517 Works

Data from: Density triggers maternal hormones that increase adaptive offspring growth in a wild mammal

Ben Dantzer, Amy E. M. Newman, Rudy Boonstra, Rupert Palme, Stan Boutin, Murray M. Humphries & Andrew G. McAdam
Spruce cone and squirrel density dataData used to investigate how previous year spruce cones and food-supplementation affected red squirrel density. All data collected in Kluane, Yukon, Canada.Spruce cone and density data.csvTable S2 Results - neonate mass and growth rateData used for results shown in Table 2. Only neonate mass and offspring growth data. All data collected in Kluane, Yukon, Canada.Table S2 - neonate mass and growth rate.csvTable S2-S3 ResultsData for results shown in Table S2...

Data from: Adaptation to seasonal drought in two closely related species of Neotropical Costus (Costaceae)

Grace F. Chen & Douglas W. Schemske.
Seasonal drought has been shown to greatly influence the distributions and species composition of plants in tropical rainforests. By conducting a series of field, greenhouse, and growth chamber experiments, we examined how Costus villosissimus, a forest edge species, has adapted to drought and differentiated from C. allenii, its closely related species in the understory. We hypothesize that delayed seed germination and high drought tolerance may lead to habitat differentiation and thus reproductive isolation between closely...

Data from: Inferring longitudinal hierarchies: framework and methods for studying the dynamics of dominance

Eli D. Strauss & Kay E. Holekamp
1. Social inequality is a consistent feature of animal societies, often manifesting as dominance hierarchies, in which each individual is characterized by a dominance rank denoting its place in the network of competitive relationships among group‐members. Most studies treat dominance hierarchies as static entities despite their true longitudinal, and sometimes highly dynamic, nature. 2. To guide study of the dynamics of dominance, we propose the concept of a longitudinal hierarchy: the characterization of a single,...

Data from: 18S rRNA metabarcoding diet analysis of the predatory fish community across seasonal changes in prey availability

Justin M. Waraniak, Terence L. Marsh & Kim T. Scribner
Predator-prey relationships are important ecological interactions, affecting biotic community composition and energy flow through a system, and are of interest to ecologists and managers. Morphological diet analysis has been the primary method used to quantify the diets of predators, but emerging molecular techniques using genetic data can provide more accurate estimates of relative diet composition. This study used sequences from the 18S V9 rRNA barcoding region to identify prey items in the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts...

Data from: Does gene flow aggravate or alleviate maladaptation to environmental stress in small populations?

Sarah W. Fitzpatrick & Brendan N. Reid
Environmental change can expose populations to unfamiliar stressors, and maladaptive responses to those stressors may result in population declines or extirpation. Although gene flow is classically viewed as a cause of maladaptation, small and isolated populations experiencing high levels of drift and little gene flow may be constrained in their evolutionary response to environmental change. We provide a case study using the model Trinidadian guppy system that illustrates the importance of considering non-adaptive forces (i.e.,...

Data from: Evaluation of acoustic telemetry grids for determining aquatic animal movement and survival

Richard T. Kraus, Christopher M. Holbrook, Christopher S. Vandergoot, Taylor R. Stewart, Matthew D. Faust, Douglas A. Watkinson, Colin Charles, Mark Pegg, Eva C. Enders & Charles C. Krueger
1. Acoustic telemetry studies have frequently prioritized linear configurations of hydrophone receivers, such as perpendicular from shorelines or across rivers, to detect the presence of tagged aquatic animals. This approach introduces unknown bias when receivers are stationed for convenience at geographic bottlenecks (e.g., at the mouth of an embayment or between islands) as opposed to deployments following a statistical sampling design. 2. We evaluated two-dimensional acoustic receiver arrays (grids: receivers spread uniformly across space) as...

Data from: Gene regulatory divergence between locally adapted ecotypes in their native habitats

Billie A. Gould, Yani Chen & David B. Lowry
Local adaptation is a key driver of ecological specialization and the formation of new species. Despite its importance, the evolution of gene regulatory divergence among locally-adapted populations is poorly understood, especially how that divergence manifests in nature. Here, we evaluate gene expression divergence and allele-specific gene expression responses for locally-adapted coastal perennial and inland annual accessions of the yellow monkeyflower, Mimulus guttatus, in a field reciprocal transplant experiment. Overall, 6765 (73%) of surveyed genes were...

