456 Works

Supplemental Online Materials of Trends in Land Surface Phenology across the Conterminous United States (1982-2016) Analyzed by NEON Domains

Liang Liang, Geoffrey Henebry, lingling liu, Xiaoyang Zhang & Li-Chih Hsu
This research investigated land surface phenology trends across the conterminous United States (1982-2016)by National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) domains. The Supplemental Online Materials (SOM) contain two Appendices. Appendix S1 contains NEON domain-specific results, supplemental tables and figures. Appendix S2 contains datasets of the analysis results. Users can utilize these data to perform customized analysis in lieu of the published outcomes.

Data from: Meta-analytic and economic approaches for evaluation of pesticide impact on Sclerotinia stem rot control and soybean yield in the North Central U.S.

Jaime F. Willbur, Paul Mitchell, Mamadou L. Fall, Adam M. Byrne, Scott Chapman, Crystal M. Floyd, Carl A. Bradley, Keith Ames, Martin I. Chilvers, Nathan Kleczewski, Dean Malvick, Brian Mueller, Daren Mueller, Mehdi Kabbage, Shawn P. Conley & Damon Smith
As complete host resistance in soybean has not been achieved, Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR) caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum continues to be of major economic concern for farmers. Thus, chemical control remains a prevalent disease management strategy. Pesticide evaluations were conducted in Illinois, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, New Jersey, and Wisconsin from 2009 to 2016, for a total of 25 site-years (n = 2057 plot-level data points). These studies were used in network meta-analyses to evaluate the...

Data from: Multi-scaled drivers of ecosystem state: quantifying the importance of the regional spatial scale

Kendra S. Cheruvelil, Patricia A. Soranno, Katherine E. Webster & Mary T. Bremigan
The regional spatial scale is a vital linkage for the informed extrapolation of results from local to continental scales to address broad-scale environmental problems. Among-region variation in ecosystem state is commonly accounted for by using a regionalization framework, such as an ecoregion classification. Rarely have alternative regionalization frameworks been tested for variables measuring ecosystem state, nor have the underlying relationships with the variables that are used to define them been assessed. In this study, we...

Data from: Predicting gene function from uncontrolled expression variation among individual wild-type Arabidopsis plants

Rahul Bhosale, Jeremy B. Jewell, Jens Hollunder, Abraham J. K. Koo, Marnik Vuylsteke, Tom Michoel, Pierre Hilson, Alain Goossens, Gregg A. Howe, John Browse & Steven Maere
Gene expression profiling studies are usually performed on pooled samples grown under tightly controlled experimental conditions to suppress variability among individuals and increase experimental reproducibility. In addition, to mask unwanted residual effects, the samples are often subjected to relatively harsh treatments that are unrealistic in a natural context. Here, we show that expression variations among individual wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana plants grown under the same macroscopic growth conditions contain as much information on the underlying gene...

Data from: Core genes evolve rapidly in the long-term evolution experiment with Escherichia coli

Rohan Maddamsetti, Philip J. Hatcher, Anna G. Green, Barry L. Williams, Debora S. Marks & Richard E. Lenski
Bacteria can evolve rapidly under positive selection owing to their vast numbers, allowing their genes to diversify by adapting to different environments. We asked whether the same genes that evolve rapidly in the long-term evolution experiment with Escherichia coli (LTEE) have also diversified extensively in nature. To make this comparison, we identified ~2000 core genes shared among 60 E. coli strains. During the LTEE, core genes accumulated significantly more nonsynonymous mutations than flexible (i.e., noncore)...

