509 Works

Data from: Harvesting biofuel grasslands has mixed effects on natural enemy communities and no effects on biocontrol services

Tania N. Kim, Aaron F. Fox, Bill D. Wills, Timothy D. Meehan, Douglas A. Landis & Claudio Gratton
1.Perennial bioenergy systems, such as switchgrass and restored prairies, are alternatives to commonly used annual monocultures such as maize. Perennial systems require lower chemical input, provide greater ecosystem services such as carbon storage, greenhouse gas mitigation, and support greater biodiversity of beneficial insects. However, biomass harvest will be necessary in managing these perennial systems for bioenergy production, and it is unclear how repeated harvesting might affect ecosystem services. 2.In this study, we examined how repeated...

Data from: Negative epistasis between beneficial mutations in an evolving bacterial population

Aisha I Khan, Duy M Dinh, Dominique Schneider, Richard E Lenski & Tim F Cooper
Epistatic interactions between mutations play a prominent role in evolutionary theories. Many studies have found that epistasis is widespread, but they have rarely considered beneficial mutations. We analyzed the effects of epistasis on fitness for the first five mutations to fix in an experimental population of Escherichia coli. Epistasis depended on the effects of the combined mutations—the larger the expected benefit, the more negative the epistatic effect. Epistasis thus tended to produce diminishing returns with...

Data from: Sex-specific weight loss mediates sexual size dimorphism in Drosophila melanogaster

Nicholas D. Testa, Shampa M. Ghosh & Alexander W. Shingleton
The selective pressures leading to the evolution of Sexual Size Dimorphism (SSD) have been well studied in many organisms, yet, the underlying developmental mechanisms are poorly understood. By generating a complete growth profile by sex in Drosophila melanogaster, we describe the sex-specific pattern of growth responsible for SSD. Growth rate and critical size for pupariation significantly contributed to adult SSD, whereas duration of growth did not. Surprisingly, SSD at peak larval mass was twice that...

Data from: Test of synergistic interactions among deleterious mutations in bacteria

Santiago F. Elena & Richard E. Lenski
Identifying the forces responsible for the origin and maintenance of sexuality remains one of the greatest unsolved problems in biology. The mutational deterministic hypothesis postulates that sex is an adaptation that allows deleterious mutations to be purged from the genome; it requires synergistic interactions, which means that two mutations would be more harmful together than expected from their separate effects. We generated 225 genotypes of Escherichia coli carrying one, two or three successive mutations and...

Data from: Gape-limited predators as agents of selection on the defensive morphology of an invasive invertebrate

Andrea L. J. Miehls, Scott D. Peacor & Andrew G. McAdam
Invasive species have widespread and pronounced effects on ecosystems and adaptive evolution of invaders is often considered responsible for their success. Despite the potential importance of adaptation to invasion, we still have limited knowledge of the agents of natural selection on invasive species. Bythotrephes longimanus, a cladoceran zooplankton, invaded multiple Canadian Shield lakes over the past several decades. Bythotrephes have a conspicuous caudal process (tail spine) that provides a morphological defense against fish predation. We...

Data from: Limited genetic evidence for host plant-related differentiation in the Western cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae)

Gilbert Saint Jean, Glen R. Hood, Scott P. Egan, Thomas H.Q. Powell, Hannes Schuler, Meredith M. Doellman, Mary M. Glover, James J. Smith, Wee L. Yee, Robert B. Goughnour, Howard M.A. Thistlewood, Sheri A. Maxwell, Nusha Keyghobadi, Juan Rull, Martin Aluja, Jeffrey L. Feder & Thomas H. Q. Powell
The shift of the fruit fly Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) in the mid-1800s from downy hawthorn, Crataegus mollis (Torrey & Asa Gray) Scheele, to introduced domesticated apple, Malus domestica (Borkhausen), in the eastern USA is a model for ecological divergence with gene flow. A similar system may exist in the northwestern USA and British Columbia, Canada, where Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae) attacks the native bitter cherry Prunus emarginata (Douglas ex Hooker) Eaton (Rosaceae). Populations of...

Supplemental Online Materials of Trends in Land Surface Phenology across the Conterminous United States (1982-2016) Analyzed by NEON Domains

Liang Liang, Geoffrey Henebry, lingling liu, Xiaoyang Zhang & Li-Chih Hsu
This research investigated land surface phenology trends across the conterminous United States (1982-2016)by National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) domains. The Supplemental Online Materials (SOM) contain two Appendices. Appendix S1 contains NEON domain-specific results, supplemental tables and figures. Appendix S2 contains datasets of the analysis results. Users can utilize these data to perform customized analysis in lieu of the published outcomes.

Data from: Parental care and sibling competition independently increase phenotypic variation among burying beetle siblings

Matthew Schrader, Benjamin J.M. Jarrett, Rebecca M. Kilner & Benjamin J. M. Jarrett
Several recent hypotheses suggest that parental care can influence the extent of phenotypic variation within populations; however, there have been few tests of these ideas. We exploited the facultative nature of post-hatching parental care in the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides, to test whether parental care influences the expression of phenotypic variation in an important fitness trait (body size). We found that parental care and brood size (which influences sibling competition) had positive and independent effects...