Data from: Rapid establishment of a flowering cline in Medicago polymorpha after invasion of North America

Emily Helliwell, Joshua Faber-Hammond, Zoie Lopez, Aaron Garouette, Eric Von Wettberg, Maren Friesen & Stephanie Porter
To establish and spread in a new location, an invasive species must be able to carry out its life cycle in novel environmental conditions. A key trait underlying fitness is the shift from vegetative to reproductive growth through floral development. In this study, we used a common garden experiment and genotyping-by-sequencing to test whether the latitudinal flowering cline of the North American invasive plant Medicago polymorpha was translocated from its European native range through multiple...

Data from: Landscape and environmental influences on Mycobacterium ulcerans distribution among aquatic sites in Ghana

Shannon M. Pileggi, Heather Jordan, Julie A. Clennon, Ellen Whitney, M. Eric Benbow, Richard Merritt, Mollie McIntosh, Ryan Kimbirauskas, Pamela Small, Daniel Boayke, Charles Quaye, Jiaguo Qi, Lindsay Campbell, Jenni Gronseth, Edwin Ampadu, William Opare, Lance Waller, Lance A. Waller & Daniel Boakye
Buruli ulcer, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, is highly endemic in West Africa. While the mode of transmission is unknown, many studies associate Buruli ulcer with different types of water exposure. We present results from the largest study to date to test for M. ulcerans in aquatic sites and identify environmental attributes associated with its presence. Environmental samples from 98 aquatic sites in the Greater Accra, Ashanti, and Volta regions of Ghana were tested for the...

Data from: Male competition fitness landscapes predict both forward and reverse speciation

Jason Keagy, Liliana Lettieri & Janette W. Boughman
Speciation is facilitated when selection generates a rugged fitness landscape such that populations occupy different peaks separated by valleys. Competition for food resources is a strong ecological force that can generate such divergent selection. However, it is unclear whether intrasexual competition over resources that provide mating opportunities can generate rugged fitness landscapes that foster speciation. Here we use highly variable male F2 hybrids of benthic and limnetic threespine sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus, 1758, to quantify...

Data from: Cover crop root contributions to soil carbon in a no-till corn bioenergy cropping system

Emily E. Austin, Kyle Wickings, Marshall D. McDaniel, G. Philip Robertson & A. Stuart Grandy
Crop residues are potential biofuel feedstocks, but residue removal may reduce soil carbon (C). The inclusion of a cover crop in a corn bioenergy system could provide additional biomass, mitigating the negative effects of residue removal by adding to stable soil C pools. In a no-till continuous corn bioenergy system in the northern US Corn Belt, we used 13CO2 pulse labeling to trace plant C from a winter rye (Secale cereale) cover crop into different...

Data from: Can the results of biodiversity-ecosystem productivity studies be translated to bioenergy production?

Timothy L. Dickson & Katherine L. Gross
Biodiversity experiments show that increases in plant diversity can lead to greater biomass production, and some researchers suggest that high diversity plantings should be used for bioenergy production. However, many methods used in past biodiversity experiments are impractical for bioenergy plantings. For example, biodiversity experiments often use intensive management such as hand weeding to maintain low diversity plantings and exclude unplanted species, but this would not be done for bioenergy plantings. Also, biodiversity experiments generally...

Data from: Evapotranspiration is resilient in the face of land cover and climate change in a humid temperate catchment

Stephen K. Hamilton, MIr Zaman Hussain, Christopher Lowrie, Bruno Basso & G. Philip Robertson
In temperate humid catchments, evapotranspiration returns more than half of the annual precipitation to the atmosphere, thereby determining the balance available to recharge groundwaters and support stream flow and lake levels. Changes in evapotranspiration rates and therefore catchment hydrology could be driven by changes in land use or climate. Here we examine the catchment water balance over the past 50 y for a catchment in southwest Michigan covered by cropland, grassland, forest, and wetlands. Over...