Long-term evidence shows crop-rotation diversification increases agricultural resilience to adverse growing conditions in North America

Timothy Bowles, Maria Mooshammer, Yvonne Socolar, Franciso Calderón, Michel Cavigelli, Steve Culman, William Dean, Axel Garcia Y Garcia, Amélie Gaudin, W Scott Harkom, Michael Lehman, Shannon Osborne, G Philip Robertson, Jonathan Salerno, Marty Schmer, Jeffrey Strock, A Stuart Grandy & Craig Drury
A grand challenge facing humanity is how to produce food for a growing population in the face of a changing climate and environmental degradation. Though empirical evidence remains sparse, management strategies that increase environmental sustainability, like increasing agroecosystem diversity through crop rotations, may also increase resilience to weather extremes without sacrificing yields. We used multilevel regression analyses of long-term crop yield datasets across a continental precipitation gradient to assess how temporal crop diversification affects maize...

Genetic drift does not sufficiently explain patterns of electric signal variation among populations of the mormyrid electric fish Paramormyrops kingsleyae

Jason Gallant, Sophie Picq, Joshua H Sperling, Catherine Cheng & Bruce Carlson
Communication signals serve crucial survival and reproductive functions. In Gabon, the widely distributed mormyrid fish Paramormyrops kingsleyae emits an electric organ discharge (EOD) signal with a dual role in communication and electrolocation that exhibits remarkable variation: populations of P. kingsleyae have either biphasic or triphasic EODs, a feature which characterizes interspecific signal diversity among the Paramormyrops genus. We quantified variation in EODs of 327 P. kingsleyae from 9 populations and compared it to genetic variation...

Wild at heart: programs to diminish negative ecological and evolutionary effects of conservation hatcheries

Megan Osborne, Thomas Dowling, Thomas Turner & Kim Scribner
Hatchery programs are critical for conservation and management of many imperiled fishes. Most traditional aquaculture programs negatively affect ecological performance, genetic, and phenotypic diversity of hatchery-origin fish compared with wild counterparts. Here, we synthesize outcomes of three conservation programs aimed at enhancing ‘wildness’. Each program focuses on a different species: lake sturgeon, razorback sucker, and Rio Grande silvery minnow. These species differ in key life history traits including size and age at sexual maturity, reproductive...

QTL × environment interactions underlie adaptive divergence in switchgrass across a large latitudinal gradient

David Lowry, John Lovell, Li Zhang, Jason Bonnette, Philip Fay, Robert Mitchell, John Lloyd-Reilley, Arvid Boe, Yanqi Wu, Francis Rouquette, Richard Wynia, Xiaoyu Weng, Kathrine Behrman, Adam Healey, Kerrie Barry, Anna Lipzen, Diane Bauer, Aditi Sharma, Jerry Jenkins, Jeremy Schmutz, Felix B. Fritschi & Thomas E. Juenger
Local adaptation is the process by which natural selection drives adaptive phenotypic divergence across environmental gradients. Theory suggests that local adaptation results from genetic trade-offs at individual genetic loci, where adaptation to one set of environmental conditions results in a cost to fitness in alternative environments. However, the degree to which there are costs associated with local adaptation is poorly understood because most of these experiments rely on two-site reciprocal transplant experiments. Here, we quantify...

Data from: Comparing traditional and Bayesian approaches to ecological meta-analysis

Paula Pappalardo, Kiona Ogle, Elizabeth Hamman, James Bence, Bruce Hungate & Craig Osenberg
1. Despite the wide application of meta-analysis in ecology, some of the traditional methods used for meta-analysis may not perform well given the type of data characteristic of ecological meta-analyses. 2. We reviewed published meta-analyses on the ecological impacts of global climate change, evaluating the number of replicates used in the primary studies (ni) and the number of studies or records (k) that were aggregated to calculate a mean effect size. We used the results...