Data from: Mutator genomes decay, despite sustained fitness gains, in a long-term experiment with bacteria

Alejandro Couce, Larissa Viraphong Caudwell, Christoph Feinauer, Thomas Hindré, Jean-Paul Feugeas, Martin Weigt, Richard E. Lenski, Dominique Schneider & Olivier Tenaillon
Understanding the extreme variation among bacterial genomes remains an unsolved challenge in evolutionary biology, despite long-standing debate about the relative importance of natural selection, mutation, and random drift. A potentially important confounding factor is the variation in mutation rates between lineages and over evolutionary history, which has been documented in several species. Mutation accumulation experiments have shown that hypermutability can erode genomes over short timescales. These results, however, were obtained under conditions of extremely weak...

Data from: The challenge of accurately documenting bee species richness in agroecosystems: bee diversity in eastern apple orchards

Laura A. Russo, Mia Park, Jason Gibbs, Bryan Danforth & Laura Russo
Bees are important pollinators of agricultural crops, and bee diversity has been shown to be closely associated with pollination, a valuable ecosystem service. Higher functional diversity and species richness of bees have been shown to lead to higher crop yield. Bees simultaneously represent a mega-diverse taxon that is extremely challenging to sample thoroughly and an important group to understand because of pollination services. We sampled bees visiting apple blossoms in 28 orchards over 6 years....

Data from: Trans-species predictors of tree leaf mass

Garret T. Dettmann, Dave W. MacFarlane & David W. MacFarlane
Tree leaf mass is a small, highly variable, but critical, component of forest ecosystems. Estimating leaf mass on standing trees with models is challenging because leaf mass varies both within and between tree species and at different locations and points in time. Typically, models for estimating tree leaf mass are species-specific, empirical models that predict intra-specific variation from stem diameter at breast height (DBH). Such models are highly limited in their application because there are...

Data from: Comparative water use by maize, perennial crops, restored prairie, and poplar trees in the US Midwest

S. K. Hamilton, M. Z. Hussain, A. K. Bhardwaj, B. Basso & G. P. Robertson
Water use by plant communities across years of varying water availability indicates how terrestrial water balances will respond to climate change and variability as well as to land cover change. Perennial biofuel crops, likely grown mainly on marginal lands of limited water availability, provide an example of a potentially extensive future land cover conversion. We measured growing-season evapotranspiration (ET) based on daily changes in soil profile water contents in five perennial systems—switchgrass, miscanthus, native grasses,...

Data from: Genetic basis of photosynthetic responses to cold in two locally adapted populations of Arabidopsis thaliana

Christopher G. Oakley, Linda Savage, Samuel Lotz, G. Rudd Larson, Michael F. Thomashow, David M. Kramer & Douglas W. Schemske
Local adaptation is common, but the traits and genes involved are often unknown. Physiological responses to cold probably contribute to local adaptation in wide-ranging species, but the genetic basis underlying natural variation in these traits has rarely been studied. Using a recombinant inbred (495 lines) mapping population from locally adapted populations of Arabidopsis thaliana from Sweden and Italy, we grew plants at low temperature and mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for traits related to photosynthesis:...

Data from: Acid secretion by the boring organ of the burrowing giant clam, Tridacna crocea

Richard W. Hill, Eric J. Armstrong, Kazuo Inaba, Masaya Morita, Martin Tresguerres, Jonathon H. Stillman, Jinae N. Roa & Garfield T. Kwan
The giant clam Tridacna crocea, native to Indo-Pacific coral reefs, is noted for its unique ability to bore fully into coral rock and is a major agent of reef bioerosion. However, T. crocea’s mechanism of boring has remained a mystery despite decades of research. By exploiting a new, two-dimensional pH-sensing technology and manipulating clams to press their presumptive boring tissue (the pedal mantle) against pH-sensing foils, we show that this tissue lowers the pH of...

Data from: Connectivity increases trophic subsidies in fragmented landscapes

Christine L. Hawn, John D. Herrmann, Sean R. Griffin & Nick M. Haddad
Landscape corridors mitigate the negative effects of habitat fragmentation by increasing dispersal. Corridors also increase biodiversity in connected habitat fragments, suggestive of metacommunity dynamics. What is unknown in this case is the mechanisms through which metacommunity dynamics act. Working in a large-scale fragmentation experiment, we tested the effect of corridors on the movement of prey species and subsequent effects on predator nutrition (which we call trophic subsidies). We enriched plants of central patches with 15N,...

Data from: Evolution of organismal stoichiometry in a long-term experiment with Escherichia coli

Caroline B. Turner, Brian D. Wade, Justin R. Meyer, Brooke A. Sommerfeld & Richard E. Lenski
Organismal stoichiometry refers to the relative proportion of chemical elements in the biomass of organisms, and it can have important effects on ecological interactions from population to ecosystem scales. Although stoichiometry has been studied extensively from an ecological perspective, much less is known about the rates and directions of evolutionary changes in elemental composition. We measured carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus content of 12 Escherichia coli populations that evolved under controlled carbon-limited, serial-transfer conditions for 50...