Data from: Coexistence of evolving bacteria stabilized by a shared Black Queen function

James Jeffrey Morris, Spiridon E. Papoulis & Richard E. Lenski
The Black Queen Hypothesis (BQH) was originally proposed to explain the dependence of some marine bacteria on helper organisms for protection from hydrogen peroxide (HOOH). The BQH predicts that selection for the evolutionary loss of leaky functions from individuals can produce commensal or mutualistic interactions. We demonstrated the leakiness of HOOH detoxification by complementing a HOOH-sensitive Escherichia coli mutant with a plasmid-encoded HOOH-detoxifying enzyme, KatG, and then evolving populations founded by this strain in two...

Data from: Aboveground herbivory by red milkweed beetles facilitates above- and below-ground conspecific insects and reduces fruit production in common milkweed

Alexis C. Erwin, Tobias Züst, Jared G. Ali & Anurag A. Agrawal
1. Initial herbivory and induced plant responses can influence subsequent above- and belowground herbivore attack. When two life stages of the same herbivore damage different plant parts sequentially, there is strong potential for plants to respond with induced plant defense against the later attacker. Alternatively, the earlier attacker could manipulate the host plant to facilitate the later-feeding life stage. 2. We studied herbivory by foliage-feeding adults and root-feeding larvae of the red milkweed beetle (Tetraopes...

Data from: Experimental evolution of the Caenorhabditis elegans sex determination pathway

Christopher H. Chandler, Genna Elise Chadderdon, Patrick C. Phillips, Ian Dworkin & Fredric J. Janzen
Sex determination is a critical developmental decision with major ecological and evolutionary consequences, yet a large variety of sex determination mechanisms exist and we have a poor understanding of how they evolve. Theoretical and empirical work suggest that compensatory adaptations to mutations in genes involved in sex determination may play a role in the evolution of these pathways. Here, we directly address this problem using experimental evolution in Caenorhabditis elegans lines fixed for a pair...

Data from: What does urbanization actually mean? A review and framework for urban metrics in wildlife research

Remington J. Moll, Jonathon D. Cepek, Patrick D. Lorch, Patricia M. Dennis, Eric Tans, Terry Robison, Joshua J. Millspaugh & Robert A. Montgomery
1. Extensive research has demonstrated that urbanization strongly alters ecological processes, often perniciously. However, quantifying the magnitude of urban effects and determining how generalized they can be across systems depends on the ways in which urbanization is measured and modelled. 2. We coupled a formal literature survey with a novel conceptual framework to document and synthesize the myriad of metrics used to quantify urbanization. The framework enables clear cataloguing of urban metrics by identifying) the...

Data from: Modeling multi-species and multi-mode contact networks: implications for persistence of bovine tuberculosis at the wildlife-livestock interface

Mark Q. Wilber, Kim M. Pepin, , Scott E. Hygnstrom, Michael J. Lavelle, Tatiana Xifara, Kurt C. Vercauteren & Coleen T. Webb
1. Individual- and species-level heterogeneity in contact rates can alter the ability of a pathogen to invade a host community. Many pathogens have multiple modes of transmission -- by direct or indirect contact. It is important to identify the role of heterogeneity in different types of transmission when managing the risk of disease spillover at the interface among different host species. 2. We developed a network-based analysis to explore how individual- and species-level heterogeneity shape...

Data from: Perturbing the cellular cevels of steroid receptor coactivator-2 impairs murine endometrial function

Maria M. Szwarc, Ramakrishna Kommagani, Jae-Wook Jeong, San-Pin Wu, Sophia Y. Tsai, Ming-Jer Tsai, Bert W. O'Malley, Francesco J. DeMayo & John P. Lydon
As pleiotropic coregulators, members of the p160/steroid receptor coactivator (SRC) family control a broad spectrum of transcriptional responses that underpin a diverse array of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Because of their potent coregulator properties, strict controls on SRC expression levels are required to maintain normal tissue functionality. Accordingly, an unwarranted increase in the cellular levels of SRC members has been causally linked to the initiation and/or progression of a number of clinical disorders. Although knockout...

