510 Works

Data from: Species characteristics affect local extinctions

Meredith Ann Zettlemoyer, Duane D. McKenna & Jennifer A. Lau
Premise of the study. Human activities threaten thousands of species with extinction. However, it remains difficult to predict extinction risk for many vulnerable species. Species characteristics help predict responses to anthropogenic environmental change and may help predict likelihood of extinction. Phylogenetic signatures of extinction can also provide insights into patterns of species loss. Historical data on species losses can allow for testing phylogenetic patterns in extinctions and identifying traits that influence species vulnerability to local...

Data from: Lifetime selection on a hypoallometric trait in the spotted hyena

Eli M. Swanson, Ian Dworkin, Kay E. Holekamp, I. Dworkin, K. E. Holekamp & E. M. Swanson
Size-related traits are common targets of natural selection, yet there is a relative paucity of data on selection among mammals, particularly from studies measuring lifetime reproductive success (LRS). We present the first phenotypic selection analysis using LRS on size-related traits in a large terrestrial carnivore, the spotted hyena, which displays a rare pattern of female-biased sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Using path analysis, we investigate the operation of selection to address hypotheses proposed to explain SSD...

Data from: Effects of the landscape on boreal toad gene flow: does the pattern-process relationship hold true across distinct landscapes at the northern range margin?

Jennifer A. Moore, David A. Tallmon, Julie Nielsen & Sanjay Pyare
Understanding the impact of natural and anthropogenic landscape features on population connectivity is a major goal in evolutionary ecology and conservation. Discovery of dispersal barriers is important for predicting population responses to landscape and environmental changes, particularly for populations at geographic range margins. We used a landscape genetics approach to quantify the effects of landscape features on gene flow and connectivity of boreal toad (Bufo boreas) populations from two distinct landscapes in Southeast Alaska (Admiralty...

Data from: Direct and indirect transgenerational effects alter plant-herbivore interactions

Casey P. TerHorst & Jennifer A. Lau
Theory suggests that environmental effects with transgenerational consequences, including rapid evolution and maternal effects, may affect the outcome of ecological interactions. However, indirect effects occur when interactions between two species are altered by the presence of a third species, and make the consequences of transgenerational effects difficult to predict. We manipulated the presence of insect herbivores and the competitor Medicago polymorpha in replicated Lotus wrangelianus populations. After one generation, we used seeds from the surviving...

Data from: The effects of weak genetic perturbations on the transcriptome of the wing imaginal disc, and its association with wing shape in Drosophila melanogaster

Ian Dworkin, Julie A. Brown Anderson, Youssef Idaghdour, Erin Kennerly Parker, Eric A. Stone, Greg Gibson & Julie A. Anderson
A major objective of genomics is to elucidate the mapping between genotypic and phenotypic space as a step toward understanding how small changes in gene function can lead to elaborate phenotypic changes. One approach that has been utilized is to examine overall patterns of co-variation between phenotypic variables of interest, such as morphology, physiology and behavior, and underlying aspects of gene activity, in particular transcript abundance on a genome wide scale. Numerous studies have demonstrated...

Data from: Experimental evolution of the Caenorhabditis elegans sex determination pathway

Christopher H. Chandler, Genna Elise Chadderdon, Patrick C. Phillips, Ian Dworkin & Fredric J. Janzen
Sex determination is a critical developmental decision with major ecological and evolutionary consequences, yet a large variety of sex determination mechanisms exist and we have a poor understanding of how they evolve. Theoretical and empirical work suggest that compensatory adaptations to mutations in genes involved in sex determination may play a role in the evolution of these pathways. Here, we directly address this problem using experimental evolution in Caenorhabditis elegans lines fixed for a pair...

Data from: Society, demography and genetic structure in the spotted hyena

Kay E Holekamp, Jennifer E Smith, Christopher C Strelioff, Russell C Van Horn & Heather E Watts
Spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) are large mammalian carnivores, but their societies, called ‘clans,’ resemble those of such cercopithecine primates as baboons and macaques with respect to their size, hierarchical structure, and frequency of social interaction among both kin and unrelated group-mates. However, in contrast to cercopithecine primates, spotted hyenas regularly hunt antelope and compete with group-mates for access to kills, which are extremely rich food sources, but also rare and ephemeral. This unique occurrence of...

Data from: Negative epistasis between beneficial mutations in an evolving bacterial population

Aisha I Khan, Duy M Dinh, Dominique Schneider, Richard E Lenski & Tim F Cooper
Epistatic interactions between mutations play a prominent role in evolutionary theories. Many studies have found that epistasis is widespread, but they have rarely considered beneficial mutations. We analyzed the effects of epistasis on fitness for the first five mutations to fix in an experimental population of Escherichia coli. Epistasis depended on the effects of the combined mutations—the larger the expected benefit, the more negative the epistatic effect. Epistasis thus tended to produce diminishing returns with...

Data from: Genetic and maternal effects on tail spine and body length in the invasive spiny water flea (Bythotrephes longimanus)

Andrea L. J. Miehls, Scott D. Peacor & Andrew G. McAdam
Interest in the evolution of invasive species has grown in recent years, yet few studies have investigated sources of variation in invasive species traits experiencing natural selection. The spiny water flea, Bythotrephes longimanus, is an invasive zooplankton in the Great Lakes that exhibits seasonal changes in tail spine and body length consistent with natural selection. Evolution of Bythotrephes traits, however, depends on the presence and magnitude of quantitative genetic variation, which could change within or...

Data from: Multi-scale landscape and wetland drivers of lake total phosphorus and water color

C. Emi Fergus, Patricia A. Soranno, Kendra Spence Cheruvelil, Mary T. Bremigan & C. Emi Fergus
We quantified relationships between local wetland cover in the riparian lake buffer and lake total phosphorus (TP) and water color (color) using multilevel mixed-effects models that also incorporate landscape features such as hydrogeomorphology and land use at broad regional scales to determine 1) Within regions, are local wetland relationships with TP and color affected by interactions with local land use or hydrogeomorphic variables? 2) Across regions, are local wetland relationships with TP and color different?...

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