Data from: Juvenile concentrations of IGF-1 predict life-history trade-offs in a wild mammal

Nora Lewin, Eli M. Swanson, Barry L. Williams & Kay E. Holekamp
Early postnatal development can have profound effects on life-history traits later in life. One mechanism hypothesized to mediate this relationship is the anabolic hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). IGF-1 contributes importantly to postnatal growth, and thus offers a means by which environmental and genetic variation might direct organismal development, reproduction and survival. We tested whether juvenile concentrations of IGF-1 can predict intraspecific variation in life-history traits later in life using longitudinal data from free-living female...

Data from: Extensive gene tree discordance and hemiplasy shaped the genomes of North American columnar cacti

Dario Copetti, Alberto Burquez, Enriquena Bustamante, Joseph L. M. Charboneau, Kevin L. Childs, Luis E. Eguiarte, Seunghee Lee, Tiffany L. Liu, Michelle M. McMahon, Noah K. Whiteman, Rod A. Wing, Martin F. Wojciechowski & Michael J. Sanderson
Few clades of plants have proven as difficult to classify as cacti. One explanation may be an unusually high level of convergent and parallel evolution (homoplasy). To evaluate support for this phylogenetic hypothesis at the molecular level, we sequenced the genomes of four cacti in the especially problematic tribe Pachycereeae, which contains most of the large columnar cacti of Mexico and adjacent areas, including the iconic saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) of the Sonoran Desert. We...

Data from: Large chromosomal rearrangements during a long-term evolution experiment with Escherichia coli

Colin Raeside, Joël Gaffé, Daniel E. Deatherage, Olivier Tenaillon, Adam M. Briska, Ryan N. Ptashkin, Stéphane Cruveiller, Claudine Médigue, Richard E. Lenski, Jeffrey E. Barrick & Dominique Schneider
Large-scale rearrangements may be important in evolution because they can alter chromosome organization and gene expression in ways not possible through point mutations. In a long-term evolution experiment, twelve Escherichia coli populations have been propagated in a glucose-limited environment for over 25 years. We used whole-genome mapping (optical mapping) combined with genome sequencing and PCR analysis to identify the large-scale chromosomal rearrangements in clones from each population after 40,000 generations. A total of 110 rearrangement...

Data from: Long-term nitrous oxide fluxes in annual and perennial agricultural and unmanaged ecosystems in the upper Midwest USA

Ilya Gelfand, Iurii Shcherbak, Neville Millar, Alexandra N. Kravchenko & G. Philip Robertson
Differences in soil nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes among ecosystems are often difficult to evaluate and predict due to high spatial and temporal variabilities and few direct experimental comparisons. For 20 years, we measured N2O fluxes in 11 ecosystems in southwest Michigan USA: four annual grain crops (corn–soybean–wheat rotations) managed with conventional, no-till, reduced input, or biologically based/organic inputs; three perennial crops (alfalfa, poplar, and conifers); and four unmanaged ecosystems of different successional age including mature...

Data from: Meta-analysis of yield response of foliar fungicide-treated hybrid corn in the United States and Ontario, Canada

Kiersten A. Wise, Damon L. Smith, Anna Freije, Daren S. Mueller, Yuba Kandel, Tom Allen, Carl A. Bradley, Emmanuel Byamukama, Martin Chilvers, Travis Faske, Andrew Friskop, Clayton Hollier, Tamra A. Jackson-Ziems, Heather Kelly, Bob Kemerait, Paul Price, Alison Robertson & Albert Tenuta
Background: Foliar fungicide applications to corn (Zea mays) occur at one or more application timings ranging from early vegetative growth stages to mid-reproductive stages. Previous studies indicated that fungicide applications are profitable under high disease pressure when applied during the tasseling to silking growth stages. Few comprehensive studies in corn have examined the impact of fungicide applications at an early vegetative growth stage (V6) compared to late application timings (VT) for yield response and return...

Data from: Meta-analytic and economic approaches for evaluation of pesticide impact on Sclerotinia stem rot control and soybean yield in the North Central U.S.

Jaime F. Willbur, Paul Mitchell, Mamadou L. Fall, Adam M. Byrne, Scott Chapman, Crystal M. Floyd, Carl A. Bradley, Keith Ames, Martin I. Chilvers, Nathan Kleczewski, Dean Malvick, Brian Mueller, Daren Mueller, Mehdi Kabbage, Shawn P. Conley & Damon Smith
As complete host resistance in soybean has not been achieved, Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR) caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum continues to be of major economic concern for farmers. Thus, chemical control remains a prevalent disease management strategy. Pesticide evaluations were conducted in Illinois, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, New Jersey, and Wisconsin from 2009 to 2016, for a total of 25 site-years (n = 2057 plot-level data points). These studies were used in network meta-analyses to evaluate the...

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