Data from: Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape composition

Daniel S. Karp, Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer, Timothy D. Meehan, Emily A. Martin, Fabrice DeClerck, Heather Grab, Claudio Gratton, Lauren Hunt, Ashley E. Larsen, Alejandra Martínez-Salinas, Megan E. O’Rourke, Adrien Rusch, Katja Poveda, Mattias Jonsson, Jay A. Rosenheim, Nancy A. Schellhorn, Teja Tscharntke, Stephen D. Wratten, Wei Zhang, Aaron L. Iverson, Lynn S. Adler, Matthias Albrecht, Audrey Alignier, Gina M. Angelella, Muhammad Zubair Anjum … & Yi Zou
The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win–win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on pests are inconclusive. The observed heterogeneity in species responses to noncrop habitat may be biological in origin or could result from variation in how habitat and biocontrol are...

Data from: Genome-wide analysis of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene family in sea lamprey and Japanese lamprey

Jianfeng Ren, Yu-Wen Chung-Davidson, Chu-Yin Yeh, Camille Scott, Titus Brown & Weiming Li
Background: Lampreys are extant representatives of the jawless vertebrate lineage that diverged from jawed vertebrates around 500 million years ago. Lamprey genomes contain information crucial for understanding the evolution of gene families in vertebrates. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene family is found from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. The recent availability of two lamprey draft genomes from sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus and Japanese lamprey Lethenteron japonicum presents an opportunity to infer early evolutionary events of ABC genes...

Data from: Do latex and resin canals spur plant diversification? re-examining a classic example of escape and radiate coevolution

Michael R. Foisy, Loren P. Albert, Daniel W.W. Hughes & Marjorie G. Weber
(1) The association between increased lineage diversification rates and the evolution of latex and resin canals is widely cited as a paradigmatic example of Ehrlich and Raven’s “escape-and-radiate” hypothesis of coevolution. However, it has been over a quarter-century since the original study, and updates to phylogenetic comparative methods, plant molecular systematics, and phenotypic data warrant a reassessment of this classic finding. (2) We gathered data on latex and resin canals across over 300 families and...

Data from: Causes and consequences of failed adaptation to biological invasions: the role of ecological constraints

Jennifer A. Lau & Casey P. TerHorst
Biological invasions are a major challenge to native communities and have the potential to exert strong selection on native populations. As a result, native taxa may adapt to the presence of invaders through increased competitive ability, increased antipredator defences or altered morphologies that may limit encounters with toxic prey. Yet, in some cases, species may fail to adapt to biological invasions. Many challenges to adaptation arise because biological invasions occur in complex species-rich communities in...

Data from: Shifts of tundra bacterial and archaeal communities along a permafrost thaw gradient in Alaska

Jie Deng, Yunfu Gu, Jin Zhang, Kai Xue, Yujia Qin, Mengting Yuan, Huaqun Yin, Zhili He, Liyou Wu, Edward Schuur, James Tiedje, Jizhong Zhou, James M. Tiedje & Edward A. G. Schuur
Understanding the response of permafrost microbial communities to climate warming is crucial for evaluating ecosystem feedbacks to global change. This study investigated soil bacterial and archaeal communities by Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons across a permafrost thaw gradient at different depths in Alaska with thaw progression for over three decades. Over 4.6 million passing 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained from a total of 97 samples, corresponding to 61 known classes and...

Data from: Genetic architecture of a hormonal response to gene knockdown in honey bees

Kate E. Ihle, Olav Rueppell, Ying Wang, M. Kim Fondrk, , Gro V. Amdam & Zachary Y. Huang
Variation in endocrine signaling is proposed to underlie the evolution and regulation of social life histories, but the genetic architecture of endocrine signaling is still poorly understood. An excellent example of a hormonally influenced set of social traits is found in the honey bee (Apis mellifera): a dynamic and mutually suppressive relationship between juvenile hormone (JH) and the yolk precursor protein vitellogenin (Vg) regulates behavioral maturation and foraging of workers. Several other traits cosegregate with...

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