The effectiveness of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control, pollination services and crop yield: a quantitative synthesis

Matthias Albrecht, David Kleijn, Neal Williams, Matthias Tschumi, Brett Blaauw, Riccardo Bommarco, Alistair Campbell, Matteo Dainese, Frank Drummond, Martin Entling, Dominik Ganser, Arjen De Groot, David Goulson, Heather Grab, Hannah Hamilton, Felix Herzog, Rufus Isaacs, Katja Jacot, Philippe Jeanneret, Mattias Jonsson, Eva Knop, Claire Kremen, Doug Landis, Greg Loeb, Lorenzo Marini … & Louis Sutter
Floral plantings are promoted to foster ecological intensification of agriculture through provisioning of ecosystem services. However, a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of different floral plantings, their characteristics and consequences for crop yield is lacking. Here we quantified the impacts of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control (18 studies) and pollination services (17 studies) in adjacent crops in North America, Europe and New Zealand. Flower strips, but not hedgerows, enhanced pest control services in...

Sex differences in IV thrombolysis treatment for stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Brent Strong, Lynda Lisabeth & Mathew Reeves
Objective: A prior meta-analysis of reports published between 2000 and 2008 found that women were 30% less likely to receive IV rt-PA treatment for stroke than men; we updated this meta-analysis to determine if this sex difference still persisted. Methods: We identified studies that reported sex-specific IV rt-PA treatment rates for acute ischemic stroke published between 2008 and 2018. Eligible studies included representative populations of ischemic stroke patients from hospital-based, registry-based, or administrative data. Random...

Reciprocal cybrids reveal how organellar genomes affect plant phenotypes

Tom Theeuwen, Pádraic Flood, Korbinian Schneeberger, Paul Keizer, Willem Kruijer, Edouard Severing, Evangelos Kouklas, Jos Hageman, Raúl Wijfjes, Vanessa Calvo-Baltanas, Frank Becker, Sabine Schnabel, Leo Willems, Wilco Ligterink, Jeroen Van Arkel, Roland Mumm, José Gualberto, Linda Savage, David Kramer, Joost Keurentjes, Fred Van Eeuwijk, Maarten Koornneef, Jeremy Harbinson, Mark Aarts & Erik Wijnker
Assessing the impact of variation in chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA (collectively termed the plasmotype) on plant phenotypes is challenging due to the difficulty in separating their effect from nuclear derived variation (the nucleotype). Haploid inducer lines can be used as efficient plasmotype donors to generate new plasmotype-nucleotype combinations (cybrids). We generated a panel comprising all possible cybrids of seven Arabidopsis thaliana accessions and extensively phenotyped these lines for 1859 phenotypes under stable and fluctuating conditions....

Data from: Switchgrass rhizosphere metabolite chemistry driven by nitrogen availability

Darian Smercina, Alan W Bowsher, Sarah E Evans, Maren L Friesen, Elizabeth K Eder, David W Hoyt & Lisa K Tiemann
Plants and soil microorganisms interact closely in the rhizosphere where plants may exchange carbon (C) for functional benefits from the microbial community. For example, the bioenergy crop, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is thought to exchange root-exuded C for nitrogen (N) fixed by diazotrophs (free-living N-fixers). However, this interaction is not well characterized and it is not known how or if switchgrass responds to diazotrophs or their activity. To explore this question, we assessed rhizosphere metabolite chemistry...

Automated analysis of scanning electron microscopic images for assessment of hair surface damage

Fanny Chu, Deon Anex, A. Daniel Jones & Bradley Hart
Mechanical damage of hair can serve as an indicator of health status and its assessment relies on the measurement of morphological features via microscopic analysis, yet few studies have categorized the extent of damage sustained, and instead, have depended on qualitative profiling based on the presence or absence of specific features. We describe the development and application of a novel quantitative measure for scoring hair surface damage in scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images without predefined...

Maintaining historic disturbance regimes increases species’ resilience to catastrophic hurricanes

Erica H Henry, Martha O Burford Reiskind, Aerin Land & Nick M Haddad
As habitat loss and fragmentation, urbanization, and global climate change accelerate, conservation of rare ecosystems increasingly relies on human intervention. However, any conservation strategy is vulnerable to unpredictable, catastrophic events. Whether active management increases or decreases a system’s resilience to these events remains unknown. Following Hurricane Irma’s landfall in our habitat restoration study sites, we found that rare ecosystems with active, human-imposed management suffered less damage in a hurricane’s path than unmanaged systems. At the...

