival parasitoids

Adam J. Martinez, Kyungsun L. Kim, Jason P. Harmon & Kerry M. Oliver
Insects are often attacked by multiple natural enemies, imposing dynamic selective pressures for the development and maintenance of enemy-specific resistance. Pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) have emerged as models for the study of variation in resistance against natural enemies, including parasitoid wasps. Internal defenses against their most common parasitoid wasp, Aphidius ervi, are sourced through two known mechanisms– 1) endogenously encoded resistance or 2) infection with the heritable bacterial symbiont, Hamiltonella defensa. Levels of resistance can...

Pahrump Poolfish antipredator behavior

Craig Stockwell
Predator naïveté has been invoked to explain the impacts of non-native predators on isolated populations that evolved with limited predation. Such impacts have been repeatedly observed for the endangered Pahrump Poolfish, Empetrichthys latos, a desert species that evolved in isolation since the end of the Pleistocene. We tested poolfish for anti-predator responses to conspecific chemical alarm cues released from damaged epithelial tissue versus responses to distilled water as a control. Poolfish did not respond to...

Data from: When the mean no longer matters: developmental diet affects behavioral variation but not population averages in the house cricket (Acheta domesticus)

Raphaël Royauté & Ned A. Dochtermann
Despite recent progress in elucidating the genetic basis for behavioral variation, the effects of the developmental environment on the maintenance and generation of behavioral variation across multiple traits remain poorly resolved. We investigated how nutritional status during development affected behavioral variation and covariance between activity in an open field test and response to cues of predator presence in the house cricket (Acheta domesticus). We provided 98 juvenile crickets with either a high or low quality...

Data from: Paceless life? a meta-analysis of the pace-of-life syndrome hypothesis

Raphaël Royauté, Monica Anderson Berdal, Courtney R. Garrison & Ned A. Dochtermann
The pace-of-life syndrome hypothesis predicts that individual differences in behaviour should integrate with morphological, physiological, and life-history traits along a slow to fast pace-of-life continuum. For example, individuals with a “slow” pace-of-life are expected to exhibit a slower growth rate, delayed reproduction, longer lifespans, have stronger immune responses, and are expected to avoid risky situations relative to “fast” individuals. If supported this hypothesis would help resolve ecological and evolutionary questions regarding the origin and maintenance...

Data from: Combined effects of night warming and light pollution on predator-prey interactions

Colleen R. Miller, Brandon T. Barton, Likai Zhu, Volker C. Radeloff, Kerry M. Oliver, Jason P. Harmon & Anthony R. Ives
Interactions between multiple anthropogenic environmental changes can drive non-additive effects in ecological systems, and the non-additive effects can in turn be amplified or dampened by spatial covariation among environmental changes. We investigated the combined effects of night-time warming and light pollution on pea aphids and two predatory ladybeetle species. As expected, neither night-time warming nor light pollution changed the suppression of aphids by the ladybeetle species that forages effectively in darkness. However, for the more-visual...

Data from: Physconia labrata, a new species from western North America and Asia

Theodore L. Esslinger, Bruce McCune & Diane L. Haughland
A new species belonging to the lichen genus Physconia is described from Alaska and the Canadian and American Rocky Mountains and adjacent forested regions. It is also reported from China, Nepal, India and Siberia. The new species, Physconia labrata, is superficially similar to P. perisidiosa, but can be distinguished by having a blackened, corticate lower surface and a paraplectenchymatous upper cortex.

Structural and compositional heterogeneity influences the thermal environment across multiple scales

David Londe, Dwayne Elmore, Craig Davis, Sam Fuhlendorf, Barney Luttbeg & Torre Hovick
Heterogeneity is becoming increasingly recognized as a critical driver of biodiversity and ecosystem processes. While the influence of heterogeneity on species diversity and abundance is well documented, how heterogeneity influences the distribution and arrangement of important resources across a landscape is still unclear. In particular, the mechanistic relationship between temperature and heterogeneity remains to be explored. Heterogeneity in vegetation structure and composition is often cited as important drivers of the near ground thermal environment. Due...

Data from: Testing a key assumption of using drones as frightening devices: do birds perceive drones as risky?

Conor C. Egan, Bradley F. Blackwell, Esteban Fernandez-Juricic & Page E. Klug
Wildlife managers have recently suggested the use of unmanned aircraft systems or drones as nonlethal hazing tools to deter birds from areas of human-wildlife conflict. However, it remains unclear if birds perceive common drone platforms as threatening. Based on field studies assessing behavioral and physiological responses, it is generally assumed that birds perceive less risk from drones than from predators. However, studies controlling for multiple confounding effects have not been conducted. Our goal was to...

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