Phenotypic divergence among threespine stickleback that differ in nuptial coloration

Clara Jenck, Whitley Lehto, Brian Ketterman, Lukas Sloan, Aaron Sexton & Robin Tinghitella
By studying systems in their earliest stages of differentiation, we can learn about the evolutionary forces acting within and among populations and how those forces could contribute to reproductive isolation. Such an understanding would help us better discern and predict how selection leads to the maintenance of multiple morphs within a species, rather than speciation. The postglacial adaptive radiation of the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) is one of the best-studied cases of evolutionary diversification and...

Data from: Sex-specific weight loss mediates sexual size dimorphism in Drosophila melanogaster

Nicholas D. Testa, Shampa M. Ghosh & Alexander W. Shingleton
The selective pressures leading to the evolution of Sexual Size Dimorphism (SSD) have been well studied in many organisms, yet, the underlying developmental mechanisms are poorly understood. By generating a complete growth profile by sex in Drosophila melanogaster, we describe the sex-specific pattern of growth responsible for SSD. Growth rate and critical size for pupariation significantly contributed to adult SSD, whereas duration of growth did not. Surprisingly, SSD at peak larval mass was twice that...

Data from: Negative epistasis between beneficial mutations in an evolving bacterial population

Aisha I Khan, Duy M Dinh, Dominique Schneider, Richard E Lenski & Tim F Cooper
Epistatic interactions between mutations play a prominent role in evolutionary theories. Many studies have found that epistasis is widespread, but they have rarely considered beneficial mutations. We analyzed the effects of epistasis on fitness for the first five mutations to fix in an experimental population of Escherichia coli. Epistasis depended on the effects of the combined mutations—the larger the expected benefit, the more negative the epistatic effect. Epistasis thus tended to produce diminishing returns with...

Data from: Weed evolution: genetic differentiation among wild, weedy, and crop radish

Amanda Charbonneau, David Tack, Allison Lale, Josh Goldston, Mackenzie Caple, Emma Conner, Oz Barazani, Jotham Ziffer-Berger, Ian Dworkin & Jeffrey K. Conner
Approximately 200 weed species are responsible for more than 90% of crop losses and these comprise less than one percent of all named plant species, suggesting that there are only a few evolutionary routes that lead to weediness. Agricultural weeds can evolve along three main paths: they can be escaped crops, wild species, or crop-wild hybrids. We tested these three hypotheses in weedy radish, a weed of small grains and an emerging model for investigating...

Data from: Social network analysis of mating patterns in American black bears (Ursus americanus)

Jennifer A. Moore, Ran Xu, Kenneth Frank, Hope Draheim & Kim T. Scribner
Nonrandom mating can structure populations and has important implications for population-level processes. Investigating how and why mating deviates from random is important for understanding evolutionary processes as well as informing conservation and management. Prior to the implementation of parentage analyses, understanding mating patterns in solitary, elusive species like bears was virtually impossible. Here, we capitalize on a long-term genetic data set collected from black bears (Ursus americanus) (N = 2422) in the Northern Lower Peninsula...

Data from: Boreal tree growth exhibits decadal-scale ecological memory to drought and insect defoliation, but no negative response to their interaction

Malcolm S. Itter, L D'Orangeville, Andria Dawson, Daniel Kneeshaw, Louis Duchesne & Andrew O. Finley
1. Interactions between drought and insect defoliation may dramatically alter forest function under novel climate and disturbance regimes, but remain poorly understood. We empirically tested two important hypotheses regarding tree responses to drought and insect defoliation: 1) trees exhibit delayed, persistent, and cumulative growth responses to these stressors; 2) physiological feedbacks in tree responses to these stressors exacerbate their impacts on tree growth. These hypotheses remain largely untested at a landscape scale, yet are critical...

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